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NUTRITIION CHAPTERS 4 & 5.

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1 NUTRITIION CHAPTERS 4 & 5

2 YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT! Write a brief paragraph about what this statement means to you.

3 What is Nutrition? Study of the way the substances in food affect our health and also why we make the food choices we make.

4 Your Thoughts about Nutrition
Nutrition is not so important to me, I just want to be able to eat lots of food. I eat whatever I want, but I sometimes worry about the types of food I eat. I feel best when I eat nutritious foods. I like to make my own decisions about what I eat, but often I eat what everyone else is eating.

5 Thoughts on Nutrition If I take a vitamin pill in the morning, I do not have to worry about what I eat. My health will suffer if I don’t eat well. The food I eat has nothing to do with the way I feel. I would really like to change my eating habits.

6 Eat a nutritionally balanced
I would rather eat…. Eat what taste good Eat a nutritional balanced meal. Eat what my friends eat. Eat what looks good! Eat what tastes good! Eat what smells good! Eat what I like and nobody else likes Eat what my friends eat Eat what my family eats. Eat what my friends eat Eat a nutritionally balanced meal Eat whatever I like Bring lunch from home Eat in school cafeteria Eat lunch in a fast-food restaurant

7 Compare nutrition to the game
of baseball. Good nutritional choice = hit What would your nutritional choice average be for today?

8 KEY FACT HUNGER is the PHYSICAL NEED for food;

9 Everyone is born with feelings for hunger.

10 Symptoms of hunger include:
Weakness Dizziness Nausea Loss of concentration

11 How do we get rid of hunger? By eating

12 The question is – Just how much do we eat?

13 As a society what messages are we sending about how we feel about our food selection?
More is better & Is the meal a good meal or a good deal

14 APPETITE is the desire for food

15 Appetite can be influenced by:
Weather Culture Religion Advertising Taste Texture Aroma Health

16 Advertising and Food Groups
Candy and gum Cookies and crackers Noncarbonated soft drinks Meats and poultry Vegetables Citrus fruits Cereals Shortenings and Oil Desserts Carbonated soft drinks Macaroni and spaghetti Cheese

17 ORDER OF ADVERTISING Cereals Candy and gum Shortenings and Oil
Cookies and Crackers Desserts Noncarbonated soft drinks Carbonated soft drinks Meats and poultry macaroni and spaghetti vegetables cheese and citrus fruits

18 When hunger & Appetite work together they are balanced. Hunger

19 Hunger & Appetite become unbalanced when one:
Eats when not hungry Eats when depressed Eats from habit

20 To have the right balance between hunger & appetite – You need to understand when and why you eat.

21 Food selection should be based on sound nutritional practices

22 Energy Balance INPUT = OUTPUT INPUT > OUTPUT INPUT < OUTPUT

23 How has our diet Changed over the last 100 years?

24 Foods I eat Foods that have emotional meaning to me:
Foods my ancestors ate and that my family still eats: Foods I eat because they are plentiful where I live: Foods I eat because of my lifestyle: Foods I eat that originated in another country: Foods I eat with friends: Foods I eat because of social traditions:

25 Eating behavior Household Income Occupation structure Knowledge
personality Health beliefs Location of residence Cultural background Religious beliefs

26 Why should eating patterns be important to us?

27 Why is being overweight
such a problem for young People?

28 Young people that are overweight are more likely to become OBESE adults

29

30 Diet is related to six(6)
of the ten(10) leading causes of death in the United States.

31 Adequate nutrition requires adequate intake of 6 essential nutrients
Carbohydrates Fats Proteins That provide energy in the form of calories.

32 Vitamins Minerals Water That allows the body to use the other nutrients

33 What is a calorie? 1 calorie is the amount of heat necessary to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade.

