Presentation on theme: "Welcome!. Just Bugging Me! June 11, 2013 Dan Marzu, Agricultural Development Educator Kaitlyn Lance, Summer Horticulture Intern Educator Lincoln County."— Presentation transcript:
Just Bugging Me! June 11, 2013 Dan Marzu, Agricultural Development Educator Kaitlyn Lance, Summer Horticulture Intern Educator Lincoln County UW-Extension
( What to look for and how to control/prevent them) Animal and Insect Pests
Animals to Look out for Squirrels and Chipmunks – They are fast learners and usually find what they are after – Switch up tactics, try putting baffles on fruit tree trunks and bird feeder poles.
Rabbits Three ways of protecting and controlling rabbits – Targeted Coverage Cover or wrap important plants with garden fabric Use fencing or chicken wire to encircle the plants Protect trees and other landscape plants in winter by loosely wrapping ¾” mesh fencing about a foot above the snow line and a few inches below soil surface. – Repellents Are similar to deer repellants, you can buy commercial ones they are most useful though when applying to trees and other woody ornamental plants – Fencing This is the best way of controlling rabbits Make sure fence is partially in the grown this discourages burrowing.
Raccoons store food and water supplies in the house, that includes pet food as well. Repellants such as, blood meal, ammonia, moth balls can work to drive them off. Sounds and lights can be a useful tool but you should look into neighborhood and town’s regulations. Fences are effective as well If too much trouble trap and have DNR relocate it
Birds Scare devices – Can be visual : Scare balloons that look like predators eyes, aluminum foil – Can be auditory : noisemakers, banging pots and pans etc. Exclusion – Bird netting protects fruit and berries 2-3 weeks before fruit matures.
Deer By planting pungent smelling/flavored plants and plants with hairy or furry leaves near where the deer are coming from will protect more desirable plants. Repellants such as bars of soap, bags of human or dog hair, or there are commercial deer repellants available in stores. ( have to keep reapplying) Fencing is most reliable
Bears The best way to control bears is to prevent bears from wanting to wander in – Feed birds only when bears are hibernating (December-March) – Clean up all food scraps after picnics and outdoor parties -Keep chickens in a secure building at night Bears are attracted to smells, so keep food and garbage inside safe places
Insects to watch out for in 2013 Variegated cutworm – A climbing cutworm – Effects tomatoes, soybeans, alfalfa, potato – Hostas, petunias, and lots of other plants
Potato Leafhopper Likes legumes-Lupine, Dahlia, as well as potato, strawberries, and alfalfa Can create poor flower show in some marigolds Damage it does is stunts the growth, browns leaves, and reduces vigor of the plant. Symptoms include: brown triangular lesion on leaflet tips, this spreads and eventually destroys the leaf. Photo’s curtsey of University of Wisconsin Garden Facts
Aster Leafhopper Carries Aster yellow disease Goes after broad range of plants- vegetables, crops, flowers, and weeds. Aster yellow destroys the visual appeal of plants and their economic value Plants infected by aster yellow show signs of chlorosis and become stunted and twisted. The leafhopper when it feeds causes leaves to look wilted and mottled.
Spider mites Effect: Pines, Spruce, Soybeans and some ornamentals. Occur during abnormally dry to drought conditions – Drought of 2012 Have needle-like mouthparts that extract contents of living cells. Damage it does to plant: Chlorosis and wilting of leaves. Can eventually lead to death of plant.
Japanese Beetle They become active at the end of June-September 1 The grubs can be lawn/turf pests They feed on over 300 species of plants – from roses to raspberries. Damage usually appears in later summer and fall. Turf will appear droughty and will not respond to watering because of lack of roots. Control- Hand picking, chemical control, organic sprays, systemic chemicals
Spotted Winged Drosophila Increasing problem Attack healthy fruit by being able to lay their eggs Cause severe damage to fruit crops – Fruit starts to deteriorate and eventually leads to the fruit collapse They like soft skinned fruit such as raspberries, blueberries, strawberries, etc. Control: Use traps to monitor and use insecticide when fruit is most susceptible.
Borers Effect Oaks, Hickory, Pines, Cedars, Birch and Ash Emerald Ash Borer – Has been an issue since 2002 – Detection of damage from Emerald Ash Borer is difficult until there is crown die back. Evidence of infestation includes D-shaped exit holes on branches and the trunk. Callus tissue produced by the tree in response to larval feeding may cause vertical splits 5–10 cm in length to occur in the bark
Ants Control – Find the nest- to kill the queen – Need to know what type of ant – Baiting can work if they take it Different Ants cause different damage – Household Ants Some can infest food, but generally are just a nuisance – Carpenter Ants Weaken wood in the home’s structures – Field Ants The mounds they make in fields are unsightly and will prevent turf grass from growing in some areas. Some species can kill herbaceous and woody plants that shade their mounds.
