Presentation on theme: "PART ONE THE BEGINNINGS The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Theories of Development."— Presentation transcript:
PART ONE THE BEGINNINGS The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Theories of Development Chapter 3: Heredity & Environment Chapter 4: Prenatal Development & Birth
Chapter 1– Introduction The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Defining Development The Life-Span Perspective The Scientific Method
Defining Development The science of human development… seeks to understand how and why people— all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age change over time.
The Nature-Nurture Debate Nature inherited genetically from parents Nurture environmental influences health and diet of the embryo’s mother community family society diet school
Critical and Sensitive Periods Critical Period is a time when certain things must occur for normal development. - 1957-1961 Newly pregnant women took thalidomide - Between days 28-54 Fetus develops arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes Sensitive period is when a particular development occurs most easily. - Language 1-3 years
Observing Changes Over Time Dynamic-Systems Theory A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society.
The Life-Span Perspective Human Development is: Multidirectional Multicontextual Multicultural Multidisciplinary Plastic An approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood.
The Life-Span Perspective Development is Multidirectional Contrary to traditional view development advanced until 18 then level off to 50 Some describe as age-related steps – Piaget, Erickson, Freud others such as Skinner & Maslow do not
The Life-Span Perspective Development is Multicontextual Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological-Systems Approach - Bioecological
The Life-Span Perspective Socioeconomic Context socioeconomic status (SES) A person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence.
The Life-Span Perspective Development is Multicontextual Let’s look an example of how the context in which you have developed can affect you by looking at common cohort names… Cohort – Persons born within a few years of each other. A group who travel through life together experiencing similar circumstances.
Which First Names for U.S. Girls & Boys Were Most Popular in 1922, 1952, 1982, and 2012? Year Top 5 Girls’ Names / Top 5 Boys Names ____ Mary, Dorothy, Helen, Margaret, Ruth / John, Robert, William, James, Charles ____ Sophia, Isabella, Emma, Olivia, Ava / Jacob, Mason, William, Jayden, Noah ____ Linda, Mary, Patricia, Deborah, Susan / James, Robert, John, Michael, David ____ Jennifer, Jessica, Amanda, Sarah, Melissa / Michael, Christopher, Matthew, Jason, David
Which First Names for U.S. Girls & Boys Were Most Popular in 1922, 1952, 1982, and 2012? Year Top 5 Girls’ Names / Top 5 Boys Names 1922 Mary, Dorothy, Helen, Margaret, Ruth / John, Robert, William, James, Charles 2012 Sophia, Isabella, Emma, Olivia, Ava / Jacob, Mason, William, Jayden, Noah 1952 Linda, Mary, Patricia, Deborah, Susan / James, Robert, John, Michael, David 1982 Jennifer, Jessica, Amanda, Sarah, Melissa / Michael, Christopher, Matthew, Jason, David
The Life-Span Perspective Development is Multicultural Culture a meaning and information system shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival…pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life. Ethnicity, Race, and Culture Ethnic Group share certain attributes, almost always including ancestral heritage and usually national origin Leo Vygotsky
The Life-Span Perspective Ethnicity, Race, and Culture Ethnic Group share certain attributes, almost always including ancestral heritage and usually national origin, religion, language (Hispanic, Asian American, Native American, etc…) NOT the same as cultural group Some people of a particular ethnic group may not share a culture. Some cultures are followed by people of several ethnic groups. (A person of Jewish Ethnicity does not necessarily practice Judaism or follow Jewish culture, but instead may practice Buddhism and follow Asian culture) Race A social construction wherein individuals who are labeled as being of different races on the basis of physical characteristics are treated as though they belong to biologically defined groups.
Development is Multicultural Study on the effects cultural differences Chan, Brandone, and Tardif- Participants: 49 mother/toddler pairs. 25 Middle America/ 24 Beijing, China: Comparable age/education Design: 3 10-min. play sessions. 1)mechanical toys 2)regular toys 3)reading picture book Data /Conclusions: Similarities: Influenced by context- used more verbs w/mechanical toys Differences: U.S. less commands “sit down” “listen” allowed children to add irrelevant comments China 20% more verbs than nouns Why?