34 Food is measured in Kilocalories (1000) 120 Calories = 120,000

35

36 Typical portions often contain multiple “servings”

37 How Does Your Diet Compare?
List the servings of food you ate during one day in the appropriate categories under My Selections. Compare your eating habits to those suggested by the Food Pyramid

38 Portion Sizes Have students bring a glass from home and estimate whether it contains one serving size. Serving of juice = 4 ounces. Most glasses used by students = ounces. Average super-sized meal contains 1500–2000 Calories.

39 Estimating Portion Sizes
Palm of hand or a deck of cards is same size as one serving. One serving size of rice or pasta = size of a tennis ball or about the size of fist. One serving of cheese is about the size of one domino or two fingers. Large portion sizes and sedentary lifestyles are linked to overweight and obesity.

40 Portion Sizes Have students bring a glass from home and estimate whether it contains one serving size. Serving of juice = 4 ounces. Most glasses used by students = ounces. Average super-sized meal contains 1500–2000 Calories. Lack of exercise exacerbates problems caused by large portion sizes. Soft drinks are a major source of hidden Calories. Portion Sizes Many Americans overestimate portion sizes. When teaching portion sizes, it can be helpful to have students estimate the number of servings of juice or other drinks contained in a typical drinking glass. Even though a serving of fruit juice typically is four ounces, most adolescents drink from glasses that contain between 10 and 16 ounces of liquid. Soft drinks are a major source of hidden added Calories in adolescents’ diets. Restaurants often serve quantities of food that exceed a single portion size. For example, a typical “super-sized” meal can contain as many as 1,500 to 2,000 Calories—almost an entire day’s worth of Calories—in a single meal or snack. A sedentary lifestyle also contributes to obesity. In particular, television viewing has been linked to weight gains and obesity among young people. Researchers have hypothesized that television viewing contributes to obesity by displacing physical activity, increasing calorie consumption while watching (including the effects of advertising) and reducing resting metabolism (Robinson, 2001). References: [NHLBI] National Heart, Lung and Blood institute, National Institutes of Health. (2004). Portion Distortion! (online, interactive quiz). Retrieved from Robinson, T.N. (2001). Television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatr Clin North Am, 48(4): Retrieved from

41 Importance of Reading Food Labels
Different categories of nutrients are described on labels. Grams protein Grams total carbohydrate Grams sugar Not all sugar in food is added Substances ending in “ose” are sugars Important to notice How many serving sizes are within a package? How many grams of fats are reported as saturated fat? Saturated fat contributes to heart disease. Less than 30% of total Calories consumed should come from fat. Fats provide fewer than 30% of the total Calories in true low-fat foods. Importance of Reading Food Labels Serving sizes on food labels are designed to make it easier to compare the calorie and nutritional content of similar products and to identify nutrients present in a food. At a minimum, food labels contain information about serving sizes; calories; calories from fat (dietitians generally recommend that no more than 30% of calories come from fat over the course of the day); percent daily values of major nutrients; total fat; saturated and trans fat (these unhealthy fats are listed under total fat—saturated fat and trans fat raise cholesterol and increase a person's risk for developing heart disease); unsaturated fats (liquid at room temperature, these are the healthy fats); cholesterol; sodium; total carbohydrates (which includes dietary fibers, sugars, and other carbohydrates); protein; vitamins A and C; calcium and iron. Carbohydrates are the most abundant source of calories in most people’s diets. Carbohydrates are either simple (called sugars) or complex (called starches). Cereals, rice, potatoes, breads, pastas, fruits, and vegetables all contain high amounts of carbohydrates. Not all sugar in food is added. Lactose, or milk sugar, is a natural ingredient in milk. Fruit also has high amounts of naturally occurring sugar. When reading a food label, it is important to pay attention to the number of servings contained within a package and the amount of saturated fat. Saturated fat contributes to heart disease—the number one killer of adults in the US. Most saturated fats are solid at room temperature. The words, "hydrogenated," "partially hydrogenated," or "shortening,” also are used to describe saturated fats. With true “low-fat” foods, fewer than 30% of the total calories come from fat. References: Teens Health. (2004). What Do Food Labels Really Say. Retrieved from [USDA] United States Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2003). Guidance on How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Panel on Food Labels. Retrieved from Image Reference: Moreno, N.P., Rahmati-Clayton, S., Cutler, P.H., Young, M.S., Tharp, B.Z. (2004). From Outer Space to Inner Space:Food and Fitness Activities Guide for Teachers. Houston,TX: Baylor College of Medicine.

