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Presentation on theme: "Poultry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Poultry

2 KwL Chart Start up ! Know 10 things you KNOW about poultry/chickens
Want 10 thing you WANT to learn about poultry Learn -We will complete this once finished

3 Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet
WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING? ID breeds of economically important animals Husbandry and Mangement practices for Industrial animals

4 Know Understand Do! Know Poultry Types Basic Anatomy
Management Practices Understand Poultry desired Characteristics Internal and External Anatomy Vertical Integration Do ID Breeds Outline egg production Outline Integration model

5 Key Learning: Poultry Production
Unit EQ: Why is the poultry industry a successful industrial model? Concept Breeds and Types Lesson EQ: What are purposes of poultry? Vocab Egg Laying, Meat, Dual Purpose, Ratites Concept : Management Lesson EQ: What is vertical intergration? Vocab Vertical Integration, Beak Trimming Concept : Anatomy Lesson EQ: How are poultry manipulated for production? Vocab Spur, Cloaca

6 Objectives Students will: Identify major breeds of chicken and minor breeds of poultry Describe characteristics of each breed Identify breed purpose

7 What are purposes of poultry? (think terminology)
Essential Question What are purposes of poultry? (think terminology)

8 Set up your graphic Organizer
Breed (Specific) Type (General) 3 Facts Purpose (with definition) Leghorn Chicken Lays white eggs, Loud, Always all white Table Egg Laying: lays eggs for human consumption.

9 Fowl (birds) raised on farms and used as food
What is poultry? Fowl (birds) raised on farms and used as food

10 Pair Share “Chicken is the number one most consumed meat in American”
Discuss: Do you feel this is true why or why not?

11 Poultry High protein Low fat Economical to eat
2nd in consumption only to beef

12 What are they used for? (Common terms)
Meat- Plymouth Rock Feathers- Peafowl Eggs- Leghorn Showing- White Crested Black Polish

13 Purposes of Poultry: Industry Terms
Fancy/Ornamental Dual Purpose Meat Purpose Table Egg Laying

14 Leghorn-Chickens Weighs: 4 lbs. to 6 lbs. Egg Shell Color: White.
Use: An egg-type chicken. Origin: city of Leghorn, Italy.

15 Leghorn-Chickens Characteristics: A small, noisy bird, known for being all white in color The most numerous breed.

16 Rhode Island Red-Chicken
Standard Weight: 5 ½ lbs to 8 ½ lbs.  Egg Shell Color: Brown

17 Rhode Island Red-Chicken
Use: Egg production, and meat (Dual Purpose) Origin: Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

18 White Crested Black Polish
Recognized for its long wattle and head plumage Originated in Poland

19 White Crested Black Polish
Can only see forwards and downwards Considered ornamental/fancy

20 Blue Hen Famous for its fighting skills during the revolutionary war.

21 Blue Hen Delaware’s regiment was nicknamed “The Blue Hen Chickens”
Not a “TRUE” breed University of Delaware’s mascot UD has one of the only remaining pure bred flocks

22 Broiler Any breed of chicken raised specifically for meat. (Typically Plymouth Rocks) Grown to specific weight and age. Between 5-12 weeks in age. Average is 7 wks from egg to processing Selected to gain lean (no fat) weight quickly

23 Geese Most common widespread goose in America is the Canadian Goose
A group of geese is called a gaggle Hunted for sport. Meat and feathers are used Large waterfowl in between a swan and ducks.

24 Turkey Very heavy birds (40-60 lbs)
Wild Turkeys hunted for sport. Meat is more “gamey”, weigh less than industry birds Selectively bred for large size

25 Turkey All industry produced turkeys bred for meat must be artificially inseminated because they are so large!

26 Duck Produce eggs, meat, and feathers (down feathers)
All duck breeds are descendants of wild mallard China is top duck market

27 Quail Used for meat, eggs Normally eaten meat and bones
Wild Quail that has fed on hemlock, can be toxic to consume causing kidney failure

28 Ratites Flightless !!! Birds in this group include; ostrich, emu and kiwi Ostrich and emus used for eggs and medicinal purposes Emu oil provides health benefits for painful joints and bruises Emu’s cannot walk backwards

29 Vocab Review (Grab out your vocab sheet)
Put your name and the date on your worksheet packet Define the following words: Poultry Dual Purpose (give breed example) Table Egg Laying (give breed example) Fancy/ Ornamental (give breed example) Meat Purpose (give breed example) Broiler Gaggle Ratites

30 Pair Share Person A Give the word and the definition Person B
Use the vocab word in a sentence

31 On your own: Library Project (Optional) Directions:
Choose a poultry breed not discussed in class. Provide a picture to the teacher (chosen from the internet) to be posted on the screen while you present.

