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End of Course Exam Review Objective: Review key terms and topics in biology that students often find confusing.

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Presentation on theme: "End of Course Exam Review Objective: Review key terms and topics in biology that students often find confusing."— Presentation transcript:

1 End of Course Exam Review Objective: Review key terms and topics in biology that students often find confusing.

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6 1. Validity refers to whether or not an experiment was effectively designed to answer the research question. Robert wanted to find out if playing music helps plants grow taller. He set up two groups of plants as shown below: Is this a valid experiment? Explain why or why not. No. Group A and B plants not getting the same amount of light. Cardboard box music player window Group A Group B

7 2. Reliability refers to how to much confidence you can have that the results of an experiment are accurate. Alicia wanted to find out if playing music helps plants grow taller. She set up two plants as shown below: Repeat experiment or use more plants. Cardboard box music player Group AGroup B Light bulb What should Alicia do to make sure the results of her experiment are reliable?

8 2. Reliability refers to how to much confidence you can have that the results of an experiment are accurate. Alicia wanted to find out if playing music helps plants grow taller. He set up two plants as shown below: Cardboard box music player Group AGroup B Light bulb What should Alicia do to make sure the results of his experiment are reliable? Repeat experiment or use more plants.

9 3. Manipulated variable refers to the one thing that’s changed in an experiment. Jose wanted to find out if playing music helps plants grow taller. He set up two groups of plants as shown below: Playing of music Cardboard box music player Group AGroup B Light bulb What is the manipulated variable in this experiment?

10 4. Responding variable refers to the thing that’s measured to see how it responds to the manipulated variable. Jose wanted to find out if playing music helps plants grow taller. He set up two groups of plants as shown below: Height of plants Cardboard box music player Group AGroup B Light bulb What is the responding variable in this experiment?

11 5. Controlled variables refer to all the things that are kept the same between experimental groups to make sure that it’s a fair test, to make sure the experiment is valid. All same kind of plants. Same amount of light, same amount of water, same amount of soil. Cardboard box music player Group AGroup B Light bulb What should be the controlled variables in this experiment?

12 6. What is photosynthesis and why is it important to life on Earth? Way plants use light to make food (sugar). Plants at beginning of almost all food chains.

13 Hydrothermal vent

14 7. Identify the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis using words and/or chemical formulas Where does photosynthesis take place in plant cells? ______________________________ In the chloroplasts carbon dioxide + water + light Sugar (glucose) + oxygen

15 8. In photosynthesis, where do the carbon atoms in glucose come from? CO 2 + H 2 O + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Carbon dioxide waterlight Glucose (sugar) oxygen From carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide molecules are taken apart, and atoms rearranged to form glucose and oxygen.

16 9. What is cellular respiration and why is it important to plants and animals? Way living things break down sugar to get energy All living things get energy from sugar.

17 Describe the roles of photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and burning of fossil fuels in the cycling of carbon in nature. a.photosynthesis – b.respiration – c.decomposition – d.Burning fossil fuels– Plants take in carbon dioxide from air Animals breathe out carbon dioxide Carbon goes into ground when organisms die Puts carbon dioxide into air.

18 10. Identify the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration using words and/or chemical formulas. Where does cellular respiration take place in cells? _______________________ In the mitochondria Cell respiration produces energy by adding a 3 rd phosphate to ADP, converting it to ___________ ATP carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP) Sugar (glucose) + oxygen

19 Life builds from the bottom up. Give examples of how large complex molecules are made up of smaller, simpler ones… Starch molecules made up of sugars Protein made up of amino acids DNA made up of nucleotide bases (A,G,C,T)

20 Both forms of energy, both needed by cells. Glucose has more energy, but less usable form. ATP has less energy, but more usable form. Glucose like $100 bill -- ATP like $1 bills Glucose and ATP

21 Do plants do cellular respiration? Yes! Plants need to break down sugar for energy too!

22 Questions?

23 Video: Photosynthesis & Cell Respiration of-photosynthesis-and-food-amanda-ooten#watch

24 11. What’s the difference between osmosis and diffusion? Diffusion = movement of molecules from area of high concentration to low. Osmosis = diffusion of water across a membrane. Red food coloring diffuses through a glass of water Water moves by osmosis from left to right

25 12. How does osmosis affect movement of water in and out of cells? Water tends to move in or out of cells by osmosis in such a way as to reach equilibrium (equal concentrations inside and outside) Cells in salt water tend to become dehydrated as water moves out of cells. Cells in pure water tend to become swollen as water moves into cells. Salt water Pure water

26 Equilibrium = Everything in _________ balance

27 Equilibrium = Everything in balance What happens if there are too many frogs….?

28 Equilibrium = Everything in balance What happens if there are too many grasshoppers….?

29 Equilibrium = Everything in balance

30 Maintaining water balance Sea water Fresh water

31 Before salt waterAfter salt water Pure water Low saltwater High salt water

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33 A C B corn syrup More water diffused out of egg pure water More water diffused into egg salt water Water diffused in and out of egg equally. Which jar contains pure water? Salt water? Corn syrup?

