Presentation on theme: "Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen Berger"— Presentation transcript:
1Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 7- Middle ChildhoodBody and Mind
2A Healthy Time Middle Childhood Time of relative health, steady, but less rapid growth than in early childhoodWeight problemsMany 7- to 11-year-olds eat too much, exercise too little, and become overweight or obese as a result.Body mass index (BMI)- The ratio of weight to heightOverweight- In a child, having a BMI above the 85th percentile. (Adults: BMI of 25 to 29)Obesity- In a child, having a BMI above the 95th percentile. (Adults: BMI of 30 or more)
3A Healthy Time Physical Activity Better overall health Less obesity Appreciation of cooperation and fair playImproved problem-solving and social skillsPhysical activity also may increase injuries and stress, reinforce prejudices, and increase stress by changing hormone levels.
4Theories About Cognition Piaget: Children age 7-11Piaget’s emphasis is on the child’s discoveryConcrete operational thought: when they are able to apply logic in situations that deal with visible, tangible thingsClassification- The logical principle that things can be organized into groups (or categories or classes) according to some characteristic they have in common.
5Theories About Cognition Vygotsky and School Age ChildrenVygotsky regarded instruction as essentialZone of proximal development: Child still needs guidance through almost-understood ideas and abilitiesChildren are "apprentices in learning" as they play with each other, watch television, eat dinner with their families, and engage in other daily interactions.Language is integral as a mediator, a vehicle for understanding and learning.
6Theories About Cognition Information-processing theory: theory that compares human thinking processes, of encoding, storing and retrieval of informationSensory memory: Information preserved in original sensory form for a brief time (about a fraction of a second)Working memory or Short Term Memory: Limited duration- holds unrehearsed information seconds and limited capacity 7 +/- 2 itemsLong-term memory: limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely
7Theories About Cognition AttentionSelective attention: The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others.Automatization: A process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought.Reaction time: The time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such as an eye blink) or cognitively (with a thought).
8Theories About Cognition Metacognition:"Thinking about thinking“Ability to evaluate a cognitive taskThen determine how best to accomplish, monitor and adjust performance on that taskMetamemory:The ability to understand how memory works in order to use it well.Metamemory is an essential element of metacognition.
9Learning in SchoolLearning Language: A good time to learn a second language is in middle childhood.English-language learner (ELL): A child who is learning English as a second language.Bilingual education: teachers teach children in both their native language and EnglishEnglish as a Second Language: must master the basics of English before joining regular classesImmersion: taught exclusively in the language not spoken at home
10Learning in School The Reading Wars The Math Wars Phonics approach: first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinationsWhole-language approach: encouraging early use of all language skills-talking and listening, reading and writing.The Math WarsHistorically, math was taught by memorization (facts, tables and workbooks)Inspired especially by Piaget and Vygotsky, many educators made math instruction more of a discovery (active and engaging)
11Measuring the MindAchievement test: are designed to measure what has been learnedAptitude test: are designed to measure learning potentialIQ test: test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school.Most common aptitude testOriginally defined as mental age divided by chronological age, times 100--hence the term intelligence quotient, or IQ
12Measuring the Mind Measuring Aptitude Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): An IQ test designed for school-age children to assess many areas (vocabulary, general knowledge, memory, and spatial comprehension)Flynn effect - The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations.No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act: Law enacted in 2001 to increase accountability by requiring states to qualify for federal educational funding by administering standardized tests to measure school achievementNational Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP): An ongoing and nationally representative measure of U.S. children’s achievement in various subjects; nicknamed "the nation’s report card.“
13Measuring the MindMental retardation: Literally, slow, or late, thinkingScore below 70 on an IQ testBehind their peers in the ability to meet the basic requirements of daily lifeChildren with special needs: Children who, because of a physical or mental disability, require extra help in order to learn.Learning disability: marked delay in a particular area of learning, not caused by an apparent physical or mental disabilityDyslexia: Unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment.
15Measuring the Mind Developmental Psychopathology: Abnormality is normal.Disability changes year by yearAdulthood may be better or worse than childhood.Diagnosis depends on the social context.The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR):recognizes that each child’s cultural frame of reference needs to be understood before any disorder can be diagnosed.
16Measuring the MindAttention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): great difficulty concentrating or staying still for more than a few moments. (inattentive, impulsive, and overactive)Comorbidity: presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person.Autistic spectrum disorder: Any of several disorders characterized by impaired communication, inadequate social skills, and unusual patterns of play.Autism: developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other people normally, extreme self-absorption, and an inability to acquire normal speech.Asperger syndrome (also called “high-functioning” Autism): person has impaired social interaction, extreme attention to details, but high levels of intelligence in some areas.