Presentation on theme: "Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen Berger"— Presentation transcript:
1 Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 7- Middle ChildhoodBody and Mind
2 A Healthy Time Middle Childhood Time of relative health, steady, but less rapid growth than in early childhoodWeight problemsMany 7- to 11-year-olds eat too much, exercise too little, and become overweight or obese as a result.Body mass index (BMI)- The ratio of weight to heightOverweight- In a child, having a BMI above the 85th percentile. (Adults: BMI of 25 to 29)Obesity- In a child, having a BMI above the 95th percentile. (Adults: BMI of 30 or more)
3 A Healthy Time Physical Activity Better overall health Less obesity Appreciation of cooperation and fair playImproved problem-solving and social skillsPhysical activity also may increase injuries and stress, reinforce prejudices, and increase stress by changing hormone levels.
4 Theories About Cognition Piaget: Children age 7-11Piaget’s emphasis is on the child’s discoveryConcrete operational thought: when they are able to apply logic in situations that deal with visible, tangible thingsClassification- The logical principle that things can be organized into groups (or categories or classes) according to some characteristic they have in common.
5 Theories About Cognition Vygotsky and School Age ChildrenVygotsky regarded instruction as essentialZone of proximal development: Child still needs guidance through almost-understood ideas and abilitiesChildren are "apprentices in learning" as they play with each other, watch television, eat dinner with their families, and engage in other daily interactions.Language is integral as a mediator, a vehicle for understanding and learning.
6 Theories About Cognition Information-processing theory: theory that compares human thinking processes, of encoding, storing and retrieval of informationSensory memory: Information preserved in original sensory form for a brief time (about a fraction of a second)Working memory or Short Term Memory: Limited duration- holds unrehearsed information seconds and limited capacity 7 +/- 2 itemsLong-term memory: limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely
7 Theories About Cognition AttentionSelective attention: The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others.Automatization: A process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought.Reaction time: The time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such as an eye blink) or cognitively (with a thought).
8 Theories About Cognition Metacognition:"Thinking about thinking“Ability to evaluate a cognitive taskThen determine how best to accomplish, monitor and adjust performance on that taskMetamemory:The ability to understand how memory works in order to use it well.Metamemory is an essential element of metacognition.
9 Learning in SchoolLearning Language: A good time to learn a second language is in middle childhood.English-language learner (ELL): A child who is learning English as a second language.Bilingual education: teachers teach children in both their native language and EnglishEnglish as a Second Language: must master the basics of English before joining regular classesImmersion: taught exclusively in the language not spoken at home
10 Learning in School The Reading Wars The Math Wars Phonics approach: first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinationsWhole-language approach: encouraging early use of all language skills-talking and listening, reading and writing.The Math WarsHistorically, math was taught by memorization (facts, tables and workbooks)Inspired especially by Piaget and Vygotsky, many educators made math instruction more of a discovery (active and engaging)
11 Measuring the MindAchievement test: are designed to measure what has been learnedAptitude test: are designed to measure learning potentialIQ test: test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school.Most common aptitude testOriginally defined as mental age divided by chronological age, times 100--hence the term intelligence quotient, or IQ
12 Measuring the Mind Measuring Aptitude Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): An IQ test designed for school-age children to assess many areas (vocabulary, general knowledge, memory, and spatial comprehension)Flynn effect - The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations.No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act: Law enacted in 2001 to increase accountability by requiring states to qualify for federal educational funding by administering standardized tests to measure school achievementNational Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP): An ongoing and nationally representative measure of U.S. children’s achievement in various subjects; nicknamed "the nation’s report card.“
13 Measuring the MindMental retardation: Literally, slow, or late, thinkingScore below 70 on an IQ testBehind their peers in the ability to meet the basic requirements of daily lifeChildren with special needs: Children who, because of a physical or mental disability, require extra help in order to learn.Learning disability: marked delay in a particular area of learning, not caused by an apparent physical or mental disabilityDyslexia: Unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment.
15 Measuring the Mind Developmental Psychopathology: Abnormality is normal.Disability changes year by yearAdulthood may be better or worse than childhood.Diagnosis depends on the social context.The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR):recognizes that each child’s cultural frame of reference needs to be understood before any disorder can be diagnosed.
16 Measuring the MindAttention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): great difficulty concentrating or staying still for more than a few moments. (inattentive, impulsive, and overactive)Comorbidity: presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person.Autistic spectrum disorder: Any of several disorders characterized by impaired communication, inadequate social skills, and unusual patterns of play.Autism: developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other people normally, extreme self-absorption, and an inability to acquire normal speech.Asperger syndrome (also called “high-functioning” Autism): person has impaired social interaction, extreme attention to details, but high levels of intelligence in some areas.