34 13. What’s the difference between active and passive transport in cells? Passive requires no energy from cells, happens by itself. Ex: _______________________________ Active requires energy from cells. Ex: using ATP energy to move materials from area of low concentration to high. diffusion, osmosis.

35 What’s the difference between osmosis and diffusion? active and passive transport?

36 Diffusion or Osmosis? diffusion osmosis

37 High concentration Low concentration 1. Rolling ball downhill is like _________ transport. 2. Rolling ball uphill is like ____________transport. Cell membrane passive Concentration gradient

38 High concentration Low concentration 1. Rolling ball downhill is like _________ transport. 2. Rolling ball uphill is like ____________transport. Cell membrane passive Concentration gradient

39 High concentration Low concentration 1. Rolling ball downhill is like _________ transport. 2. Rolling ball uphill is like ____________transport. Cell membrane passive active Concentration gradient

40 High concentration Low concentration 1. Rolling ball downhill is like _________ transport. 2. Rolling ball uphill is like ____________transport. Cell membrane passive active Concentration gradient

41 Animations and Quiz: (diffusion, active vs. passive transport)

42 Videos Diffusion & Osmosis Active & Passive Transport

43 Questions?

44 Check for Understanding Of what’s been covered so far…. – Put a ✓ by the things you understand well. – Circle the number of items you don’t understand well. On scratch paper: Your name Tell me what topics/words you don’t understand well. Any questions you have about anything.

45 14. Explain how DNA, chromosomes, genes, ribosomes, and proteins are related to each other. DNA = molecule that holds code for making proteins. “Blueprint for life.” Chromosomes = bundles of DNA. Gene = section of DNA that holds code for a making particular protein. Ribosome = part of cell that helps assemble protein from gene code.

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47 Ribosomes join amino acids together to make protein molecules….

48 Video: DNA dna-judith-hauck#watch

49 15. How many sets of chromosomes does a typical animal cell have? 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each parent How many chromosomes does each human body cell have? _______ How many homologous pairs? __________ 46 23

50 16. What kind of cells are made in mitosis? How do daughter cells compare with the parent cells? Body cells. Daughter cells same as parent cell. Parent cell Daughter cells Mitosis = “My TOES-ees”. How you make more toe cells, body cells.

51 17. What kind of cells are made in meiosis? How do daughter cells compare with parent cells? Reproductive cells (sperm and egg). Daughter cells different from parent cells (half as many chromosomes) Parent cell Daughter cells Mei-O-sis = The way we make EGG and sperm cells. All offspring look DIFFERENT.

52 Videos: Mitosis & Meiosis Short (2 minutes) Long (7 minutes)

53 18. Why does sexual reproduction result in more genetic variation in offspring than asexual reproduction? Sexual = each offspring gets different combination of genes from 2 parents. Asexual = each offspring gets same genes from 1 parent. Same as cloning.

54 19. What is the difference between a dominant allele and a recessive one? How many recessive alleles does an organism have to have in order to show that trait? Dominant allele is stronger form of a trait, recessive weaker. Dominant overpowers recessive. Need 2 recessive alleles to show the trait.

55 20. A homozygous blue eyed man marries a heterozygous brown-eyed woman. What is the probability that their first child will have blue eyes? Use a Punnett square to explain your answer. (B = brown eyes, b = blue eyes) bb B b Bb bb 50% probability blue eyes (bb) 50% probability brown eyes (Bb)

56 21. In mice, black fur (B) is dominant over brown (b) and short tails (S) are dominant over long (s). If a mouse heterozygous both for black fur and short tail is crossed with a mouse homozygous both for black fur and long tail, what is the probability that the first offspring will have black fur and long tails? BS BsbS bs Bs BBSs BBss BbSs Bbss 50% chance of black fur, long tail BbSs x BBss F.O.I.L. (First-Outside-Inside-Last)

57 Check for Understanding Of what’s been covered so far…. – Put a ✓ by the things you understand well. – Circle the number of items you don’t understand well. On scratch paper: Your name Tell me what topics/words you don’t understand well. Any questions you have about anything.

58 Punnett Square Practice 1.http://www.biologycorner.com/bio2/genetics/notes_dihybrid.htmlhttp://www.biologycorner.com/bio2/genetics/notes_dihybrid.html 2.Punnett Square Problems worksheet (below)

59 What is evolution? How life changes over time, the way new species of living things come from previously existing ones.

60 22. How does sexual reproduction contribute to evolution by natural selection? Sexual reproduction = more variations (differences) in offspring. More variations = more chance of some offspring being better adapted for survival.

61 23. What are mutations? Changes in DNA. Caused by… – Mistakes made in copying DNA for new cells, or – Exposure to chemicals, radiation from environment.

62 24. How can mutations affect evolution of a species by natural selection? Mutations = another way we get more variations (differences ) in offspring. More variation = more chances some may be better adapted for survival than others. How did mutations in finch beaks and tortoise necks affect evolution of these animals in the Galapagos islands?

