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THE HIGHSCOPE CURRICULUM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS Adult-Child Interactions Day 3.

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Presentation on theme: "THE HIGHSCOPE CURRICULUM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS Adult-Child Interactions Day 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE HIGHSCOPE CURRICULUM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS Adult-Child Interactions Day 3

2 O BJECTIVES  Distinguish between praise and encouragement.  Identify conflict resolution steps.  Plan steps toward continuity of care and providing children with adult support. 2

3 3 HighScope Infant and Toddler “Wheel of Learning”

4 W HAT W OULD Y OU D O ?  With your group, turn to page 34 and discuss the scenarios and answer the questions.  Discuss as a whole group. 4

5 E XPERIENCING P RAISE AND R EWARDS  In your TB on page 36, quietly by yourself, count the number of triangles– you have 5 minutes. Quiz Time: Take out a piece of paper and number it 1-7 5

6 H IDDEN T RIANGLES 6

7 Praise breeds resistance and suspicion and acts to weaken the connection between the praiser and the praised. And for many people, it sets up a puzzling dilemma – “If I do this again so I can get praise again, will I be doing it on my own accord or because I’m hooked on having this person’s praise.” Kathleen Grey July 1995 Child Care Information Exchange 7

8 NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PRAISE  Makes children more dependent on adults.  Takes away children’s power to make choices and decisions.  Decrease’s children’s confidence in themselves.  Causes some children to expect praise and rewards even when adults see no need for them.  Discourages children from trying new things.  Causes some children to withhold what adults want which leads to adult-child power struggles.  As adults manipulate children with praise and rewards, children learn to manipulate adults. 8

9 INSTEAD OF SAYING…. “GOOD JOB!” Think & ask yourself…. “What is it about the job that is Good” 9

10 A LTERNATIVES TO P RAISE 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 Encouragement Strategies #1 Make Comments and Acknowledgements #2 Repeat and Restate Children’s Babbles and Words #3 Focus on Children’s Strengths and Interests #4 Encourage and Acknowledge Children’s Choices in Exploration and Play 10

11 T URNING P RAISE INTO E NCOURAGEMENT  With your group, on page 41 in TB decide whether each scenario is either praise or encouragement.  If it is praise, change it to make it encouragement.  Discuss as a whole group.  Go back to page 35 and identify praise statements and make them encouragement. 11

12 “NO M INE !” R ESOLVING C ONFLICTS WITH I NFANTS AND T ODDLERS

13 T HINK OF C ONFLICT S ITUAT IONS With your group, think of some conflict situations that occur in your classroom or what you have seen. 1. When do conflicts occur? 2. What needs are children expressing? 3. What is the source(s) of the conflict or what do children say and do to let you know where the source of the conflict came from? 13

14 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WHEN CONFLICTS OCCUR AND CHILDREN’S NEEDS  Right before lunch.  When child is teething.  When a child sees something interesting another child has.  When a child is tired  When a child explores other people.  When child transitions  Child is hungry, irritable & needs to eat.  Child’s gums hurt & need something to chew on to sooth the pain; attention; 1-on-1.  Child needs to physically explore the appealing object right now, in the present.  Child needs to stop & sleep but at the same time may not want to sleep because of interesting things that capture their attention.  Child needs to explore with their senses including their mouths and teeth.  Child is unsure of what comes next or doesn’t like changes 14

15 W HAT IS SO I MPORTANT A BOUT P LAY ?  In your groups, discuss why play is important to children’s development?  As a whole group, compile a list. 15

16 W HY IS P LAY I MPORTANT ?  “Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth.”  Play is so important to a child’s development that the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights recognizes it as a basic right of every child!  “Play allows children to use their creativity while developing their imagination, dexterity, and physical, cognitive and emotional strength.”  Play is simply – FUN! 16

17 W HY IS P LAY I MPORTANT ? ( CONT.)  Child Driven Play allows children to:  Practice decision-making skills  Move at their own pace  Discover their own interests  Engage fully in what they want to pursue  Problem solve with materials  Practice skills in resolving conflicts  Children are intrinsically motivated to learn through play  Play develops: trust, empathy and social skills  Play is a central part of neurological growth and development  Play gives children opportunities to hear and practice language which will directly influence higher mental functions 17

