2YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT!Write a brief paragraph aboutwhat this statement means toyou.
3What is Nutrition?Study of the way the substances in food affect our health and also why we make the food choices we make.
4Your Thoughts about Nutrition Nutrition is not so important to me, I just want to be able to eat lots of food.I eat whatever I want, but I sometimes worry about the types of food I eat.I feel best when I eat nutritious foods.I like to make my own decisions about what I eat, but often I eat what everyone else is eating.
5Thoughts on NutritionIf I take a vitamin pill in the morning, I do not have to worry about what I eat.My health will suffer if I don’t eat well.The food I eat has nothing to do with the way I feel.I would really like to change my eating habits.
6Eat a nutritionally balanced I would rather eat….Eat what taste goodEat a nutritional balanced meal.Eat what my friends eat.Eat what looks good!Eat what tastes good!Eat what smells good!Eat what I like and nobody else likesEat what my friends eatEat what my family eats.Eat what my friends eatEat a nutritionally balancedmealEat whatever I likeBring lunch from homeEat in school cafeteriaEat lunch in a fast-foodrestaurant
7Compare nutrition to the game of baseball.Good nutritional choice = hitWhat would your nutritionalchoice average be for today?
15Appetite can be influenced by: WeatherCultureReligionAdvertisingTasteTextureAromaHealth
16Advertising and Food Groups Candy and gumCookies and crackersNoncarbonated soft drinksMeats and poultryVegetablesCitrus fruitsCerealsShortenings and OilDessertsCarbonated soft drinksMacaroni and spaghettiCheese
17ORDER OF ADVERTISING Cereals Candy and gum Shortenings and Oil Cookies and CrackersDessertsNoncarbonated soft drinksCarbonated soft drinksMeats and poultrymacaroni and spaghettivegetablescheese and citrus fruits
18When hunger & Appetite work together they are balanced. Hunger
19Hunger & Appetite become unbalanced when one: Eats when not hungryEats when depressedEats from habit
20To have the rightbalance between hunger & appetite – You need to understand when and why you eat.
21Food selection shouldbe based on soundnutritional practices
24Foods I eat Foods that have emotional meaning to me: Foods my ancestors ate and that my family still eats:Foods I eat because they are plentiful where I live:Foods I eat because of my lifestyle:Foods I eat that originated in another country:Foods I eat with friends:Foods I eat because of social traditions:
25Eating behavior Household Income Occupation structure Knowledge personalityHealthbeliefsLocation ofresidenceCulturalbackgroundReligiousbeliefs
36Typical portions often contain multiple “servings”
37How Does Your Diet Compare? List the servings of food you ate during one day in the appropriate categories under My Selections.Compare your eating habits to those suggested by the Food Pyramid
38Portion SizesHave students bring a glass from home and estimate whether it contains one serving size.Serving of juice = 4 ounces.Most glasses used by students = ounces.Average super-sized meal contains 1500–2000 Calories.
39Estimating Portion Sizes Palm of hand or a deck of cards is same size as one serving.One serving size of rice or pasta = size of a tennis ball or about the size of fist.One serving of cheese is about the size of one domino or two fingers.Large portion sizes and sedentary lifestyles are linked to overweight and obesity.
40Portion SizesHave students bring a glass from home and estimate whether it contains one serving size.Serving of juice = 4 ounces.Most glasses used by students = ounces.Average super-sized meal contains 1500–2000 Calories.Lack of exercise exacerbates problems caused by large portion sizes.Soft drinks are a major source of hidden Calories.Portion SizesMany Americans overestimate portion sizes. When teaching portion sizes, it can be helpful to have students estimate the number of servings of juice or other drinks contained in a typical drinking glass. Even though a serving of fruit juice typically is four ounces, most adolescents drink from glasses that contain between 10 and 16 ounces of liquid. Soft drinks are a major source of hidden added Calories in adolescents’ diets.Restaurants often serve quantities of food that exceed a single portion size. For example, a typical “super-sized” meal can contain as many as 1,500 to 2,000 Calories—almost an entire day’s worth of Calories—in a single meal or snack. A sedentary lifestyle also contributes to obesity. In particular, television viewing has been linked to weight gains and obesity among young people. Researchers have hypothesized that television viewing contributes to obesity by displacing physical activity, increasing calorie consumption while watching (including the effects of advertising) and reducing resting metabolism (Robinson, 2001).References:[NHLBI] National Heart, Lung and Blood institute, National Institutes of Health. (2004). Portion Distortion! (online, interactive quiz). Retrieved fromRobinson, T.N. (2001). Television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatr Clin North Am, 48(4): Retrieved from