32 On your own: Library Project Compile a profile of your bird. Include:
Origin Color characteristics Average Size Purpose Product from or by the animal Fun Fact

33 Dirty Jobs Video: Ostriches Pair Share Review
Answer the Following Where did Mike go? What is his job? What part of the job is dangerous? 5 facts about ostriches How do you catch or steer an ostrich and why? Discuss the video with your partner Why are ostriches considered poultry? What products do we use and why? What was one interesting thing you learned ?

34 Basic anatomy Of Poultry
Please Follow along with your worksheet provided Basic anatomy Of Poultry

35 Objectives Label the major parts of poultry anatomy
Explain the purpose of specific anatomical differences in digestion anatomy. Discuss the general reproductive anatomy of a hen.

36 How are poultry manipulated for production?
Essential Question How are poultry manipulated for production?

37 Lit Frayer Model I think it means…. Because of… (clues) We have selectively bred chickens to have large breast meat because this is the cut of meat that brings the most profit. It is actually defined as… Ways to help me remember this/Examples are

38 Selective breeding Breeding for desired characteristics
We have selective bred chickens to have enlarged breasts and grow quickly (7 weeks) to increase profits

39 Do you remember? What do you call a mature male? Rooster
What do you call a mature female? Hen What do you call a young female? Pullet What do you call a castrated male? Capon Chickens [Hatch] (they are not “born”)

40 Facial features of Poultry

41 Main Anatomy of Poultry

42 Digestion system of Poultry

43 Digestive Anatomy review
Crop- food storage Birds are prey animals. Need to “eat and run” Gizzard- grinds food Birds don’t have teeth. Gizzard is muscular organ that contains grit (stones) to help grind food Proventriculus Secretes digestive enzymes to break down food Cloaca Vent when poop and eggs are expelled

44 Pair Share How are chicken’s (and bird’s in general) digestive systems specialized and different from our own? Give 3 examples

45 Reproductive System female

46 Male Reproductive system

47 Reproductive review Hens only lay legs NOT ROOSTERS
Male reproductive organs are located inside the bird Temperature regulation EXTRA important to prevent infertility Spaying a chicken = difficult Therefore: Capons are mainly for religious purposes


49 Skeletal Review How have birds adapted ? Hollow bones = light weight
Keeled sternum= lower center of gravity and large bone provide extra large pectoral muscle attachments WE EAT THE PECTORAL (breast) muscle in chickens! Fused wrists and bones Give wings their shape We EAT the wings. Two types Drumstick and double bone wing

50 Add these to your list and Define the following words:
Vocabulary Sheet Add these to your list and Define the following words: Spurs Primary Feathers Crop Gizzard Cloaca

51 Pair Share Person A Give the word and the definition Person B
Use the vocab word in a sentence

52 The Incredible Egg

53 Hatching Egg hatching Video

54 Objectives Label the basic anatomical parts of the egg, and reproductive system of the hen Explain the process of gestation within the egg. Discuss the process of fertilization and egg development. Understand the importance and purpose of gestation. Define the process of incubation and its importance.

55 Pair Share What is an egg? What parts of an egg do you know?
What do they “do”? What parts do we eat?

56 What is an Egg? Egg- the female germ cell. The egg becomes the embryo.
Avian egg- bird eggs.

57 What is an Egg? It includes the following: Shell Shell membranes
Albumen Yolk Together they protect and nourish.

58 1.Ovulation- release of mature yolk from the ovary.
Egg Formation 1.Ovulation- release of mature yolk from the ovary. 2.Infundibulum- receives the yolk, about 15 minutes spent.

