5 Key Learning: Poultry Production Unit EQ: Why is the poultry industry a successful industrial model?ConceptBreeds and TypesLesson EQ:What are purposes of poultry?VocabEgg Laying, Meat, Dual Purpose, RatitesConcept : ManagementLesson EQ:What is vertical intergration?VocabVertical Integration, Beak TrimmingConcept : AnatomyLesson EQ:How are poultry manipulated for production?VocabSpur, Cloaca
6 ObjectivesStudents will:Identify major breeds of chicken and minor breeds of poultryDescribe characteristics of each breedIdentify breed purpose
7 What are purposes of poultry? (think terminology) Essential QuestionWhat are purposes of poultry? (think terminology)
8 Set up your graphic Organizer Breed (Specific)Type (General)3 FactsPurpose (with definition)LeghornChickenLays white eggs, Loud, Always all whiteTable Egg Laying: lays eggs for human consumption.
9 Fowl (birds) raised on farms and used as food What is poultry?Fowl (birds) raised on farms and used as food
10 Pair Share “Chicken is the number one most consumed meat in American” Discuss: Do you feel this is true why or why not?
11 Poultry High protein Low fat Economical to eat 2nd in consumption only to beef
12 What are they used for? (Common terms) Meat- Plymouth RockFeathers- PeafowlEggs- LeghornShowing- White Crested Black Polish
13 Purposes of Poultry: Industry Terms Fancy/OrnamentalDual PurposeMeat PurposeTable Egg Laying
14 Leghorn-Chickens Weighs: 4 lbs. to 6 lbs. Egg Shell Color: White. Use: An egg-type chicken.Origin: city of Leghorn, Italy.
15 Leghorn-ChickensCharacteristics: A small, noisy bird, known for being all white in colorThe most numerous breed.
16 Rhode Island Red-Chicken Standard Weight: 5 ½ lbs to 8 ½ lbs. Egg Shell Color: Brown
17 Rhode Island Red-Chicken Use: Egg production, and meat (Dual Purpose)Origin: Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
18 White Crested Black Polish Recognized for its long wattle and head plumageOriginated in Poland
19 White Crested Black Polish Can only see forwards and downwardsConsidered ornamental/fancy
20 Blue HenFamous for its fighting skills during the revolutionary war.
21 Blue Hen Delaware’s regiment was nicknamed “The Blue Hen Chickens” Not a “TRUE” breedUniversity of Delaware’s mascotUD has one of the only remaining pure bred flocks
22 BroilerAny breed of chicken raised specifically for meat. (Typically Plymouth Rocks)Grown to specific weight and age.Between 5-12 weeks in age. Average is 7 wks from egg to processingSelected to gain lean (no fat) weight quickly
23 Geese Most common widespread goose in America is the Canadian Goose A group of geese is called a gaggleHunted for sport. Meat and feathers are usedLarge waterfowl in between a swan and ducks.
24 Turkey Very heavy birds (40-60 lbs) Wild Turkeys hunted for sport. Meat is more “gamey”, weigh less than industry birdsSelectively bred for large size
25 TurkeyAll industry produced turkeys bred for meat must be artificially inseminated because they are so large!
26 Duck Produce eggs, meat, and feathers (down feathers) All duck breeds are descendants of wild mallardChina is top duck market
27 Quail Used for meat, eggs Normally eaten meat and bones Wild Quail that has fed on hemlock, can be toxic to consume causing kidney failure
28 RatitesFlightless !!!Birds in this group include; ostrich, emu and kiwiOstrich and emus used for eggs and medicinal purposesEmu oil provides health benefits for painful joints and bruisesEmu’s cannot walk backwards
29 Vocab Review (Grab out your vocab sheet) Put your name and the date on your worksheet packetDefine the following words:PoultryDual Purpose (give breed example)Table Egg Laying (give breed example)Fancy/ Ornamental (give breed example)Meat Purpose (give breed example)BroilerGaggleRatites
30 Pair Share Person A Give the word and the definition Person B Use the vocab word in a sentence
31 On your own: Library Project (Optional) Directions: Choose a poultry breed not discussed in class. Provide a picture to the teacher (chosen from the internet) to be posted on the screen while you present.
32 On your own: Library Project Compile a profile of your bird. Include: OriginColor characteristicsAverage SizePurposeProduct from or by the animalFun Fact
33 Dirty Jobs Video: Ostriches Pair Share Review Answer the FollowingWhere did Mike go?What is his job?What part of the job is dangerous?5 facts about ostrichesHow do you catch or steer an ostrich and why?Discuss the video with your partnerWhy are ostriches considered poultry?What products do we use and why?What was one interesting thing you learned ?
34 Basic anatomy Of Poultry Please Follow along with your worksheet providedBasic anatomy Of Poultry
35 Objectives Label the major parts of poultry anatomy Explain the purpose of specific anatomical differences in digestion anatomy.Discuss the general reproductive anatomy of a hen.
