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Topic 1: What is Ecology? Defined: Studying how life interacts within the biosphere is called Ecology All life interacts within the biosphere Area within.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 1: What is Ecology? Defined: Studying how life interacts within the biosphere is called Ecology All life interacts within the biosphere Area within."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topic 1: What is Ecology? Defined: Studying how life interacts within the biosphere is called Ecology All life interacts within the biosphere Area within the deepest ocean trenches to the highest mountains

2 Populations Defined: Group of one species living in the same area
Click on information box Defined: Group of one species living in the same area Population changes based on: Births, Deaths, Immigration, Emigration, Available resources

3 Limiting Factors Defined: Factors that control population sizes
Disease, food, predators, climate, space, mates Carrying Capacity: greatest number of individuals that a population can sustain What stage is the human population in?

4 Communities Defined: Populations of many species living in the same area at the same time Each organism has it own HABITAT Habitat: Place where an organism lives Each species has its own NICHE Niche: The role/needs of a species Ex: Termites return nutrients to the soil

5 Desert Communities have many species

6 Ecosystems Defined: Community of species interacting with the living & non-living Desert Biotic Factors: Animals: Mice, Reptiles, Insects Plants: Cactus, Flowers, Shrubs Desert Abiotic Factors: Sand, rocks, sunlight Ecosystem changes affect biodiversity Keystone species greatly alter ecosystems

7 (biotic + abiotic factors)
Desert Ecosystems (biotic + abiotic factors)

8 What is a Biome? Defined: Large area with distinct climate, plant, and animal life Climate factors: sun, rain, topography Climate determines life

9 Part 2: Ecosystem Components
Producers Basis of an ecosystem’s energy Autotrophs: perform photosynthesis to make sugars Chemotrophs: Bacteria which use minerals from deep-sea vents to make energy Consumers Heterotrophs: Consumes others for energy Omnivores, herbivores, carnivores, decomposers

10 4.5897 kcal 45.897 kcal 458.97 kcal 4589.7 kcal 45,897 kcal
Trophic Levels kcal kcal Defined: Feeding level of an ecosystem Trophic levels consist of producers, consumers, and decomposers ~10% of energy is passed to the next level Few trophic levels kcal kcal 45,897 kcal

11 Defined: Organisms that create their energy through photosynthesis
AKA: Autotrophs Convert sunlight into glucose (sugar) Bottom of food chain (1st trophic level) Ex: Plants, Algae, Cyanobacteria Producers

12 Consumers Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers
Feed directly on producers Herbivores Secondary Consumers Feed on primary consumers Carnivores & omnivores Tertiary Consumers Feed on secondary consumers Quaternary Consumers Feed on tertiary consumers

13 Decomposers Decomposers: break down dead matter into simpler substances Returns nutrients to the soil Feed on any trophic level

14 Name the tropic levels in this food pyramid
tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer producer

15 Food Webs Defined: Group of interrelated food chains Arrows show direction energy (nutrients) travel

16 Tertiary consumer Secondary consumer Primary consumer producer

17 Quaternary consumer Tertiary consumer Secondary consumer Primary consumer producer

18 Topic 3: Succession

19 Primary Succession Defined: Establishment and development of an ecosystem in an uninhabited environment Volcanic lava creates new land Glaciers retreating exposing new land

20 Bare Rock Lava cools and hardens into rock

21 Pioneer Species Defined: First organisms to inhabit new land
Moss and lichen grow on bare rock Dead matter accumulates with rock pieces Thin soil layer begins to accumulate

22 The Process Continues Seeds enter the area and grow
Small flowers & shrubs accumulate more organic matter With new plants, small animals inhabit the area

23 The Process Continues Small trees take root in the accumulated organic matter More animals use the trees as a habitat

24 Climax Community Large trees take root New animals inhabit new forests
Overcrowd and out-compete original trees New animals inhabit new forests


26 Secondary Succession Changes that take place after a disturbance occurs in an established ecosystem Forest fires, floods, tree falls… Faster scale (soil preexists)






32 Topic 4: Biogeochemical Cycles

33 Oxygen Cycle Autotrophs: Release O2 into atmosphere via photosynthesis
All life: Absorbs O2 to be used during cellular respiration Respiration: creates ATP energy for cells

34 Carbon Cycle CO2 CO2 sugars Carbon = (organic molecules) carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids Plants & autotrophs: Intake: Absorb CO2 from atmosphere Output: Create carbohydrates by photosynthesis

35 Carbon Cycle Consumers
sugars Consumers Intake: Carbon moves up the food chain as 1 feeds on another Output: Release CO2 during respiration

36 Carbon Cycle Decomposers Input: Feed on dead organic matter
sugars C C C Decomposers Input: Feed on dead organic matter Output: Release CO2 during respiration Output: Organic molecules returned to soil during decomposition