18 IEA P REPRIMARY P ROJECT P HASE 3 F INDING Children who attended settings in which free- choice activities predominated, performed better on age-7 language tests than children who attended settings in which personal care/social activities predominated. © 2003 HighScope IEA Preprimary Project 18

19 SELF REGULATION AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN RELATION TO PLAY  Self regulation study in late 1940’s, psychological researchers asked 3, 5, and 7 year olds to do exercises (e.g., standing perfectly still without moving).  3-year-olds couldn’t stand still  5-year-olds could stand still about 3 minutes  7-year-olds could stand still as long as researchers asked  Researchers replicated study in  5-year-olds were acting at the level of 3-year-olds  7-year-olds were barely approaching the level of the 5 year olds (Psychologist Elena Bodrova, National Institute for Early Education Research)  Poor executive function is associated with high dropout rates, drug use, and crime.  Good executive function is a better predictor of success in school than a child’s IQ. (Spiegel, Alex. Old-Fashioned Play Builds Serious Skills. And Creative Play Makes for Kids in Control. NPR) 19

20 GENERAL COMPONENTS OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION: 1. Working memory and recall— holding facts in mind; accessing long term memory. 2. Activation, arousal, and effort— getting started; paying attention; finishing work. 3. Controlling emotions— ability to tolerate frustration; thinking before acting or speaking. 4. Internalizing language— using “self talk” to control one’s behavior and direct future actions. 5. Taking an issue apart, analyzing the pieces, reconstituting and organizing it into new ideas— complex problem solving. (Chris A. Zeigler Dendy, M.S. Executive Function…”what is this anyway?” Planning and Recall Choice and Group Times Problem Solving Choice Time Problem Solving

21 WHY IS PLAY IMPORTANT?  When children spend time in make-believe play, they “develop a critical cognitive skill called executive function.”  One central component of executive function is the ability to self regulate.  Make believe play is a powerful tool in developing “what’s called private speech: They talk to themselves about what they are going to do and how they are going to do it.”  Children’s unstructured play is decreasing with more focus on lessons, leagues, toys that inhibit imaginative play, TV and video games. (Spiegel, Alix. Old-Fashioned Play Builds Serious Skills. And Creative Play Makes for Kids in Control. NPR) 21

22 T HINK OF P REVENTION S TRATEGIES Divide into 3 groups: 1. Environmental Support 2. Daily Schedule & Caregiving Routine Support 3. Caregiver Support  Verbal  Physical  Visual 22

23 E NVIRONMENTAL S UPPORT  Provide care and play spaces that are distinct and allow room to flow in and out of areas.  Open floor play.  Middle area for gross motor equipment in the classroom (rocking boat/step, push toys, mats, loft along wall, climber, etc.).  Provide a quiet area with calming and soft furnishings.  Cut down on fluorescent lighting.  Pleasant reminders of home (blanket, pacifier, chew toys, photos of family, mom’s scarf).  Materials that appeal to all senses.  Assess popular materials and add more.  Provide tactile experiences and materials in all areas of the classroom.  Read books about feelings; pictures with children expressing feelings. 23

24 D AILY S CHEDULES AND C AREGIVING R OUTINE S UPPORT  Provide a consistent yet flexible routine.  Provide for quiet and active experiences throughout the day.  For meals, provide hearty foods with a variety of textures, tastes and temperature to chew.  Reduce the number of transitions.  Do not expect children to sit for long periods of time— decrease waiting by overlapping activities.  Offer choices when a task has to be done.  Provide visual schedules, sequence charts for tasks, etc.  Provide time for each part of the day. 24

25 G ENERAL C AREGIVER S UPPORT Turn to Prevention Strategies in TB page 43:  Keep your expectations for behavior developmentally appropriate.  Set clear limits for children’s behavior.  Model respectful ways of interacting with others and using materials. 25