42 Estimating Serving Sizes
deck of cards postage stamp tennis ball domino baseball pancake = CD disc 1 teaspoon = 16 oz bottle cap

43 Portions and the American sizes
7 – Eleven drinks 1973 – 12-ounce and 20-ounce 1976 – 16-oz gulp 1978 – 32-oz Big Gulp 1983 – 44-oz Super Big Gulp 1988 – 64-oz Double Gulp – ½ ga 2003 – No more 16-oz. Replaced with 20-oz Current drink sizes: 20 oz, 32 oz, 44 oz, and 64oz

44

45 Junk Food Fallacy: if allowed to make their own choices, students will make healthy food selections. Junk food = food with minimal nutritional value. Portion sizes of junk food have increased dramatically. Students consume junk food frequently. Soft drinks and other high sugar drinks contribute high numbers of calories to students’ diets. Junk Food Junk food is food with minimal nutritional value. Most junk food is characterized by high fat and sugar content, with few other nutrients. Examples of junk foods include sweetened soft drinks, fried foods, particularly French fries, chips and other snacks, and candy. Without guidance, most adolescents will not make healthy food choices. Portion sizes of junk food have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. For example, when most fast food franchises originated, a “regular” serving of French fried potatoes contained 201 Calories. Today, a “supersized” serving of fries contains approximately 610 Calories (NHLBI, 2004). The packaging of many kinds of junk foods in bags or pouches makes it difficult for consumers to estimate and compare serving sizes. Sugar-sweetened beverages are now the principal source of added sugars in the diets of Americans (Guthrie, 2000). High sugar drinks, including fruit juices, contribute large of amounts of calories to the diets of adolescents. Further, most people do not reduce their consumption of other foods to compensate for the high number of calories consumed as sweetened beverages. References: Guthrie, J.F., Morton, J.F. (2000). Food source of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans. J Am Diet Assoc, 100:43–48,51. [NHLBI] National Heart, Lung and Blood institute, National Institutes of Health. (2004). Portion Distortion! (online, interactive quiz). Retrieved from

46 Is “JUNK” Food Really “JUNK” Food?
Most of the food we think of as “Junk” food contains lots of calories, and large amounts of fat, sugar, and salt, but contain few of the other essential nutrients. Low in nutrient density – a measure of the nutrients compared to energy provided.

47 How much sugar should we consume each day?
For a 2,000 calorie diet, a person should eat no more than 10 t of added sugar a day. The average American consumes about 20 t each day. 12 oz of soda contains about 9 t

48 & MODERATION BALANCE To make up for eating the food lacking
in nutrients, try to eat healthier foods at other times during the day. Keywords to remember are: & MODERATION BALANCE

49 How can a slice of pizza and tacos be healthy foods?
vegetable = tomato sauce grain = crust dairy product = cheese fruit = ? meat = ? TACO

50 Lack of Variety in Adolescent Diets
In some situations, students must try to make a better “bad choice,” based on knowledge. Drink water instead of sweetened drinks. Reduce portion sizes. Avoid fried foods. Eating habits often are linked to convenience. Use a dinner plate to estimate how much of your diet should come from fruits and vegetables. 1/2 of plate should contain fruits and vegetables. Other 1/2 should contain a protein and a starch. Include variety: try a new fruit or vegetable each week. Lack of Variety in Adolescent Diets Students are not always able to make optimal food choices. Thus, it is important to help them select healthier alternatives when confronted with several imperfect options in the school cafeteria or at a fast food restaurant. In other words, students can learn to make better “bad choices.” In general, it is advisable to drink water instead of sweetened soft drinks, reduce portion sizes, and avoid fried foods. A dinner plate can be used to help students estimate appropriate amounts of foods. Approximately one half of the plate should contain fruits and vegetables. The other half should contain a protein source (fish, meat, poulty, beans) and a starch (potatoes, rice, bread). Food lessons help students learn to sample and enjoy new foods. Try introducing a new fruit or vegetable in class each week. Students are more likely to try something new when it is introduced to the entire group.

