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Cooking In Fat Moist Heat Dry Heat Microwave COOKING METHODS.

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Presentation on theme: "Cooking In Fat Moist Heat Dry Heat Microwave COOKING METHODS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cooking In Fat Moist Heat Dry Heat Microwave COOKING METHODS

2  Foods are cooked by transferring heat.  There are 3 main ways to transfer heat. Convection- using air or liquid Conduction- using direct contact Radiation- radiant heat flows evenly COOKING FOODS

3  Density- foods weight compared to size {density lows heat transfer}  Shape & Size- The more surface area that is exposed, the more evenly the food is cooked  Amount- The more in a pot, the longer it will take for food to cook RATE OF COOKING FOOD


5  Involves cooking food uncovered with out liquids or fat.  Dry heat methods of cooking include roasting, baking, broiling, & grilling. DRY HEAT COOKING


7  Frying- can be called pan frying, cooking in a small amount of hot fat in a skillet.  Sautéing- cooks quickly in a small amount of fat without burning. The cook “jumps” the pan or gently shakes it. Method is only used with small pieces of meat and vegetables. FRYING & SAUTÉING

8  Food cooks in a skillet with out added fat. The foods cook in the fat that is rendered when heat is added.  Pan broiling is used to sear meats.  Searing- is browning meats to seal in juices & flavors over high heat.  Usually searing is completed before its cooked in moist heat. PAN-BROILING

9  Small pieces of foods are tossed quickly over high heat or flame with very little fat until tender  The technique is completed in a WOK STIR-FRYING

10  Foods are cooked by completely immersion in hot fat  Cooking temps should be at least 350 degrees F.  Foods are placed in a deep pot, kettle, or electric fryer  If cooking temps are too low, the food will soak up grease and if it is too high, the food burns on the outside and is still raw on the inside. DEEP- FAT FRYING

11  Bring oil to temperature  Season bread or batter foods  Add foods to hot fat  After food is fully cooked (floats) remove from the kettle  Place on paper towel to drain excess grease STEPS TO DEEP-FAT FRYING

12  Never pierce the foods because its juices will cause the oil temp to lower.  Never over crowd the kettle or pot, it will lower the oil temp. KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER WHEN FRYING

13  Smoke Point- temperature at which an oil or fat can be heated before it smokes.  The higher the smoke point the higher the temperature.  Most vegetable based oils have a higher smoke point.  Smoke points do not remain constant. The longer they are heated or contaminated the lower the smoke point becomes  Lighter the color of the oil, the higher the smoke point SMOKE POINT

14 FatTemperature Lard375 Olive Oil325-375 Corn Oil400-450 Canola Oil425-475 Soybean Oil450-475 Vegetable325 Butter350 SMOKE POINTS

15  Over time they become Rancid.  Rancid-process of fat molecules breaking down as a result of heat, air, and light exposure  Oil looses healthy properties  Consuming rancid oils will make you sick just as eating rotten meat would WILL OILS SPOIL?


17  Food is cooked in hot liquid or steam.  Steam & liquid could be combined when cooking this would be conduction & convection MOIST-HEAT COOKING

18  Helps tenderize food  Blends flavors  Only way to prepare foods that require the absorption of liquids to become edible. PURPOSE OF MOIST HEAT COOKING

19  Boiling- a liquid reaches the highest temp. possible under normal conditions.  Water boils at 212 degrees F.  May result in a loss of nutrients. Water soluble vitamins dissolve in liquids EXAMPLES TECHNIQUES THAT REQUIRE LIQUID

20  Simmering- cook foods in a liquid just below the boiling point  Gentler than boiling and preserve's shape, texture, color, & flavor.  Poaching- cooking large pieces of food just below simmering. Seasons are often added to the liquid for extra flavor  Steaming- cooking food over. Food is placed in basket and basket is placed in a pot with water. EXAMPLES TECHNIQUES THAT REQUIRE LIQUID

21  Pressure cooking- creates a high pressure atmosphere while trapping steam in an air tight chamber. Pressure raises the boiling point and allows food to cook in half the time.  Braising- large pieces of untender meats are placed in a large pot with liquid. A lid is placed on the pot to trap the steam. Braising can be completed on the stove or in the oven. Meat should always be browned before braising. EXAMPLES TECHNIQUES THAT REQUIRE LIQUID

22  Stewing-cover small pieces of meat in liquid & a lid. The contents should simmer slowly. EXAMPLES TECHNIQUES THAT REQUIRE LIQUID


24 TYPES OF CANDY  Crystalline- contain sugar crystals. These are usually smooth and creamy. Ex. Fudge  Non-Crystalline- do not contain sugar crystals. These are usually brittle, chewy, caramels.