37 Carbon Cycle Human Industry
CO2 Human Industry Output: Release CO2 into atmosphere when fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) are burned

38 Nitrogen Cycle N = 78% atmosphere (most unusable) Soil Bacteria
Ammonia Nitrates N = 78% atmosphere (most unusable) Soil Bacteria Nitrogen fixation: convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia Nitrification: ammonia converted into nitrates

39 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrates Plants Absorb nitrates through their roots

40 Nitrogen Cycle Animals
Nitrates Animals Ingest nitrates through the food chain (plants eaten)

41 Nitrogen Cycle Decomposers Feed on dead organisms
Nitrates Nitrates Ammonia Ammonia Ammonia Decomposers Feed on dead organisms Return ammonia to soil by feeding on dead matter

42 Phosphorus (P) Cycle No phosphorus in atmosphere Rocks
Phosphorus released by weathering of rocks P P

43 Phosphorus (P) Cycle Plants Absorb P into their roots P

44 Phosphorus (P) Cycle Animals Ingest P when plants eaten
P continues to move up food chain P

45 Phosphorus (P) Cycle Decomposers
Breakdown dead matter and release P into soil P P

46 Phosphorus (P) Cycle Human Contribution P P P P
Adding excess P from fertilizers P washes into lakes, etc… Excess P causes extreme algae growth P P

47 Topic 5: Community Interactions
when organisms live together in an ecological community they interact constantly. Three types of interactions Competition Predation Symbiosis

48 Competition occurs due to limited resources
water, nutrients, light, food. Competitive exclusion principle - no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time

49 Competition

50 Predation Predation- when an organism captures and feeds on another organism. Predator- hunter Prey- hunted


52 Symbiosis Symbiosis- any relationship where two species live closely together. (3 types) Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism

53 Symbiosis Mutualism - both species benefit from a relationship
Flower: gets pollinated Moth: gets nectar

54 Mutualism example: Cleaner birds and Crocodiles

55 Symbiosis Commensalism – One member of a symbiotic relationship benefits and the other is neither helped or harmed Anemone: gains nothing Fish: protection

56 Symbiosis Parasitism- One creature benefits and one creature is harmed
Insect larvae will feed on the caterpillar

57 Topic 6: Environmental Issues

58 Ozone Layer Depletion Ozone Function: Block UV radiation from sun
Problems: CFCs thinning the ozone layer More UV radiation reaches the surface Effects: Crop damage, skin cancers, Eye damage Solution: Reduce CFCs, regrow trees UV UV Ozone layer Ozone layer CFCs

59 The Greenhouse Effect G.H.E. is naturally good (it warms Earth)
Problem: Excess heat trapped near the earth’s surface Fear: Climate patterns change, ice caps melt Main Cause: CO2 from burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) Solutions: Reduce use of fossil fuels, regrow trees, alternative energy sources

60 What’s in a name? The purpose of a greenhouse is to trap heat year round

61 Earth Some heat escapes into space heat
Some heat naturally trapped by Earth’s atmosphere heat heat Earth

62 Earth

63 Earth Less heat escapes into space
More heat trapped near Earth’s surface Excess CO2 in atmosphere Earth

64 The Greenhouse Effect is naturally GOOD!
Mars: No Greenhouse Effect Earth: Balanced Greenhouse Effect Venus: The Extreme Greenhouse Effect Little heat is trapped by the thin CO2 atmosphere. High temperatures can be around 20⁰F. Heat is trapped by the thick CO2 atmosphere. Temperatures reach 750⁰F. Average global temperature is 57⁰F.

65 Deforestation Defined: Clearing of forested areas Reasons: Problems:
High demand for wood products Create farmland Problems: Species lost Excess CO2 released Solutions: Recycle Improved farming techniques



68 The Smog and Ground-Level Ozone
Reason: Burning of fossil fuels & industry Problems: Respiratory illness Ozone gas is poisonous Causes: Particulates rise into air and react with sunlight to make air pollution Solutions: Reduce use of fossil fuels alternative energy sources Plant trees

69 Non-native Species Introduction
Defined: Foreign organisms are introduced to a new habitat Reason: Pet industry, “free ride” organisms, pest control Effects: Foreign species outcompete native species Food webs unbalanced Economic damage Solutions: Laws preventing foreign goods into new countries Introduce predators Zebra mussels Kudzu vines

70 Acid Rain Defined: Precipitation with a below normal pH Cause:
Fossil fuel pollution rises into the air & then falls as rain Effect: Waterways more acidic Kills plant and animal life Solutions: Reduce fossil fuel usage Add buffer (base) to waterways

71 The Big Problem: Overpopulation
Over 6.7 billion people Many natural resources are nonrenewable Fossil fuels take millions of years to form More people means: 1) More forests removed 2) More resources consumed 3) More CO2 released


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