51 Food and Fitness Virtual Workshop Activity Three: Your Energy Needs
Virtual Workshop: Food and Fitness (Activity Three) - Your Energy Needs Activity Three: Energy Sources, of the instructional unit, Food and Fitness, teaches students about how calorie and energy needs vary, depending on activity levels. Science concepts covered in this activity include the following. All organisms need energy for their activities. Food is the only energy source for people and other animals. People’s energy needs depend on body composition and level of activity, and correlate directly with fitness. Regular exercise is important to maintain and improve health. The complete Food and Fitness Activities Guide for Teachers may be downloaded as a PDF file from the Teacher Resources menu on BioEd Online. <http://www.bioedonline.org/resources/nsbri.cfm> Viewing this presentation fulfills part of the requirements for completing the Virtual Workshop on Energy, Food and Nutrition (“Food and Fitness”), offered for professional development contact hours on BioEd Online. Funding for development of the Food and Fitness unit and accompanying online professional development was provided by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), a consortium of leading biomedical research centers funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Visit the following sites for more information about these organizations. Center for Educational Outreach, Baylor College of Medicine: <http://www.ccit.bcm.tmc.edu/ceo/> National Space Biomedical Research Institute: <www.nsbri.org> National Aeronautics and Space Administration: <http://www.nasa.gov>

52 How many calories do you need each day?

53 Calories In Versus Calories Expended
Compare your daily Calorie intake to recommendations, based on Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and activity levels. If Calories eaten > Calories used, excess energy is stored as fat. If Calories eaten = Calories used, a constant body weight is maintained. If Calories eaten < Calories used, fat is burned to make up the difference.

54 Females take your body weight and multiply by 10 Males take your body weight and multiply by 11

55 This gives you the amount
of calories needed for you to breath, heart beat, and cell functioning.

56 Activity Calories Depending on your activity level take the # you got for your BMR and multiply it by: .30 if inactive .50 if average activity .75 very active or some strenuous activity

57 Digestive calories Add the # of calories for BMI to # of calories for activity and multiply by 0.1

58 TOTAL CALORIE NEED BMR + ACTIVITY CALORIES + DIGESTION CALORIES = TOTAL CALORIE NEED PER DAY.

59 Fats and oils are concentrated energy sources.
Fats have nine Calories (kcal) per gram. Proteins and carbohydrates have four Calories (kcal) per gram. Some fats are important for health. Omega-3 fats from fish and flaxseed oils may help protect against cardiovascular disease. Unsaturated fats, such as olive, peanut, canola, or corn oil can help raise levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol. As a general rule, liquid vegetable oils are the healthiest choices

60 Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Changes with Age
Daily Baseline Calorie Needs of a Female, by Age (weight = 127pounds, height = 64 inches Daily Baseline Calorie (kcal) Needs Virtual Workshop: Food and Fitness (Activity Three) – Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Changes with Age As an optional activity, have students calculate Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) for a person of the same height and weight, but using different ages in the Harris-Benedict equations. The graph above was created using a female with height of 64 inches and weight of 127 lbs. The BMR was calculated at ten-year intervals, beginning at age 15 years. Harris-Benedict Equations: For men, BMR = (13.75 x Weight) + (5.003 x Height) - (6.775 x Age). For women, BMR = ( x Weight) + (1.85 x Height) - (4.676 x Age). The complete Food and Fitness Activities Guide for Teachers may be downloaded as a PDF file from the Teacher Resources menu on BioEd Online. <http://www.bioedonline.org/resources/nsbri.cfm> Reference: Harris, J., & Benedict, F. (1919). A biometric study of basal metabolism in man. Washington D.C.: Carnegie Institute of Washington. Age in Years

