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Module 5, Recitation 3 Concept Problems, Gravitational Potential Energy

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ConcepTest Runaway Truck A truck, initially at rest, rolls down a frictionless hill and attains a speed of 20 m/s at the bottom. To achieve a speed of 40 m/s at the bottom, how many times higher must the hill be? 1) half the height 2) the same height 3) 2 times the height 4) twice the height 5) four times the height

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ConcepTest Runaway Truck A truck, initially at rest, rolls down a frictionless hill and attains a speed of 20 m/s at the bottom. To achieve a speed of 40 m/s at the bottom, how many times higher must the hill be? 1) half the height 2) the same height 3) 2 times the height 4) twice the height 5) four times the height Use energy conservation: E i = PE g = mgH initial energy: E i = PE g = mgH E f = KE = 1/2 mv 2 final energy: E f = KE = 1/2 mv 2 Conservation of Energy: E i = mgH = E f = 1/2 mv 2 E i = mgH = E f = 1/2 mv 2 gH = 1/2 v 2 therefore: gH = 1/2 v 2 So if v doubles, H quadruples!

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ConcepTest Water Slide I 1) Paul 2) Kathleen 3) both the same Paul and Kathleen start from rest at the same time on frictionless water slides with different shapes. At the bottom, whose velocity is greater?

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ConcepTest Water Slide I 1) Paul 2) Kathleen 3) both the same Paul and Kathleen start from rest at the same time on frictionless water slides with different shapes. At the bottom, whose velocity is greater? Conservation of Energy: E i = mgH = E f = 1/2 mv 2 E i = mgH = E f = 1/2 mv 2 gH = 1/2 v 2 therefore: gH = 1/2 v 2 same height same velocity Since they both start from the same height, they have the same velocity at the bottom.

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ConcepTest Water Slide II Paul and Kathleen start from rest at the same time on frictionless water slides with different shapes. Who makes it to the bottom first? 1) Paul 2) Kathleen 3) both the same

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ConcepTest Water Slide II Paul and Kathleen start from rest at the same time on frictionless water slides with different shapes. Who makes it to the bottom first? Kathleen is at a lower height than Paul for most of her ride larger velocity Even though they both have the same final velocity, Kathleen is at a lower height than Paul for most of her ride. Thus she always has a larger velocity during her ride and therefore arrives earlier! 1) Paul 2) Kathleen 3) both the same

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ConcepTest Cart on a Hill A cart starting from rest rolls down a hill and at the bottom has a speed of 4 m/s. If the cart were given an initial push, so its initial speed at the top of the hill was 3 m/s, what would be its speed at the bottom? 1) 4 m/s 2) 5 m/s 3) 6 m/s 4) 7 m/s 5) 25 m/s

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ConcepTest Cart on a Hill When starting from rest, the cart’s PE is changed into KE: KE1/2 m(4) 2 PE = KE = 1/2 m(4) 2 A cart starting from rest rolls down a hill and at the bottom has a speed of 4 m/s. If the cart were given an initial push, so its initial speed at the top of the hill was 3 m/s, what would be its speed at the bottom? 1) 4 m/s 2) 5 m/s 3) 6 m/s 4) 7 m/s 5) 25 m/s When starting from 3 m/s, the final KE is: KE f KE KE f = KE i + KE ½ m(4) 2 = ½ m(3) 2 + ½ m(4) 2 ½ m(25) = ½ m(25) ½ m(5) 2 = ½ m(5) 2 Speed is not the same as kinetic energy

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Gravitational potential energy. Conservation of energy

Gravitational potential energy. Conservation of energy

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