26 CAREGIVER SUPPORT: VERBAL 6 STEPS TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION 1. Approach calmly, stopping hurtful actions 2. Acknowledge feelings 3. Gather information 4. Restate problem 5. Ask for ideas for solutions and choose one together 6. Give follow-up support as needed 26

27 C ONFLICT R ESPONSE S TYLES Think back to your own childhood and try to remember how conflicts were solved (either at home or at school).  Did adults dictate solutions to conflicts?  Were they engaged in the process of solving conflicts?  Were conflicts avoided? 27

28 C ONFLICT R ESPONSE S TYLES 28

29 C ONFLICT R ESPONSE S TYLES 29

30 C ONFLICT R ESPONSE S TYLES 30

31 T RYING OUT THE STYLES Rayann is painting on paper hung outside. She puts the fly swat with paint on it in her mouth and then begins slapping the fence, ground, and shoes with the fly swat… 31

32 T RYING OUT THE STYLES 32

33 T RYING OUT THE STYLES Two children are fighting over nesting cups. One child takes the nesting cup away from the other child. The child begins to scream and cry… 33

34 T RYING OUT THE STYLES 34

35 T RYING OUT THE STYLES 35

36 6 STEPS TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION 1. Approach calmly, stopping hurtful actions 2. Acknowledge feelings 3. Gather information 4. Restate problem 5. Ask for ideas for solutions and choose one together 6. Give follow-up support as needed 36

37 LET’S WATCH THE STEPS IN ACTION! 37

38 M ISTAKES CHILDREN MAKE  Child says elaphanut.  Child puts their shoes on the wrong feet.  Child takes a toy away from another child. 38

39 WHAT ARE CHILDREN LEARNING WHEN ADULTS FACILITATE PROBLEM-SOLVING? The ability:  to express strong emotions in non- hurting ways.  to appreciate one’s own views but also the views of others.  to make decisions intelligently and ethically. D. Gartrell & M. King, The Power of Guidance: Teaching Social-Emotional Skills in Early Childhood Classrooms, NAEYC,

40 They are also learning the ability to:  listen to others.  discuss the details of problems (space, number, time, etc).  recognize that when there is a problem, there are lots of possibilities for solutions.  deliberate, negotiate, and collaborate with others.  stay calm when confronted with a conflict or a problem B. Evans, WHAT ARE CHILDREN LEARNING WHEN ADULTS FACILITATE PROBLEM-SOLVING? 40

41 P ROBLEM -S OLVING The emotional stage Steps 1 and 2 41

42 S TEP 1  Approach calmly, stopping any hurtful actions.  Breathe! S TEP 2  Acknowledge children’s feelings.  “You look really upset.”  It helps to hold the object in question. 42

43 Feelings Thoughts Feelings Thoughts CONFLICT Feelings are Acknowledged “Bailing” of Feelings 43

44 I NSTEAD OF TRYING TO STOP THE EMOTION... With the best of intentions, we try to comfort by saying, “It’s OK.” But to the child, it’s not OK. When we try to comfort in this way, the result is often escalation of the feelings, for both the child and the adult, because we have negated the feelings. Text: Betsy Evans Illustrations: Heather Fulton 44

45 … REALLY LISTEN AND NAME THE FEELING CLEARLY. Adults find it difficult to see children upset. They worry that listening to and naming strong feelings will escalate the problem. On the contrary, when a child senses that the adult really understands what he or she is experiencing, the child is deeply reassured, the A-C relationship is strengthened, and the child learns that feelings are a normal part of life. Text: Betsy Evans Illustrations: Heather Fulton 45

46 JANE HEALY, YOUR CHILD’S GROWING MIND,  “The emotional brain…[is] an integral part of the circuitry that activates and directs messages to the cortex, and the crux of the attention system.  It can either facilitate learning or, quite literally, shut down the thinking systems…” 46

47 P ROBLEM -S OLVING The thinking stage: Steps

48 STEPS 3-6  Gather Information.  Restate the problem.  Ask for ideas for solutions and choose one together.  Be prepared to give follow-up support. 48

