3“Historians, however, make a serious and systematic attempt to explain the past and attempt to use the knowledge they gain to help explain human nature and contemporary affairs.”Benjamin, J.Student’s Guide to Historyp. 1
5Evidence:Anything within the range of the historian’s experience-document, opinion, monument, artifact, tradition, and so on-that can be used as a basis for statements about the past; often called “sources.”Ritter, S.Dictionary of Historical ConceptsRef D 13 Rp.143
6Sources are artifacts that have been left by the past. They exist either as relics, whatwe might call “remains,” or as the test-imonies of witnesses of the past.Howell, M & Preveinier, W.From Reliable Sources: an introduction toHistorical MethodsD 16 .Hp. 17
7Primary sources record the actual words of someone who participated in or witnessed the events described or someone who got his or her information from participants.Benjamin, J.Student’s Guide to HistoryD B4 2001p. 6.
8Secondary sources record the findings of someone who did not observe the event but who investigated primary evidence.Benjamin, J.Student’s Guide to Historyp. 9.
9Yale University Library Primary Sources Research Colloquium: “A primary source is firsthand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. The nature and value of the source cannot be determined without reference to the topic and questions it is meant to answer. The same document or other piece of evidence may be a primary source in one investigation and secondary in another. The search for primary sources does not, therefore, automatically include or exclude any category of records or documents.”Craver, K.Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills In HistoryD Cp. 15
10Written Transmissions BooksJournalsLettersAnnalsDissertationsPublic recordsCensus dataEyewitness accountsScriptureInscriptionsNewspapersDiariesChroniclesGovernment documentsPersonal or institutional papersGenealogiesManuscriptsLawsScrollsPeriod literature and poetryFrom Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in History Craver, Kathleen, D C , p.18
11Oral Transmissions Speeches Anecdotes Sagas Oral histories Music Interviews (not videotaped)BalladsLegendsTelephone conversationsRecordings (tape & records)MythsFrom Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in History Craver, Kathleen, D C , p.19
12Visually Transmitted Sculpture Photographs Portraits Maps Cartoons CoinsVideotapesFilmsPostersEngravingsModels & dioramasWoodcutsArchitectureEtchingsRelicsHistorical paintingsArtifactsComputer generated graphicsFrom Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in History Craver, Kathleen, D C , p.19
13Electronically Transmitted FaxesElectronic mailMachine readable databases[Web pages]From Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in History Craver Kathleen, D C , p.19
14All Things ConsideredAuthenticityReliabilityDisagreement
16Selected Titles Databases in Historical Research D 16.12 H37 1996 Image as Artifact: the historical analysis of film and television D INewspapers as Tools for Historians D 16 T22Photographs and Local History D O45Public History: essays from the field D PResearch in Archives: the use of unpublished primary sources D 16 .B
21Examples Presidents United States Manuscripts African Americans -- California -- NewspapersJohnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), –Pictorial worksWorld War, United States –Caricatures and Cartoons
22CSUS Microfilm History web page – CSUS Primary Resources American PeriodicalsCSUS Historical Directory of PeriodicalsNewspapers:Sacramento Bee [indexed Sacramento Bee Historical Index]Sacramento Union , :(1/15).[not indexed]Sacramento Observer [not indexed]New York Times [indexed ]London Times [indexed ]Early English Books [indexed]reelsreels
23Government Documents Indexes Large Sets American State Papers U.S. Foreign RelationsCongressional RecordPublic Papers of the PresidentsBritish Parliamentary PapersUnited Nations ( Microcard; 1982 – present microfiche; selectively on the web)
24World Wide Web Archives Historical Books American Memory and Making of AmericaCataloged Web Sites: BUBLINK, INFOMINE, SCOUT REPORTBUBLINKHistoryInternet Classics Archive