59 Egg Formation 3.Yolk moves into magnum 50% of albumen is added. Takes 3 hours. 4.Spends 1.5 hours in the Isthmus. Shell membranes added. 5. Total process takes about 24 hours

60 DRAW IT Draw how an egg is formed inside of a hen should be 6 boxes
Step One Step Two Step Three Step Four Step Five Egg is LAID! What will the chicken do now?

61 Egg Formation

62 Pair Share: THEN Get our your packet to complete your diagram
The yellow part of the egg is called the… The white part of the egg is called the … What do these do?!?

63 Egg Anatomy Shell- hard outer surface; calcium
Shell has pores to allow loss of CO2, moisture.

64 Egg Anatomy 2. Shell membranes- there are two one next to the shell, and surrounding albumen, yolk. a. Known as Inner and Outer Membrane

65 Egg Anatomy 3. Air Cell- air space between two shell membranes.
4. Albumen- egg white. 5. Yolk- true egg, if fertilized become embryo.

66 Egg Anatomy

67 What do these parts do? Germinal DISC

68 Differences Mammals: Avian: Young developing within the mother
Mother provides nourishment (milk) Avian: Young develop outside the mother (hen) Mother does not provide nourishment

69 This is a fertilized egg being Candled….
What do you see in this picture? What is happening? How do you know?

70 Egg gestation How does the yolk sac change throughout gestation?

71 Egg Gestation and development
Artificially keeping an egg warm until hatching= incubation Completed in an incubator- artificially heated container. Gestation period: approximately 3 weeks

72 Egg Gestation and development
The incubator must be kept at a certain temperature range 99 to 103 F. Eggs must be turned while incubating -Why do we turn eggs during incubation??

73 Once they arrive -Temperature = degrees under light, deg in house -Decrease temp. 5 degrees / week until 60 degrees MUST REGULATE TEMP! -If chicks are huddled together under light = too cold -If none are under light = too hot -Should be scattered -Teach how to drink right away

74 Finish the sentence…. (Pair Share)
Eggs are great examples of a self sufficient way to raise a young animal. This statement is true because………… The most interesting part/ adaptation of the egg is the …….

75 Vocabulary Sheet Define the following words: Ovum Albumen
Gestation Yolk Sac Incubation

76 Pair Share Person A Give the word and the definition Person B
Use the vocab word in a sentence

77 Introduction to Poultry Management

78 Objectives Describe required management practices and their purpose in poultry health. Evaluate basic parts of poultry nutrition. Define vaccinations and their purpose within the poultry industry.

79 Baby Birds -Do not over crowd young or adult birds
ALL Birds have a minimum space requirement as highlighted by the USDA EXAMPLE:CHICK-Space requirements: 10 square inches / chick under light 25 square inches / chick house space Chicks shouldn’t be allowed to get more than 3 ft away from light

80 Lit Frayer Model I think it means…. Because of… (clues) Vertical Integration has allowed for the poultry industry to become the most successful food model that has led to other industries attempting to duplicate the business model. It is actually defined as… Ways to help me remember this/Examples are

81 Areas Vertical Integration Model Controls
Chicken Management Strategies Housing and Feeding (Methods) Nutrition Biosecurity /Disease Prevention

82 Vertical Integration: Broiler industry model
Definition: Several steps in production, from raw materials to final product, are controlled by company or owner.

83 Vertical Integration

84 Chick Management Practices
Debeaking: remove 1/3 of the top beak and a small part of the bottom (prevent cannibalism) at 6-8 days old Controversial practice birds per minute. This fast pace sometimes results in inappropriate cuts causing excessive bleeding Vaccinate (hatchery can do this) Sprays, shots, eye drops

85 Maintenance practices

86 Adult Bird Management Lighting: birds naturally reproduce in spring, simulate spring, chickens molt (shed feathers) production increases

87 Housing for adult birds
Requirements: Heaters Radiant =heat the litter and items in the house. Not the air. More efficient Thermometers Electronically hooked to emergency back up systems. Regular mercury thermometer for back up Feeding system Always filled, but no wasteful spilling Litter Low dust, absorbent

88 Housing for adults continued …
Requirements Continued: Humidity Prevents dusty conditions, heat regulation more effective, decreases stress (too dry = stress) Watering system No spilling, sanitary!, monitored with meter Alarm systems Prevent unhealthy and stressful conditions Standby equipment Ready for power or other emergency, prevents losses (deaths)