49 SAY WHAT YOU DO WANT  Negative limit setting “No throwing the toys!” “No running the classroom.”  Positive limit setting “Toys need to stay in your hands.” “ Walking in the classroom keeps everyone safe.” 49

50 SAY WHAT YOU DO WANT  Negative limit setting “Stop whining. You’re driving me crazy!” “You are making a mess.”  Positive limit setting “I understand you better when you speak clearly or stop crying.” “ The paint needs to stay on the paper.” 50

51 SAY WHAT YOU DO WANT  Negative limit setting “Don’t put that in your mouth.” “Don’t throw your food.”  Positive limit setting “Markers are for paper.” “ Food stays on the plate/table. Are you finished?” 51

52 D E - ESCALATING C ONFLICTS  Turn to De-escalating conflicts:  Use “I” statements  Use gentle body language  Are specific  Focus on present and future  Focus on problem  Focus on children’s needs and interests  Listen carefully to both sides of the issue or read cues from both children 52

53 PRACTICE THE 6 STEPS  In groups of 4, choose a caregiver, two children, and a coach.  Using the materials provided, role play practicing the steps.  Coaches stop the role play and give feedback if needed.  Then switch roles until everyone has had a turn for each role. Children— Don’t be all the bad children rolled into one. The purpose of this activity is to give people a chance to use the steps. 53

54 FULL GROUP DISCUSSION  What steps were often left out or minimized?  What presented the most difficulty?  What came easy in this process?  What were some things you wanted to do in place of the 6 steps?  Other comments, discussion, questions… 54

55 C AREGIVER S UPPORT : P HYSICAL  Stay close to the child.  Provide calming touch if not aversive to the child.  Hold child on lap or put arms around child.  Holding, hugging, stroking—modeling gentleness.  Hold child’s hand.  Learn about the child’s physical needs and use strategies appropriate to THAT child. 55

56 B ODY L ANGUAGE  Positive demeanor.  Calm presence.  Confident approach.  Non-threatening posture.  Child’s physical level – eye contact (if not aversive to the child).  Facial expressions – authentic yet communicates caring.  Attentive listening.  Read facial expressions and body gestures of the child to anticipate what may happen. 56

57 C AREGIVER S UPPORT : V ISUAL  Pictures or photos of emotions  Picture sequence charts  Photos albums of family  Small personal photo albums with choices  Sign language for various directions  Boardmaker computer program options  Provide mirrors to help the child see expressions, actions, etc.  Be in full view of and close proximity to the child when communicating 57

58 V ISUAL S UPPORT : E XAMPLE #1 1.Move closer = picture of child by material that other child(ren) has. 2. Look = eyes 3. Ask: “Can I use _____?” = picture of child asking 58

59 V ISUAL S UPPORT : E XAMPLE #2 Sung to the tune of: “Are you Sleeping” First your snow pants, then your boots, then you put your coat on, hat and mittens, hat and mittens. 59

60 60

61 61

62 1. Turn on water. 2. Wet hands. 3. Get soap.4. Rinse hands. Picture Sequence Charts 62

63 5. Turn off water. 7. Throw away towel. 6. Dry hands. 8. Go play. 63

64 P UTTING A LL T HE I NTERACTION S TRATEGIES T OGETHER  Turn to page  With your group, read through the scenarios and decide what strategy you would use.  Role play it out.  Discuss as a whole group. 64

65 L OOKING A T Y OUR O WN A DULT - C HILD I NTERACTIONS  Take turns in your group describing a situation with an infant or toddler in which you have been uncomfortable, annoyed, directive, inattentive, or not as supportive as you might have been.  Brainstorm supportive interaction strategies you might use the next time the situation occurs or a similar situation arises. Record on chart paper.  Discuss as a whole group 65

66 D AY R EVIEW :  Turn to page 47 in PG.  Reflect on today’s topic (adult-child interactions).  What do you want to remember and begin implementing with your children?  Review assignments. Any parting thoughts about our day’s topics? 66


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