41Importance of Reading Food Labels Different categories of nutrients are described on labels.Grams proteinGrams total carbohydrateGrams sugarNot all sugar in food is addedSubstances ending in “ose” are sugarsImportant to noticeHow many serving sizes are within a package?How many grams of fats are reported as saturated fat?Saturated fat contributes to heart disease.Less than 30% of total Calories consumed should come from fat.Fats provide fewer than 30% of the total Calories in true low-fat foods.Importance of Reading Food LabelsServing sizes on food labels are designed to make it easier to compare the calorie and nutritional content of similar products and to identify nutrients present in a food. At a minimum, food labels contain information about serving sizes; calories; calories from fat (dietitians generally recommend that no more than 30% of calories come from fat over the course of the day); percent daily values of major nutrients; total fat; saturated and trans fat (these unhealthy fats are listed under total fat—saturated fat and trans fat raise cholesterol and increase a person's risk for developing heart disease); unsaturated fats (liquid at room temperature, these are the healthy fats); cholesterol; sodium; total carbohydrates (which includes dietary fibers, sugars, and other carbohydrates); protein; vitamins A and C; calcium and iron.Carbohydrates are the most abundant source of calories in most people’s diets. Carbohydrates are either simple (called sugars) or complex (called starches). Cereals, rice, potatoes, breads, pastas, fruits, and vegetables all contain high amounts of carbohydrates. Not all sugar in food is added. Lactose, or milk sugar, is a natural ingredient in milk. Fruit also has high amounts of naturally occurring sugar.When reading a food label, it is important to pay attention to the number of servings contained within a package and the amount of saturated fat. Saturated fat contributes to heart disease—the number one killer of adults in the US. Most saturated fats are solid at room temperature. The words, "hydrogenated," "partially hydrogenated," or "shortening,” also are used to describe saturated fats. With true “low-fat” foods, fewer than 30% of the total calories come from fat.References:Teens Health. (2004). What Do Food Labels Really Say. Retrieved from[USDA] United States Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2003). Guidance on How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Panel on Food Labels. Retrieved fromImage Reference:Moreno, N.P., Rahmati-Clayton, S., Cutler, P.H., Young, M.S., Tharp, B.Z. (2004). From Outer Space to Inner Space:Food and Fitness Activities Guide for Teachers. Houston,TX: Baylor College of Medicine.
42Estimating Serving Sizes deck ofcardspostagestamptennis balldominobaseballpancake = CD disc1 teaspoon = 16 oz bottle cap
43Portions and the American sizes 7 – Eleven drinks1973 – 12-ounce and 20-ounce1976 – 16-oz gulp1978 – 32-oz Big Gulp1983 – 44-oz Super Big Gulp1988 – 64-oz Double Gulp – ½ ga2003 – No more 16-oz. Replaced with 20-ozCurrent drink sizes:20 oz, 32 oz, 44 oz, and 64oz
45Junk FoodFallacy: if allowed to make their own choices, students will make healthy food selections.Junk food = food with minimal nutritional value.Portion sizes of junk food have increased dramatically.Students consume junk food frequently.Soft drinks and other high sugar drinks contribute high numbers of calories to students’ diets.Junk FoodJunk food is food with minimal nutritional value. Most junk food is characterized by high fat and sugar content, with few other nutrients. Examples of junk foods include sweetened soft drinks, fried foods, particularly French fries, chips and other snacks, and candy. Without guidance, most adolescents will not make healthy food choices.Portion sizes of junk food have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. For example, when most fast food franchises originated, a “regular” serving of French fried potatoes contained 201 Calories. Today, a “supersized” serving of fries contains approximately 610 Calories (NHLBI, 2004). The packaging of many kinds of junk foods in bags or pouches makes it difficult for consumers to estimate and compare serving sizes.Sugar-sweetened beverages are now the principal source of added sugars in the diets of Americans (Guthrie, 2000). High sugar drinks, including fruit juices, contribute large of amounts of calories to the diets of adolescents. Further, most people do not reduce their consumption of other foods to compensate for the high number of calories consumed as sweetened beverages.References:Guthrie, J.F., Morton, J.F. (2000). Food source of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans. J Am Diet Assoc, 100:43–48,51.[NHLBI] National Heart, Lung and Blood institute, National Institutes of Health. (2004). Portion Distortion! (online, interactive quiz). Retrieved from
46Is “JUNK” Food Really “JUNK” Food? Most of the food we think of as “Junk”food contains lots of calories, andlarge amounts of fat, sugar, and salt,but contain few of the other essentialnutrients.Low in nutrient density – a measure ofthe nutrients compared to energyprovided.