Sources LaLiberte, Kathy. "Keeping Animal Pests Out of Your Garden." Gardeners Supply. Gardner’s Supply Company, n.d. Web. 06 June Google Images "Deer Control in Gardens." West Virginia Ag Extension. West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Mar Web. 07 June Rither, Skip. "Raccoons." University of Minnesota Extension. University of Minnesota, Web. 07 June Craven, Scott. "Controlling Woodpecker Damage." UW Extension. UW Extension, n.d. Web. 7 June Salmon, T. P., and W. P. Gorenzel. "How to Manage Pests." Rabbits Management Guidelines--UC IPM. UC Statewide IPM Program University of California, n.d. Web. 07 June Frogge, Mary Jane. "University of Nebraska–Lincoln." Plants Deer Will Not Eat. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, n.d. Web. 07 June Cullen, Eileen M. "Spider Mites: A to Z." The University of Wisconsin Madison. The University of Wisconsin Madison, Jan Web. 7 June "Spotted Wing Drosophila." Spotted Wing Drosophila. University of Wisconsin Madison, n.d. Web. 07 June
Dr. Brian Hudelson’s, UW Plant Pathology, Top Ten Diseases to Watch for in 2013
#1 Drought Stress Cause: Insufficient rain Hosts: Anything & Everything Management – Water adequately 1 inch per week New tree transplant need 2 inches per week for 3 years – Mulch appropriately
Drought Stress or Something Else? This is actually salt injury For more information go to:
#2 Impatiens Downy Mildew Cause: Fungus (Plasmopara obducens) Hosts: – Standard garden impatiens (I. walleriana) – Balsam impatiens (I. balsamina) – Jewelweed (I. pallida, I. capensis) – New Guinea impatiens (I. hawkeri) Said to be resistant/tolerant to downy mildew
#2 Impatiens Downy Mildew Favorable Environment – Cool conditions (59-73˚ F) – Long leaf wetness periods (> 6 hrs) – High humidity
#2 Impatiens Downy Mildew Sporulation on the bottom of the leaf Usually shows up 4-5 days
#2 Impatiens Downy Mildew Control – Use a variety of ornamentals – Use New Guinea impatiens & hybrid varieties – Inspect garden & balsam impatiens carefully – DO NOT plant impatiens right away – Keep plants from different sources physically separated – ROTATE, ROTATE, ROTATE
#2 Impatiens Downy Mildew Control – Work in potentially contaminated beds last Some downy mildews can last up to 40 years in the soil – Disinfect tools and other gardening items Commercial disinfectants 10% bleach solution 70% alcohol – DO NOT overcrowd plants Reduces humidity
#2 Impatiens Downy Mildew Control – DO NOT overhead water Limit leaf wetness periods – Scout frequently – Obtain proper confirmation of the disease This year only Impatiens Downy Mildew test is free – Bag and discard affected plants Symptomatic plants Asymptomatic surrounding plants (3 foot radius)
#3 Aster Yellows Cause: Aster yellows phytoplasma (bacteria) Hosts – Many plants in the Asteraceae family i.e. Marigold, Chrysanthemum, Calendula, and Zinnia – Many other plants in other plant families – Vegetables: carrots, potatoes Environmental trigger – High aster leafhopper populations
#3 Aster Yellows Control – Remove infected plants Can compost – Control leafhopper population??
#4 Tar Spot Control – DO NOT panic – Remove diseased leaves Burn or compost (heating to 140˚ or more) Be sure to remove diseased leaves in the Fall – Can use copper containing fungicides
#5 Oak Wilt Cause: Ceratocystis fagacearum (Chaplara sp.) Hosts – About 20 species of oak – Black/red oak group: northern red, northern pin, black – White oak group: white, bur, swamp white – Chinese chestnut Environmental trigger: Cool, wet conditions
#5 Oak Wilt Hard to identify by looking at the symptoms Need to send in a sample to UW Pathology Laboratory to have the disease identified correctly
#5 Oak Wilt Transmission – Oak bark beetles Pseudoptiyophthorus spp. – Sap beetles Caropophilus sppr. Colopterus spp. Cryptarcha spp. Epuraea spp. Clinchrochilus spp.