63 25. What’s the difference between inherited and acquired characteristics? Give an example of each. Inherited characteristics passed from parents to offspring by DNA. Ex: hair color, eye color. Acquired characteristics are not. Ex: getting big muscles from exercising, losing leg in accident.

64 26. How does evolution by natural selection explain why giraffes have long necks? Long ago, giraffe ancestors had shorter necks. Giraffes born with longer necks better able to survive, so reproduced and passed trait to offspring. Short neck giraffes didn’t survive and died out. Misconception: Giraffes used to have short necks. They made their necks get longer by stretching, passed trait to offspring.

65 Video: Evolution & Natural Selection

66 27. Constraints = Things that limit how much you can do in an experiment. Suppose you wanted to find out how many bald eagles in live in Washington state. Describe two constraints, other than cost, that scientists could encounter while trying to solve this problem. In your description be sure to: - Identify two constraints other than cost. - Describe how each constraint is a limitation on the solution. Eagles always moving around. Hard to count if they don’t stay in one place. Big area to cover. Hard to find them in forests, mountains, etc.

67 When eradicating invasive species threatens endangered species recovery San Francisco Bay bird threatened both by removal and existence of salt marsh cordgrass Efforts to eradicate invasive species increasingly occur side by side with programs focused on recovery of endangered ones. But what should resource managers do when the eradication of an invasive species threatens an endangered species? The scientists combined biological and economic data for Spartina and the Clapper Rail to develop a modeling framework to balance conflicting management goals, including endangered species recovery and invasive species removal, given budgetary constraints.

68 28. Nitrogen makes up 78% of atmosphere, and living things need it to make proteins. But atmospheric nitrogen has to be changed into a different forms for living things to use it for making proteins. How do plants and animals get nitrogen in a form they can use? N in air taken in by bacteria in soil, changed to form plants can take in through roots. Animals get nitrogen from eating plants, other animals Peanuts are high in protein because the roots of the peanut plant contain bacteria that can “fix” nitrogen for making protein. N2N2 NO 2 NO 3

69 Red Alder Which Naturescape tree is able to “fix” nitrogen?

70 Use the space below to draw a simplified diagram of the nitrogen cycle. Be sure to identify and explain the following: nitrogen fixation, decomposition, excretion, uptake by producers, reuse by consumers, and denitrification. N 2 in Atmosphere Nitrogen fixation (bacteria) Uptake by producers Decomposition, Excretion (dying and defecating) Denitrification (bacteria) Reuse by consumers (eating)

71 29. How is energy transformed and transferred in the ecosystem shown? Light energy transformed to chemical energy (sugar) during photosynthesis by plants. Transform = change form Chemical energy transferred when animals eat plants or other animals. Transfer = same form, moving from one thing to another.

72 How are renewable resources different from non-renewable ones? Give examples of each. Renewable ones are unlimited in supply, non-renewable ones are limited. Renewable: solar power, wind power, trees. Non-renewable: fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas)

73 What is sustainable development and why is it important? Give an example. Way of using natural resources so they don’t run out. More solar power, less fossil fuels. When cutting forests, leave enough for animals.

74 What are invasive species and how do they disturb the equilibrium (balance) of an ecosystem? Animals/plants that came from somewhere else. They tend to take over, crowd out native species. This throws food webs out of balance. What would happen to the food web if all the flowers were crowded out by blackberry bushes? X X X X X X X X X

75 30. Unintended consequences = things that happen that were not intended, usually not good. Describe two unintended consequences that could result from adding plants to your garden that are new to the Pacific NW, and explain how the unintended consequences could affect other plants and animals here. Might escape from your garden. Could end up crowding out other plants. Could be poisonous to animals. This would kill them, disrupt food web.

76 What has been an unintended consequence of people using antibacterial soaps and house cleaners? By overusing them, we are leaving the naturally resistant ones to survive and reproduce.

77 If a doctor prescribes antibiotics when you get sick, why is it important for you to take all the pills, even if you get better halfway through? If you don’t take them all, you’ll leave behind the ones that are already resistant to the antibiotic. They’ll reproduce, meaning the antibiotic won’t work next time.

78 Check for Understanding Of what’s been covered so far…. – Put a ✓ by the things you understand well. – Circle the number of items you don’t understand well. On scratch paper: Your name Tell me what topics/words you don’t understand well. Any questions you have about anything.

79 That’s it! 3 Test Taking Tips: 1.Skip hard ones, come back to them later 2.READ & FOLLOW DIRECTIONS! 3.Check answers when done. Did you include everything asked for in answers? More EOC Review stuff on class website….

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82 Still Unclear….? Punnett Squares (dihybrid cross) Osmosis & diffusion Active & passive transport Cell respiration & photosynthesis DNA, chromosomes, genes, & proteins Meiosis & mitosis Energy transformation and transferral Constraints Unintended consequences Nitrogen cycle


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