47How much sugar should we consume each day? For a 2,000 calorie diet, a personshould eat no more than 10 t ofadded sugar a day.The average American consumesabout 20 t each day.12 oz of soda contains about 9 t
48& MODERATION BALANCE To make up for eating the food lacking in nutrients, try to eat healthier foodsat other times during the day.Keywords to remember are:&MODERATIONBALANCE
49How can a slice of pizza and tacos be healthy foods? vegetable = tomato saucegrain = crustdairy product = cheesefruit = ?meat = ?TACO
50Lack of Variety in Adolescent Diets In some situations, students must try to make a better “bad choice,” based on knowledge.Drink water instead of sweetened drinks.Reduce portion sizes.Avoid fried foods.Eating habits often are linked to convenience.Use a dinner plate to estimate how much of your diet should come from fruits and vegetables.1/2 of plate should contain fruits and vegetables.Other 1/2 should contain a protein and a starch.Include variety: try a new fruit or vegetable each week.Lack of Variety in Adolescent DietsStudents are not always able to make optimal food choices. Thus, it is important to help them select healthier alternatives when confronted with several imperfect options in the school cafeteria or at a fast food restaurant. In other words, students can learn to make better “bad choices.” In general, it is advisable to drink water instead of sweetened soft drinks, reduce portion sizes, and avoid fried foods.A dinner plate can be used to help students estimate appropriate amounts of foods. Approximately one half of the plate should contain fruits and vegetables. The other half should contain a protein source (fish, meat, poulty, beans) and a starch (potatoes, rice, bread).Food lessons help students learn to sample and enjoy new foods. Try introducing a new fruit or vegetable in class each week. Students are more likely to try something new when it is introduced to the entire group.
51Food and Fitness Virtual Workshop Activity Three: Your Energy Needs Virtual Workshop: Food and Fitness (Activity Three) - Your Energy NeedsActivity Three: Energy Sources, of the instructional unit, Food and Fitness, teaches students about how calorie and energy needs vary, depending on activity levels.Science concepts covered in this activity include the following.All organisms need energy for their activities.Food is the only energy source for people and other animals.People’s energy needs depend on body composition and level of activity, and correlate directly with fitness.Regular exercise is important to maintain and improve health.The complete Food and Fitness Activities Guide for Teachers may be downloaded as a PDF file from the Teacher Resources menu on BioEd Online. <http://www.bioedonline.org/resources/nsbri.cfm>Viewing this presentation fulfills part of the requirements for completing the Virtual Workshop on Energy, Food and Nutrition (“Food and Fitness”), offered for professional development contact hours on BioEd Online.Funding for development of the Food and Fitness unit and accompanying online professional development was provided by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), a consortium of leading biomedical research centers funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Visit the following sites for more information about these organizations.Center for Educational Outreach, Baylor College of Medicine: <http://www.ccit.bcm.tmc.edu/ceo/>National Space Biomedical Research Institute: <www.nsbri.org>National Aeronautics and Space Administration: <http://www.nasa.gov>
53Calories In Versus Calories Expended Compare your daily Calorie intake to recommendations, based on Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and activity levels.If Calories eaten > Calories used, excess energy is stored as fat.If Calories eaten = Calories used, a constant body weight is maintained.If Calories eaten < Calories used, fat is burned to make up the difference.
54Females take yourbody weight and multiplyby 10Males take your bodyweight and multiply by 11
55This gives you the amount of calories needed foryou to breath, heart beat,and cell functioning.
56Activity CaloriesDepending on your activity leveltake the # you got for your BMRand multiply it by:.30 if inactive.50 if average activity.75 very active or somestrenuous activity
57Digestive caloriesAdd the # of calories for BMI to# of calories for activity andmultiply by 0.1
59Fats and oils are concentrated energy sources. Fats have nine Calories (kcal) per gram.Proteins and carbohydrates have four Calories (kcal) per gram.Some fats are important for health.Omega-3 fats from fish and flaxseed oils may help protect against cardiovascular disease.Unsaturated fats, such as olive, peanut, canola, or corn oil can help raise levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol.As a general rule, liquid vegetable oils are the healthiest choices
60Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Changes with Age Daily Baseline Calorie Needs of a Female, by Age(weight = 127pounds, height = 64 inchesDaily Baseline Calorie (kcal) NeedsVirtual Workshop: Food and Fitness (Activity Three) – Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Changes with AgeAs an optional activity, have students calculate Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) for a person of the same height and weight, but using different ages in the Harris-Benedict equations. The graph above was created using a female with height of 64 inches and weight of 127 lbs. The BMR was calculated at ten-year intervals, beginning at age 15 years.Harris-Benedict Equations:For men, BMR = (13.75 x Weight) + (5.003 x Height) - (6.775 x Age).For women, BMR = ( x Weight) + (1.85 x Height) - (4.676 x Age).The complete Food and Fitness Activities Guide for Teachers may be downloaded as a PDF file from the Teacher Resources menu on BioEd Online. <http://www.bioedonline.org/resources/nsbri.cfm>Reference:Harris, J., & Benedict, F. (1919). A biometric study of basal metabolism in man. Washington D.C.: Carnegie Institute of Washington.Age in Years
84Proteins are made of20 amino acids, 11 ofwhich are made in thebody -----
85The other 9 – theEssential amino acids –Must be gotten from thefood eaten
86Complete proteins come from foods that containall 9 of the EAAAnimal sources
87Incomplete Proteins –contain only some of the9 EAAPlant sources
88The incomplete proteins must be mixed in orderto get the amino acidsneeded.+
89Choosing a Vegetarian Diet A vegetarian diet is one in which few or no animal products are eaten.Vegans are vegetarians that eat no animal products in any form.Most vegetarians get all the proteins they need from the small amounts of animal products they eat.Vegans must eat from a variety of plant sources to get all the essential amino acids and other important nutrients.
