Presentation on theme: "Aquariums. I. So You Want An Aquarium A. Fun, easy and instructive, an aquarium is a singularly beautiful, always fascinating addition to any home or."— Presentation transcript:
I. So You Want An Aquarium A. Fun, easy and instructive, an aquarium is a singularly beautiful, always fascinating addition to any home or office … a welcome source of entertainment, education and relaxation.
B. Think of a fish as a pet. They rely on you to keep their environment clean and healthy. This includes proper feeding, cleaning the tank and gravel and monitoring and adjusting the water conditions. C. Basic aquarium components are filter, light, gravel, decorations, water conditioner, net, and fish food.
II. Setting Up Your Aquarium A. Handling the aquarium 1.Never attempt to move a full or partially full aquarium. 2.Never lift an aquarium with wet hands. 3.Never attempt to lift aquarium by grasping upper edges or frame. 4. Always grasp and carry an aquarium from underneath, supporting the bottom at all times.
B. Preparing the aquarium 1. Using a damp cloth, clean your tank inside and out prior to setup. 2.Never use soap, detergents or cleaning agents. C. Choosing a location 1.Place an aquarium in a location that will support its total weight, filled with water and gravel it weighs approximately 10-12 pounds per gallon. 2. Always place an aquarium on a flat, level surface with an electrical outlet is nearby.
3. Never place an aquarium near a heat source or air conditioner. 4. Never place an aquarium in direct sunlight. Full or even partial sunlight can cause excessive algae growth. D. Adding gravel 1. Add 1.5 to 2 pounds of gravel for every gallon of aquarium water. 2. Be sure to rinse the gravel thoroughly (water should drain clear) before adding. 3. The gravel bed should slope gradually to the front of your aquarium.
E. Filling your aquarium 1. To avoid disturbing the gravel bed. Place a clean dish on top of gravel and gradually pour the water over the dish. The stream is gently deflected without displacing gravel. 2.Fill the aquarium with water at room temperature. Cool water causes condensation. If it does occur, simply wipe surface with a clean cloth until temperature stabilizes. 3. Let the aquarium run for at least 48 hours to dechlorinate the water before adding fish!
F. Lights and Reflectors 1. Aquariums should be covered to reduce evaporation and prevent fish from jumping out. 2. A noncorrosive material must be used with Saltwater aquariums. 3. An aquarium cover or hood should have a florescent or LED lamp.
III. Preparing the Water- Three Methods of Water Cycling for Aquariums A. The Classic Method 1. Place a starter or “suicide fish” to initiate the cycle. A feeder Goldfish is a good choice 2. Purpose of starter fish is to provide ammonia through respiration, waste, and decaying food. 3. Ammonia allows nitrifying bacteria to colonize.
4. When the ammonia and nitrite levels are no longer measurable by a test kit, the cycle is complete. 5. This type of cycling takes 3 to 4 weeks.
B. Seeding Method 1. Feed the tank with fish food, decaying food releases ammonia triggering the cycling process. 2. To speed up the process, components (gravel, plants, bacteria, etc) from an established the tank can be added. Start by adding one dropper of bacterial material to the tank. More if needed. 3. Not much faster than the classic method.
C. Pure Ammonia Method 1.Pure ammonia can be added to the tank instead of using fish food. 2. After the tank has been set up, add 5 (2) drops of ammonia per 10 (5) gallons of water to speed up the cycle. 3. Tank maybe ready in 7 days, test the water prior to adding fish.
IV. Initial Set UP A. Complete the water cycling process. B. Make sure the filter is running. C. The aquariums will run through the break. D. Measure the pH, temperature, and ammonia levels once class resumes. (also measure salinity if it is saltwater) E. Once levels are acceptable levels you may add organisms. F. Reminder 1 inch of fish = 1 gallon of water. G. Live plants may be added for oxygen. H. Feed fish once a day. Do not give them more than they can eat in 3-5 minutes.
V. What to Measure-(multi-purpose probe) A. Temperature 1. Best temperature -23 to 28°C (73 to 82°F) 2. Large tanks should have a heater. 3. The standard rule of thumb for heaters is two watts to every liter of water in a tank. B. pH 1. Most freshwater fish thrive in waters with a pH between 6.5-7.5. Research your fish species for specifics. 2. Marine fish prefer a pH of 8 or above
C. Nitrites and Nitrates 1. Fish release ammonia as metabolic waste. 2. Bacterial action on uneaten food releases ammonia too. 3. This can create a toxic environment for fish which could result in death if corrections are not made. 4. Weekly dip a Nitrite/Nitrate test strip in the water, wait one minute and compare the color changes. 5. Record your data.
IV. Three-Stage Filtration A.Mechanical Filtration 1. Traps solid debris such as uneaten food and fish waste. 2. Example: using a net and/or filter cartridges B. Chemical Filtration 1. uses media (activated carbon) to adsorb dissolved pollutants that can cause water discoloration and odor. 2.Example: Filter cartridge packed with premium activated carbon
C. Biological Filtration 1. Adding a culture of beneficial oxygen-loving bacteria to eliminate toxic ammonia and nitrite that accumulate in aquarium water. 2. The bacteria culture biologically changes the ammonia and nitrite into nitrate, which is removed with once-a-month partial water changes. 3. Beneficial bacteria grow naturally on surfaces within the aquarium providing biological filtration.
XI. Saltwater Tanks Considerations A. Salinity 1. Measured in parts per thousand (ppt). 2. Marine aquariums have a lower salinity than the ocean ranging between 27 to 34 ppt Ocean’s salinity is 34 to 37 ppt. B. Specific Gravity 1. Ratio of salt density to water density. 2. Measured by a hydrometer 3. Range is 1.020-1.023
XII. Six Reminders for a Health Aquarium 1.Don’t Overcrowd Your Aquarium. Start with just one or two fish (up to five is OK, if they are small). 2.Don’t Overfeed Your Fish. Feed them a small amount twice a day — only what they can eat in less than five minutes. Food that isn’t eaten will pollute the aquarium.
3. Replace Your Filter Cartridge. To keep your water clean and odor-free, replacing your filter cartridge every two to four weeks is best. 4. Change Your Water. Every time you change your filter cartridge, change at least 25 % of the water in your aquarium, but never change more than 50%. Replace any water lost to evaporation, too.
5. Vacuum Your Gravel. If you have gravel you can purchase a standard gravel washer, vacuum away dirt and uneaten food as you change the water. 6. Clean Your Aquarium. Algae growth is normal in any aquarium. To remove the algae, wipe the inside walls of your tank with a pad designed specifically for aquarium cleaning. After you’ve cleaned the inside, use a clean, soft towel to gently wipe the outside surfaces