25 PROCESS OF MAKING CANDY  All candies begin with sugar syrup.  A sugar syrup is a mixture of sugar and liquid that are cooked to form a thick liquid.  Never double or half recipes. This will effect the quality of the recipe. If you need more, make another batch.

26 COOKING TIPS  Butter the sides of the sauce pan.  Dissolve the sugar completely.  Use a candy thermometer.

27 NameTemp DescriptionUsage Thread223-235* F The syrup drips from a spoon, forms thin threads in water GlacéGlacé and candied fruitscandied fruits Soft ball235-245* F The syrup easily forms a ball while in the cold water, but flattens once removed FudgeFudge and fondantfondant Firm ball245-250* F The syrup is formed into a stable ball, but loses its round shape once pressed Caramel candies Hard ball250-266* F The syrup holds its ball shape, but remains sticky DivinityDivinity and marshmallows marshmallows Soft crack270-290* F The syrup will form firm but pliable threads NougatNougat and taffy. Hard crack300-310* F The syrup will crack if you try to mold it Brittles and lollipopslollipops Caramel320-350* F The sugar syrup will turn golden at this stage Pralines

28  If you don’t have a candy thermometer, use the cold-water method.  During the cooking stage, remove your pan from the heat and drop a small spoonful of sugar syrup into a bowl of very cold water.  Place your hand in the cold water  Try to form the sugar into a ball  Bring it out of the water  Examining the shape and texture of the candy COLD WATER TEMPERATURE TESTING

29  Sugar burns are can be really bad  Hot sugar is almost impossible to quick rub or rinse off the skin  Skin continues burning because the sugar is still there  PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT YOU ARE DOING! CAUTION!


31  High voltage is converted to waves of electromagnetic energy.  Frequency is in a band of radio waves.  Microwaves make water molecules in food vibrate and wiggle. The vibration produces heat.  Dense foods are cooked by the conduction of heat. HOW DOES THE MICROWAVE COOK FOODS?

32 Microwave Time  Actual time the food cooks with microwaves  Food may be slightly undercooked but will continue cooking using built up heat. Standing Time  Food continues to cook outside of the microwave because molecules continue to vibrate until they lose energy and the food cools COOKING TIMES

33  Foods with water cook quicker (fruits, vegetables)  Foods high in fat content and sugar cook quicker (desserts) RATE OF COOKING

34  Glass  China  Pottery  paper  Microwaves pass through these materials to heat only the food.  Use shallow pans that are round  Rectangle pans overcook in the sides MICROWAVE COOKWARE

35 Food Placement  Place food around the edges of the microwave. (food in the middle cooks slower)  Use a ring to create a circle  Arrange food to allow as much of the microwaves to flow as possible. Covering Foods  Covering foods helps retain moisture  Paper towels- absorb moisture & keeps breads from becoming soggy  Parchment & wax paper- retain heat, frozen meals, prevents splash  Plastic wrap- best for retaining moisture, used for foods that may dry out TECHNIQUES FOR MICROWAVING

36  Stir- half way through the cooking process  Rotate- have turntables that help rotate foods  Turn- dense foods over with tongs TECHNIQUES FOR MICROWAVING

37  Never try to repair your own microwave  Remove all wire twist ties  Never place aluminum pans or foil in the microwave  Always use microwave safe containers/pans in the microwave.  Never use metal or metal trimmed dishes MICROWAVE SAFETY

38  Never use plastics or Styrofoam products- chemicals may contaminate foods  Unsafe plastics will warp  Metals cause arcing (electrical sparks)  Never reuse microwave cups from shelf stable foods  Never use products that contain recycled paper- may contain harmful pieces of metal or chemicals that can catch fire. MICROWAVE SAFETY

39  Potato chips become state when they are exposed to air over a period of time.  When chips are fried they lose all moisture.  When the chip is left out the moisture is reintroduced an the chip becomes stale.  Heat from the microwave evaporate the moisture and make the chip crisp again. CAN I MAKE STALE CHIPS FRESH AGAIN?

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