89 Housing

90 Nutrition Management Water: MOST IMPORTANT nutrient
Birds need this to aide in digestion and temperature regulation Protein Build muscle quickly Carbohydrates and fats Energy Minerals and Vitamins proper growth and development Feed Additives: Marigold petals: provide yellow tint to chicken skin. Marketed by Perdue chicken as “healthier”. NO health benefits for yellow skinned chicken but public bought in

91 Management Continued… Vaccinations
Marek’s Disease: vaccine given in ovo Symptoms include : paralysis , blindness, gasping Infectious bronchitis: caused by a virus. Prevented through vaccination Symptoms include gasping, decreased feed intake, soft egg shells

92 Vaccination methods

93 Bio-Security Security measures taken to prevent the spread of disease

94 Vocabulary sheet Define the following words: Litter Marek’s disease
Vaccination Biosecurity Infectious Bronchitis

95 Introduction to the Poultry Industry

96 Warm Up What type of management practices do you think are used in this photo?

97 Objectives Define vertical integration.
Label major parts of the poultry industry. Summarize the main processes in poultry product production.

98 How does vertical integration help chicken producers?
Essential Question How does vertical integration help chicken producers?

99 Layer Industry Over 90% of eggs produced are by layers in cages.
The most common grouping is four hens per cage. Controversial practice because many birds become over crowded, never spread their wings, and are injured by cage or other birds

100 Layer industry -Most eggs sold in the U.S. are white.
Produced by what type of bird? -In large scale commercial operations, lighting is used to stimulate the hormonal activity of the hens to increase their production of eggs. They produce eggs naturally when the days are longer than the nights. Most operations allow hours of light per day

101 Layer Care Collect eggs 2-3 times per day (if hot)
Wash eggs immediately in warm water Sprayed with protective coding to maintain freshness Refrigerate Production Goal: 4 lbs feed / dozen eggs Hens produce 7 eggs / 10 days

102 Layer Industry -Eggs are coated with a thin coat of mineral oil to prevent carbon dioxide from escaping from within the egg. -Eggs are graded according to size and checked for cracks and interior spots by candling.

103 Broiler Care Market at 4 1/2 lbs for males, 3 1/2 lbs for females (about 8 weeks) 2.1 lbs feed / lb of gain This rate of gain can cause health issues like “flopping” Down birds fall under their own weight. Bone structure cannot keep up with weight gain of meat

104 Broiler Industry Most are white
Colored birds have pigmentation spots in their skin which is undesirable to the consumer Kept to certain age, based on weight ALL IN ALL OUT

105 All in ALL out All birds are hatched at same time
Grow together at same general rate All sent to slaughter at same time Entire house disinfected and cleaned New “generation” brought in

106 Vocabulary Sheet Define the following words: Vertical Integration

107 ACTIVITY Draw on a poster with your group a representation on vertical integration. Label each segment (grain mill, slaughter house etc)

108 Career opportunities Agronomy Sales Shift supervisor Seed Production
Grain Operations Farm Marketer Feed Mill Manager Plant Manager Waste Water Supervisor Barn Supervisor

109 That’s All Folks!!!

110 References Modern Livestock & Poultry Production 5th Edition. By James Gillespie. Oklahoma State University- Animal Science department.

111 Video Review: Chicken From Egg to Take Away
Outline the steps in chicken processing from egg to plate. Include the major processes in slaughter What is the trend in the Australian food industry? How does this mirror America? How are producers catering their products to meet consumer demand? What are consumers demanding? What is value added chicken? What are common cuts of birds? How do they guard against contamination in the slaughter house? Why is chicken good nutritionally?

112 Test Review Poultry Answer the following:
Is your vocabulary sheet completed? (First page of your packet) Use each vocabulary word in a sentence. Answer the following: List the purposes of chickens and give a breed example of each. Define each purpose. Explain vertical integration. Give an example of a company. What is the current trend in the American food industry? How is the poultry industry meeting these demands? What are common items found in an adult broiler house? What are the purposes behind these items? What are common care practices for poultry and what are the reasons for these practices?

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