61 Six Nutrients needed by the body

62 Carbohydrates Main source of food Energy – 4 Cal/g

63

64 3 classes of Carbohydrates
Simple sugars - glucose Short-chained sugars- fruits, vegetables, honey, table sugar Long-chained sugars – starches and fiber – vegetables, grains, potatoes

65 Why is dietary fiber Important? Roughage and the lowering of blood cholesterol.

66 Carbohydrates should make up 45 to 65% of our daily calorie intake. 10% from sugars 25 – 35 grams of fiber.

67 When you eat more carbohydrates
than the body needs, it is stored as glycogen. Glycogen is the body’s quick energy source.

68 Fat Most concentrated form of energy food 9 Calories/gram – 252 Calories/ oz.

69 Fat is harder to digest than carbs and proteins and stored in the body in the fatty tissue.

70 Fat intake for teens should be
25 to 35% of total calorie intake.

71 Uses of Fat Body heat Organ protection Sense of fullness
Needed for vitamin use

72 2 Types of Fat Saturated – animal, palm and coconut oil (Solid at room temp) Unsaturated – vegetable, fish oils

73 Two types of unsaturated oil
Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Both help reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease.

74 What is Trans fats? Trans fats are formed when vegetable oils are made into hard margarines. Trans fats increase the risk of heart disease.

75 CHOLESTEROL Fat like substance found in foods of animal origins also produced by liver.

76 Is cholesterol a type of fat?
Cholesterol is a type of steroid testosterone and estrogen Steroids are types of lipids Lipid is a compound made of carbon and hydrogen.

77 Two types of cholesterol
HDL – “good” LDL – “bad” – it can build up on the blood vessel walls – restricts or blocks blood flow.

78

79 How do you figure cholesterol level?
Divide total cholesterol level by the HDL level. Ratio between 5 and 9 is normal

80 PROTEINS Made of chains of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

81 Proteins are used for growth and repair
Eating extra protein is important if I want to build bigger muscles? TRUE or FALSE Muscles grow in response to weight training.

82 What is PEM? Protein-energy malnutrition Most prevalent in children of developing countries because of their high energy needs

83 Child with PEM

84 Proteins are made of 20 amino acids, 11 of which are made in the body -----

85 The other 9 – the Essential amino acids – Must be gotten from the food eaten

86 Complete proteins come
from foods that contain all 9 of the EAA Animal sources

87 Incomplete Proteins – contain only some of the 9 EAA Plant sources

88 The incomplete proteins
must be mixed in order to get the amino acids needed. +

89 Choosing a Vegetarian Diet
A vegetarian diet is one in which few or no animal products are eaten. Vegans are vegetarians that eat no animal products in any form. Most vegetarians get all the proteins they need from the small amounts of animal products they eat. Vegans must eat from a variety of plant sources to get all the essential amino acids and other important nutrients.

90 Proteins should make up 10 to 35% of the daily calorie intake

91 Compounds that help regulate certain chemical reactions in the body
Vitamins Compounds that help regulate certain chemical reactions in the body

92 Body makes D and K

93 Two types of Vitamins Fat-soluble – A,D,E,& K stored in fat Water-soluble – B & C not stored in body

94

95

96 Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin A night blindness, death, dryness of eye
Vitamin B1 Poor memory, beriberi Vitamin B2 skin cracking in corners of mouth Vitamin B6 Nerve damage and convulsions Folate Diarrhea, wt loss, birth defects Vitamin D Rickets – skeletal deformities in children Vitamin E anemia, destruction of nerve cells, loss of reflexes

97 substances that contribute to the normal functioning of the body.
Minerals Natural occurring substances that contribute to the normal functioning of the body. 20 minerals needed

98 Types of Minerals Macro minerals – calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulphur.

99 Trace minerals Copper, Fluorine, Iodine Iron, Zinc

100 Importance of Minerals
Minerals combine to form salts. When in solution they dissolve and form charged particles called Electrolytes.