36 How are poultry manipulated for production? Essential QuestionHow are poultry manipulated for production?
37 Lit Frayer ModelI think it means….Because of… (clues)We have selectively bred chickens to have large breast meat because this is the cut of meat that brings the most profit.It is actually defined as…Ways to help me remember this/Examples are
38 Selective breeding Breeding for desired characteristics We have selective bred chickens to have enlarged breasts and grow quickly (7 weeks) to increase profits
39 Do you remember? What do you call a mature male? Rooster What do you call a mature female?HenWhat do you call a young female?PulletWhat do you call a castrated male?CaponChickens [Hatch] (they are not “born”)
43 Digestive Anatomy review Crop- food storageBirds are prey animals. Need to “eat and run”Gizzard- grinds foodBirds don’t have teeth. Gizzard is muscular organ that contains grit (stones) to help grind foodProventriculusSecretes digestive enzymes to break down foodCloacaVent when poop and eggs are expelled
44 Pair ShareHow are chicken’s (and bird’s in general) digestive systems specialized and different from our own?Give 3 examples
47 Reproductive review Hens only lay legs NOT ROOSTERS Male reproductive organs are located inside the birdTemperature regulation EXTRA important to prevent infertilitySpaying a chicken = difficultTherefore: Capons are mainly for religious purposes
49 Skeletal Review How have birds adapted ? Hollow bones = light weight Keeled sternum= lower center of gravity and large bone provide extra large pectoral muscle attachmentsWE EAT THE PECTORAL (breast) muscle in chickens!Fused wrists and bonesGive wings their shapeWe EAT the wings. Two typesDrumstick and double bone wing
50 Add these to your list and Define the following words: Vocabulary SheetAdd these to your list and Define the following words:Spurs Primary FeathersCrop GizzardCloaca
51 Pair Share Person A Give the word and the definition Person B Use the vocab word in a sentence
54 ObjectivesLabel the basic anatomical parts of the egg, and reproductive system of the henExplain the process of gestation within the egg.Discuss the process of fertilization and egg development.Understand the importance and purpose of gestation.Define the process of incubation and its importance.
55 Pair Share What is an egg? What parts of an egg do you know? What do they “do”?What parts do we eat?
56 What is an Egg? Egg- the female germ cell. The egg becomes the embryo. Avian egg- bird eggs.
57 What is an Egg? It includes the following: Shell Shell membranes AlbumenYolkTogether they protect and nourish.
58 1.Ovulation- release of mature yolk from the ovary. Egg Formation1.Ovulation- release of mature yolk from the ovary.2.Infundibulum- receives the yolk, about 15 minutes spent.
59 Egg Formation3.Yolk moves into magnum 50% of albumen is added. Takes 3 hours.4.Spends 1.5 hours in the Isthmus. Shell membranes added.5. Total process takes about 24 hours
60 DRAW IT Draw how an egg is formed inside of a hen should be 6 boxes Step OneStep TwoStep ThreeStep FourStep FiveEgg is LAID! What will the chicken do now?
68 Differences Mammals: Avian: Young developing within the mother Mother provides nourishment (milk)Avian:Young develop outside the mother (hen)Mother does not provide nourishment
69 This is a fertilized egg being Candled…. What do you see in this picture? What is happening?How do you know?
70 Egg gestationHow does the yolk sac change throughout gestation?
71 Egg Gestation and development Artificially keeping an egg warm until hatching= incubation Completed in an incubator- artificially heated container. Gestation period: approximately 3 weeks
72 Egg Gestation and development The incubator must be kept at a certain temperature range 99 to 103 F. Eggs must be turned while incubating -Why do we turn eggs during incubation??
73 Once they arrive-Temperature = degrees under light, deg in house -Decrease temp. 5 degrees / week until 60 degrees MUST REGULATE TEMP! -If chicks are huddled together under light = too cold -If none are under light = too hot -Should be scattered -Teach how to drink right away
74 Finish the sentence…. (Pair Share) Eggs are great examples of a self sufficient way to raise a young animal. This statement is true because…………The most interesting part/ adaptation of the egg is the …….
75 Vocabulary Sheet Define the following words: Ovum Albumen Gestation Yolk SacIncubation
76 Pair Share Person A Give the word and the definition Person B Use the vocab word in a sentence
78 ObjectivesDescribe required management practices and their purpose in poultry health.Evaluate basic parts of poultry nutrition.Define vaccinations and their purpose within the poultry industry.
79 Baby Birds -Do not over crowd young or adult birds ALL Birds have a minimum space requirement as highlighted by the USDAEXAMPLE:CHICK-Space requirements:10 square inches / chick under light25 square inches / chick house spaceChicks shouldn’t be allowed to get more than 3 ft away from light
80 Lit Frayer ModelI think it means….Because of… (clues)Vertical Integration has allowed for the poultry industry to become the most successful food model that has led to other industries attempting to duplicate the business model.It is actually defined as…Ways to help me remember this/Examples are
81 Areas Vertical Integration Model Controls Chicken Management StrategiesHousing and Feeding (Methods)NutritionBiosecurity /Disease Prevention
82 Vertical Integration: Broiler industry model Definition: Several steps in production, from raw materials to final product, are controlled by company or owner.