90Proteins should makeup 10 to 35% of the dailycalorie intake
91Compounds that help regulate certain chemical reactions in the body VitaminsCompounds that helpregulate certainchemical reactionsin the body
96Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin A night blindness, death, dryness of eye Vitamin B1Poor memory, beriberiVitamin B2skin cracking in corners of mouthVitamin B6Nerve damage and convulsionsFolateDiarrhea, wt loss, birth defectsVitamin DRickets – skeletal deformities in childrenVitamin Eanemia, destruction of nerve cells, loss of reflexes
97substances that contribute to the normal functioning of the body. MineralsNatural occurringsubstances that contributeto the normal functioningof the body.20 minerals needed
98Types of MineralsMacro minerals – calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulphur.
103Mineral DeficienciesCalcium – muscle cramps, retarded growth in childrenCopper – anemiaIodine – goiter, retardation of brain developmentIron – anemia, weaknessMagnesium – nervous system disturbancesPhosphorus – weaknessSodium – muscle cramps, loss of appetiteZinc – under development of sex glands, slow woundhealing.
1041 teaspoon of salt =2000 mgDaily intake should beno more than 3000 mg
105WaterThe body’s most essentialnutrient – vital in everybody function.
106Uses of WaterCarries nutrientsLubricates jointsEnables swallowing and digestionCools body
107How do we obtain water?How much water dowe need?
108What is a good way to check for dehydration? Urine color –Clear – okColored – add water
122Nutrition Throughout Life Infants who are fed breast milk or formula get the right mix of nutrients, Calories, and other substances necessary for growth and protection from infection.An infant’s diet is high in fat to provide energy for rapid growth and brain development.The nutritional needs of children over 2 can be met by following the Food Guide Pyramid, but with smaller serving sizes.
123Nutrition Throughout Life During the teen years, the body grows and changes rapidly.Adolescent boys should use the high end of the serving ranges on the Food Guide Pyramid.Adolescent girls should use the middle of the ranges.girls should use the middle of the ranges
124Nutrition Throughout Life Teens should make sure to meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy needs.Because adults grow less and are less active than teens, they need fewer Calories per day. Adults must still make sure their nutrient needs are met.
125Special Dietary NeedsAthletes must drink lots of fluids and avoid dehydration.Athletes need a diet high in carbohydrates for extra energy.Most athletes do not need extra protein in their diets.
126Special Dietary NeedsAthletes do not need dietary supplements to improve performance. In fact, these supplements can be dangerous.If you take a dietary supplement, do not exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Limit for any nutrient
127Special Dietary NeedsPregnant women need up to an additional 450 Calories per day.Pregnant women also need additional protein, B vitamins, folate, iron, and zinc.If you have a cold, flu, or other mild illness, drink plenty of fluids.If you have a chronic or long-term illness, you must make sure your diet gives you enough energy and the proper nutrients to fight the illness.
129Food-Borne IllnessA food-borne illness is an illness caused by eating or drinking a food that contains a toxin or disease-causing organism.
130Food-borne Illness Affect the stomach and intestines Food-borne illness cancause diarrhea, cramping,fever,headache, vomiting, andexhaustion
131Symptoms may appear30 minutes to severaldays later, may lasta couple of days or lessor 7 to 10 days
132Especially dangerousfor young people andolder people, as wellas people already sickwith another infection.
13330% of food-borne Illness comes from unsafe foodhandling.
134Most food born illnesses can be prevented by proper selection, storage, handling, and cooking of food.Replace and wash dishcloths frequentlyKeep your refrigerator at 41 FWash hands, utensils, and surfaces with warm, soapy water between each stepCook food to recommended temperatures
135What are some good practices to develop about the handling of food? Do not leave food standing at room temp too longCook at a high enough temp to kill bacteriaThaw frozen foods in refrigerator or microwave.Eat leftovers quickly or discard themReview “use by” dates, and other label warnings.Don’t overcrowd the refrigerator.