Development is Multicultural Chinese Culture: Encourages people to see themselves in relation to others rather than as isolated individual See objects in context rather than detached from uses and surroundings ‘The nail that sticks up will be hammered down.” American Culture: Encourages people to see themselves as individuals See objects as detached “The squeaky wheel get the oil”
The Life-Span Perspective Development is Multidisciplinary Lifespan development involves interdisciplinary collaborations & multiple methodological approaches to understand how and why individuals change Segmented in three domains: biological, cognitive, and social Segmented age divisions childhood, adolescence, and adulthood
The Life-Span Perspective Development is Plastic Human traits can be molded, yet maintain a certain durability of identity
The Scientific Method Answering questions using empirical research and data-based conclusions Empirical Research: based on scientific observations, repeated experiences, verifiable experiments (not theoretical) Scientific Observation: recording behavior systematically and objectively
Five Basic Steps of the Scientific Method 1.Begin with curiosity. Pose a question. 2. Develop a hypothesis, a specific prediction that can be tested. 3. Test the hypothesis. Design & conduct research to gather empirical evidence (data) 4. Draw conclusion 5. Report the results. Often a sixth step is required before the scientific community accepts your results.. 6. Replication of research & results.
The Scientific Method Before the mid-1990s, Thousands of 2-4 month olds died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) each year. 1. “Begin with curiosity” – Why do so many infants die suddenly in their sleep? … cat? brain damage? covers?
The Scientific Method Scientist Susan Beal looked for factors that increased the risk of SIDS in South Australia. Babies of Chinese parents died of SIDS less often. Unlike European customs, Chinese babies slept on their backs. 2.“Develop a Hypothesis” Babies are less likely to die of SIDS when they sleep on their backs without loose blankets
The Scientific Method 3.“Test the Hypothesis” Gathered data from over 500 parents who lost babies to SIDS Convinced many parents in Australia to place babies on backs 4. “Draw Conclusions” Back-sleeping infants survive SIDS more often
The Scientific Method 5. “Report Results” 6. Replicate Results Thousands of parents in Holland placed babies on their backs to sleep… SIDS reduced by 40% in one year.
The Scientific Method Three major types of research: Scientific Observation The Experiment The Survey
The Scientific Method Scientific Observation A research method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants behavior in a systematic and objective manner – in a natural setting, in a laboratory, or searches of archival data.
The Scientific Method The Survey A research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means Considerations of researcher: Survey wording Sequence of questions Selective memory Personality differences relating to speaking with strangers People change their minds
The Scientific Method: Survey Study by Quoidbach, Gilbert, Wilson Rate how much you think you will change over the next ten years in your: Personality, Core Values, and Preferences
The Scientific Method The Experiment A research method used to determine a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables (independent and dependent) by manipulating the independent variable and then observing and recording changes this causes to the dependent variable.
The Scientific Method The Experiment Participants (Sample Size) Participants (Sample Size) Experimental Group Experimental Group Control Group Control Group Treatment: Independent Variable Treatment: Independent Variable No Treatment Significant Change Dependent Variable Significant Change Dependent Variable No Change Dependent Variable No Change Dependent Variable Predicted Outcome
Causation vs. Correlation A correlation exists between two variables if one variable is more (or less) likely to occur when the other does. Positive correlation - both variables tend to increase or decrease together. Negative correlation - one variable tends to increase while the other decreases. Zero correlation - no connection is evident. Correlation is not causation
Correlation Positive Correlation Both variable increase or decrease together
Correlation Negative Correlation One variable increases one variable decreases
Correlation Zero Correlation No connection between variables
Correlation For each pair of variable, 1. Decide whether you think there is a positive, negative, or zero correlation. 2. Try to think of third variable explaining why that correlation may/may not exist.
Correlation Two VariablesPositive/Negative/Zero Why? Correlation? (Third Variable) 1. Ice Cream Sales/ Murder Rate 2. Learning to Read/ # of Baby Teeth 3.Sex of Adult (m/f) # of Children PositiveHeat NegativeAge ZeroNone
Studying Development over the Life Span Cross-sectional Research Groups of people of one age are compared with people of another age Longitudinal Research Collecting data repeatedly on the same individuals as they age Cross-sequential Research Study several groups of people of different ages (a cross- sectional approach) and follow them over the years (a longitudinal approach).
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Quantity and Quality Quantitative research Provides data that can be expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales. Qualitative research Considers qualities instead of quantities. -Descriptions of particular conditions and participants’ expressed ideas are often part of qualitative studies.
Ethics Each academic discipline and professional society involved in the study of human development has a code of ethics. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) ensures that research follows established guidelines and remains ethical. Participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless. Research subjects must give informed consent- understand the research procedures and any risks involved.