101 Sodium & chlorine is Important for fluid balance Too much Sodium causes high blood pressure

102

103 Mineral Deficiencies Calcium – muscle cramps, retarded growth in children Copper – anemia Iodine – goiter, retardation of brain development Iron – anemia, weakness Magnesium – nervous system disturbances Phosphorus – weakness Sodium – muscle cramps, loss of appetite Zinc – under development of sex glands, slow wound healing.

104 1 teaspoon of salt = 2000 mg Daily intake should be no more than 3000 mg

105 Water The body’s most essential nutrient – vital in every body function.

106 Uses of Water Carries nutrients Lubricates joints Enables swallowing and digestion Cools body

107 How do we obtain water? How much water do we need?

108 What is a good way to check for dehydration?
Urine color – Clear – ok Colored – add water

109 What is the Food Pyramid and its use?

110

111

112

113

114 Fad Diets Diets that promise quick and unrealistic results

115 Fad Diets are the ones that
promise quick result in a short amount of time.

116 Weight loss and weight gain
should be done at a slow rate by cutting or adding calories and exercise over a period of time.

117 What are some popular Fad Diets?
Grapefruit diet 3 day diet 7-day diet Sugar Busters

118 Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa–dieting to an extreme –emotional problems

119 Bulimia – binging on food –
Eating large amounts of food in a short period of time.

120

121

122 Nutrition Throughout Life
Infants who are fed breast milk or formula get the right mix of nutrients, Calories, and other substances necessary for growth and protection from infection. An infant’s diet is high in fat to provide energy for rapid growth and brain development. The nutritional needs of children over 2 can be met by following the Food Guide Pyramid, but with smaller serving sizes.

123 Nutrition Throughout Life
During the teen years, the body grows and changes rapidly. Adolescent boys should use the high end of the serving ranges on the Food Guide Pyramid. Adolescent girls should use the middle of the ranges. girls should use the middle of the ranges

124 Nutrition Throughout Life
Teens should make sure to meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy needs. Because adults grow less and are less active than teens, they need fewer Calories per day. Adults must still make sure their nutrient needs are met.

125 Special Dietary Needs Athletes must drink lots of fluids and avoid dehydration. Athletes need a diet high in carbohydrates for extra energy. Most athletes do not need extra protein in their diets.

126 Special Dietary Needs Athletes do not need dietary supplements to improve performance. In fact, these supplements can be dangerous. If you take a dietary supplement, do not exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Limit for any nutrient

127 Special Dietary Needs Pregnant women need up to an additional 450 Calories per day. Pregnant women also need additional protein, B vitamins, folate, iron, and zinc. If you have a cold, flu, or other mild illness, drink plenty of fluids. If you have a chronic or long-term illness, you must make sure your diet gives you enough energy and the proper nutrients to fight the illness.

128 Food Safety

129 Food-Borne Illness A food-borne illness is an illness caused by eating or drinking a food that contains a toxin or disease-causing organism.

130 Food-borne Illness Affect the stomach and intestines
Food-borne illness can cause diarrhea, cramping,fever, headache, vomiting, and exhaustion

131 Symptoms may appear 30 minutes to several days later, may last a couple of days or less or 7 to 10 days

132 Especially dangerous for young people and older people, as well as people already sick with another infection.

133 30% of food-borne Illness
comes from unsafe food handling.

134 Most food born illnesses can be prevented by proper selection, storage, handling, and cooking of food. Replace and wash dishcloths frequently Keep your refrigerator at 41 F Wash hands, utensils, and surfaces with warm, soapy water between each step Cook food to recommended temperatures

135 What are some good practices to develop about the handling of food?
Do not leave food standing at room temp too long Cook at a high enough temp to kill bacteria Thaw frozen foods in refrigerator or microwave. Eat leftovers quickly or discard them Review “use by” dates, and other label warnings. Don’t overcrowd the refrigerator.


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