#5 Oak Wilt Transmission – Root grafts Major method of movement in clumps of oaks Can form between trees in the same subgenus – Black/red oak group – White oak group Movement of up to feet/year
#5 Oak Wilt Control – DO NOT prune or wound oaks from bud break to 2-3 weeks past full leaf development – Disrupt root grafts Mechanically (vibratory plow or trenching machine) Chemically (soil fumigants) Physical barriers – Remove diseased (and healthy) trees
#5 Oak Wilt Control – Be careful using oak wood Remove bark so fungus can’t survive Cover wood with thick tarp, burying edges – Use fungicide injection Propiconazole Preventative or therapeutic Every months
#5 Oak Wilt Additional Resources UW-Extension Oak Wilt Publication Wisconsin DNR Oak Wilt Website
#6 Diplodia (Sphaeropsis) Tip Blight Pathogen: Diplodia pinea or Sphaeropsis sapinea Major Hosts: – Pines: Austrian – Other pines: red, jack, Scots, mugo Minor Hosts: – Other conifers: cedars, cypresses, firs, spruces, junipers, yews
#6 Diplodia (Sphaeropsis) Tip Blight Favorable environment – Drought – Long periods of needle wetness
#6 Diplodia (Sphaeropsis) Tip Blight Control – DO NOT plant Austrian pines – Prevent tree stress, particularly water stress – Thin branches to increase airflow – Prune diseased branches – Remove infected cones – Contact professional arborist to apply fungicide
#7 Rhizosphaera Needle Cast Pathogen: Rhizospheara kalkhoffii, Rhizasphaera spp. Major Hosts: – Colorado blue spruce – Other spruces: Engelmann, black, Serbian, Sitka Minor Hosts: – Pines: Austrian, mugo, eastern white pine – Douglas fir, Balsam fir, and other firs – Hemlock
#7 Rhizosphaera Needle Cast Environmental triggers – Long periods of needle wetness – High humidity
#7 Rhizosphaera Needle Cast Control – DO NOT plant Colorado blue spruce – Alternatively, plant dwarf varieties – DO NOT crowd trees when planting – Thin healthy branches to increase airflow – Prevent tree stress – Prune diseased branches – Can use copper, chlorothanlonil fungicides
#8 Viral Diseases Control – Avoid pathogens Buy plants/seeds from a reputable source Inspect plants prior to purchase for presence of disease Have plants tested for viruses prior to purchase (Agdia, Inc., DO NOT smoke around your plants Control vectors (insects) Remove or isolate infected plants/plant debris Remove potential weed hosts
#8 Viral Diseases Control – Sanitation Disinfect tools – Sodium dodecyl sulfate (sodium lauryl sulfate) + Alconox® (1% + 1%) – Carnation® nonfat, dry milk + polysorbate 20 (20% + 0.1%) – Alcohol dip followed by flaming Clean benches and pots adequately Decontaminate recycled water Wash hands, particularly if you smoke
#8 Viral Diseases TRVINSV
#9 Boxwood Dieback No need to worry about this since it is a zone 5-8 plant
#10 Thousand Cankers Disease This disease that infects black walnut trees has not been found in Wisconsin, however the DNR and the UW are watching this disease
#10 Thousand Cankers Disease Cause: Geosmithia morbida Hosts – Black walnut – Arizone walnut – California walnut – English walnut Transmission: Walnut twig beetle
#10 Thousand Cankers Disease Control – DO NOT transport walnut wood/products from areas known to have the disease – Remove and destroy affected trees – No effective insecticide strategies know – Contact the UW-Extension office if you believe you have found this disease!
#10 Thousand Cankers Disease Additional information Wisconsin DNR Thousand Cankers Disease More Material Coming from PDDC in the Future
2013 Weather – GDU’s Wisconsin State Climatology Office,
2013 Weather - Precipitation Wisconsin State Climatology Office,
2013 Weather and Predictions Dr. Mark Renz, UW Weed Scientist Don’t forget about the drought from 2012 – Early growth and dominance of weeds Especially drought tolerant weeds (e.g. field bindweed) – Poor growth of turf, perennials, if not watered How will past and current weather impact weed populations? – Established perennials will likely expand – More annuals in areas with limited competition
Based on germination/emergence Three weeks later than average What does that mean? – Early weeds often are the dominate plants i.e. quackgrass
Weed Control Need to identify them – Need to know how they reproduce
Weed Prevention Use of weed free inputs: – Hay and straw – Free gravel, fill, top soil – Compost Keep adjacent areas weed free
Weed Management Increase beneficial plant competition Physical management (e.g. mowing) Prevention Burning Biological control Chemical – This includes “home” remedies Techniques may be species specific
“Home” Remedies Vinegar – Oregon Department of Agriculture Fact Sheet for Vinegar/Acetic Acid Recommendations Reported finding from the USDA-ARS study on using vinegar Need high concentrations of acetic acid to have % control of annual weeds (grasses) Perennial weeds showed 100% shoot burndown but the roots were not controlled – There are a couple EPA registered products that contain acetic acid for weed control, however, was not able to find them registered with the State of Wisconsin
“Home” Remedy Precautions Be very cautious of spraying “home” remedy solutions These have not been tested by university or other governmental agencies to be deemed safe If in doubt search product ingredients with “edu” this should provide any research based information on the solution in question
Invasive Plants Non-native plant that has become established and has replaced the native vegetation – Invasive Plant Association of Wisconsin
Invasive Species Over 100 plants that the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources considers invasive on land, water, and wetlands
Invasive Species Prohibited species: are not currently found in Wisconsin, with the exception of small pioneer stands. They may not be transported, possessed, transferred (including sale), or introduced. The goal is to contain species wherever they may be found in the state. Restricted species: are already established in the state. They may not be transported, transferred (including sale), or introduced. If they are already on your property, you are encouraged, but not required, to remove them. – NR40 Invasive Species Identification, Classification, and Control Rule
Invasive Plants Videos & factsheets can be found at: Factsheets can also be found at:
What’s on the Factsheets? Detailed control information that emphasizes: – Timing(s) to conduct method – Effectiveness in season and 1 year after – Caution/remarks on use Goal: provide enough information to allow users to conduct management Warning: it contains management methods for novices and professionals