84 Chick Management Practices Debeaking: remove 1/3 of the top beak and a small part of the bottom (prevent cannibalism)at 6-8 days oldControversial practice birds per minute. This fast pace sometimes results in inappropriate cuts causing excessive bleedingVaccinate (hatchery can do this)Sprays, shots, eye drops
86 Adult Bird ManagementLighting: birds naturally reproduce in spring, simulate spring, chickens molt (shed feathers) production increases
87 Housing for adult birds Requirements:HeatersRadiant =heat the litter and items in the house. Not the air. More efficientThermometersElectronically hooked to emergency back up systems. Regular mercury thermometer for back upFeeding systemAlways filled, but no wasteful spillingLitterLow dust, absorbent
88 Housing for adults continued … Requirements Continued:HumidityPrevents dusty conditions, heat regulation more effective, decreases stress (too dry = stress)Watering systemNo spilling, sanitary!, monitored with meterAlarm systemsPrevent unhealthy and stressful conditionsStandby equipmentReady for power or other emergency, prevents losses (deaths)
90 Nutrition Management Water: MOST IMPORTANT nutrient Birds need this to aide in digestion and temperature regulationProteinBuild muscle quicklyCarbohydrates and fatsEnergyMinerals and Vitaminsproper growth and developmentFeed Additives:Marigold petals: provide yellow tint to chicken skin. Marketed by Perdue chicken as “healthier”. NO health benefits for yellow skinned chicken but public bought in
91 Management Continued… Vaccinations Marek’s Disease: vaccine given in ovo Symptoms include : paralysis , blindness, gaspingInfectious bronchitis: caused by a virus. Prevented through vaccination Symptoms include gasping, decreased feed intake, soft egg shells
96 Warm UpWhat type of management practices do you think are used in this photo?
97 Objectives Define vertical integration. Label major parts of the poultry industry.Summarize the main processes in poultry product production.
98 How does vertical integration help chicken producers? Essential QuestionHow does vertical integration help chicken producers?
99 Layer Industry Over 90% of eggs produced are by layers in cages. The most common grouping is four hens per cage.Controversial practice because many birds become over crowded, never spread their wings, and are injured by cage or other birds
100 Layer industry -Most eggs sold in the U.S. are white. Produced by what type of bird?-In large scale commercial operations, lighting is used to stimulate the hormonal activity of the hens to increase their production of eggs.They produce eggs naturally when the days are longer than the nights.Most operations allow hours of light per day
101 Layer Care Collect eggs 2-3 times per day (if hot) Wash eggs immediately in warm waterSprayed with protective coding to maintain freshnessRefrigerateProduction Goal: 4 lbs feed / dozen eggsHens produce 7 eggs / 10 days
102 Layer Industry-Eggs are coated with a thin coat of mineral oil to prevent carbon dioxide from escaping from within the egg.-Eggs are graded according to size and checked for cracks and interior spots by candling.
103 Broiler CareMarket at 4 1/2 lbs for males, 3 1/2 lbs for females (about 8 weeks)2.1 lbs feed / lb of gainThis rate of gain can cause health issues like “flopping”Down birds fall under their own weight. Bone structure cannot keep up with weight gain of meat
104 Broiler Industry Most are white Colored birds have pigmentation spots in their skin which is undesirable to the consumerKept to certain age, based on weightALL IN ALL OUT
105 All in ALL out All birds are hatched at same time Grow together at same general rateAll sent to slaughter at same timeEntire house disinfected and cleanedNew “generation” brought in
106 Vocabulary SheetDefine the following words:Vertical Integration
107 ACTIVITYDraw on a poster with your group a representation on vertical integration.Label each segment (grain mill, slaughter house etc)
108 Career opportunities Agronomy Sales Shift supervisor Seed Production Grain OperationsFarm MarketerFeed Mill ManagerPlant ManagerWaste Water SupervisorBarn Supervisor
110 ReferencesModern Livestock & Poultry Production 5th Edition. By James Gillespie.Oklahoma State University- Animal Science department.
111 Video Review: Chicken From Egg to Take Away Outline the steps in chicken processing from egg to plate. Include the major processes in slaughterWhat is the trend in the Australian food industry? How does this mirror America?How are producers catering their products to meet consumer demand? What are consumers demanding?What is value added chicken?What are common cuts of birds?How do they guard against contamination in the slaughter house?Why is chicken good nutritionally?
112 Test Review Poultry Answer the following: Is your vocabulary sheet completed? (First page of your packet) Use each vocabulary word in a sentence.Answer the following:List the purposes of chickens and give a breed example of each. Define each purpose.Explain vertical integration. Give an example of a company.What is the current trend in the American food industry? How is the poultry industry meeting these demands?What are common items found in an adult broiler house? What are the purposes behind these items?What are common care practices for poultry and what are the reasons for these practices?