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NUTRITIION CHAPTERS 4 & 5 YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT! Write a brief paragraph about what this statement means to you.

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Presentation on theme: "NUTRITIION CHAPTERS 4 & 5 YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT! Write a brief paragraph about what this statement means to you."— Presentation transcript:



3 YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT! Write a brief paragraph about what this statement means to you.

4 What is Nutrition? Study of the way the substances in food affect our health and also why we make the food choices we make.

5 Your Thoughts about Nutrition Nutrition is not so important to me, I just want to be able to eat lots of food. I eat whatever I want, but I sometimes worry about the types of food I eat. I feel best when I eat nutritious foods. I like to make my own decisions about what I eat, but often I eat what everyone else is eating.

6 Thoughts on Nutrition If I take a vitamin pill in the morning, I do not have to worry about what I eat. My health will suffer if I don’t eat well. The food I eat has nothing to do with the way I feel. I would really like to change my eating habits.

7 I would rather eat…. Eat what taste good Eat a nutritional balanced meal. Eat what my friends eat. Eat what looks good! Eat what tastes good! Eat what smells good! Eat what my friends eat Eat a nutritionally balanced meal Eat whatever I like Bring lunch from home Eat in school cafeteria Eat lunch in a fast-food restaurant Eat what I like and nobody else likes Eat what my friends eat Eat what my family eats.

8 Good nutritional choice = hit Compare nutrition to the game of baseball. What would your nutritional choice average be for today?


10 Everyone is born with feelings for hunger.

11 Symptoms of hunger include : Weakness Dizziness Nausea Loss of concentration

12 How do we get rid of hunger? By eating

13 The question is – Just how much do we eat?

14 As a society what messages are we sending about how we feel about our food selection? More is better & Is the meal a good meal or a good deal

15 APPETITE is the desire for food

16 Appetite can be influenced by : Taste Texture Aroma Health Weather Culture Religion Advertising

17 Advertising and Food Groups Candy and gum Cookies and crackers Noncarbonated soft drinks Meats and poultry Vegetables Citrus fruits Cereals Shortenings and Oil Desserts Carbonated soft drinks Macaroni and spaghetti Cheese

18 ORDER OF ADVERTISING Cereals Candy and gum Shortenings and Oil Cookies and Crackers Desserts Noncarbonated soft drinks Carbonated soft drinks Meats and poultry macaroni and spaghetti vegetables cheese and citrus fruits

19 HungerAppetite When hunger & Appetite work together they are balanced.

20 Hunger & Appetite become unbalanced when one : 1.Eats when not hungry 2.Eats when depressed 3.Eats from habit

21 To have the right balance between hunger & appetite – You need to understand when and why you eat.

22 Food selection should be based on sound nutritional practices


24 How has our diet Changed over the last 100 years?

25 Foods I eat Foods that have emotional meaning to me: Foods my ancestors ate and that my family still eats: Foods I eat because they are plentiful where I live: Foods I eat because of my lifestyle: Foods I eat that originated in another country: Foods I eat with friends: Foods I eat because of social traditions:

26 Eating behavior Occupation Household structure Income Knowledge Health beliefs Religious beliefs Cultural background Location of residence personality

27 Why should eating patterns be important to us?

28 Why is being overweight such a problem for young People?

29 Young people that are overweight are more likely to become OBESE adults


31 Diet is related to six(6) of the ten(10) leading causes of death in the United States.

32 Adequate nutrition requires adequate intake of 6 essential nutrients Carbohydrates Fats Proteins That provide energy in the form of calories.

33 Vitamins Minerals Water That allows the body to use the other nutrients

34 What is a calorie? 1 calorie is the amount of heat necessary to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade.

35 Food is measured in Kilocalories (1000) 120 Calories = 120,000


37 Typical portions often contain multiple “servings”

38 How Does Your Diet Compare? List the servings of food you ate during one day in the appropriate categories under My Selections. Compare your eating habits to those suggested by the Food Pyramid

39 Portion Sizes Have students bring a glass from home and estimate whether it contains one serving size. Serving of juice = 4 ounces. Most glasses used by students = 10-16 ounces. Average super-sized meal contains 1500–2000 Calories.

40 Estimating Portion Sizes Palm of hand or a deck of cards is same size as one serving. One serving size of rice or pasta = size of a tennis ball or about the size of fist. One serving of cheese is about the size of one domino or two fingers. Large portion sizes and sedentary lifestyles are linked to overweight and obesity.

41 Portion Sizes Have students bring a glass from home and estimate whether it contains one serving size. –Serving of juice = 4 ounces. –Most glasses used by students = 10-16 ounces. Average super-sized meal contains 1500–2000 Calories. Lack of exercise exacerbates problems caused by large portion sizes. Soft drinks are a major source of hidden Calories.

42 Importance of Reading Food Labels Different categories of nutrients are described on labels. –Grams protein –Grams total carbohydrate –Grams sugar Not all sugar in food is added Substances ending in “ose” are sugars Important to notice –How many serving sizes are within a package? –How many grams of fats are reported as saturated fat? Saturated fat contributes to heart disease. Less than 30% of total Calories consumed should come from fat. Fats provide fewer than 30% of the total Calories in true low-fat foods.

43 Estimating Serving Sizes tennis ball domino deck of cards postage stamp baseball pancake = CD disc 1 teaspoon = 16 oz bottle cap

44 Portions and the American sizes 7 – Eleven drinks 1973 – 12-ounce and 20-ounce 1976 – 16-oz gulp 1978 – 32-oz Big Gulp 1983 – 44-oz Super Big Gulp 1988 – 64-oz Double Gulp – ½ ga 2003 – No more 16-oz. Replaced with 20-oz Current drink sizes: 20 oz, 32 oz, 44 oz, and 64oz


46 Junk Food Fallacy: if allowed to make their own choices, students will make healthy food selections. Junk food = food with minimal nutritional value. Portion sizes of junk food have increased dramatically. Students consume junk food frequently. Soft drinks and other high sugar drinks contribute high numbers of calories to students’ diets.

47 Is “JUNK” Food Really “JUNK” Food? Most of the food we think of as “Junk” food contains lots of calories, and large amounts of fat, sugar, and salt, but contain few of the other essential nutrients. Low in nutrient density – a measure of the nutrients compared to energy provided.

48 How much sugar should we consume each day? For a 2,000 calorie diet, a person should eat no more than 10 t of added sugar a day. The average American consumes about 20 t each day. 12 oz of soda contains about 9 t

49 To make up for eating the food lacking in nutrients, try to eat healthier foods at other times during the day. Keywords to remember are: MODERATION & BALANCE

50 How can a slice of pizza and tacos be healthy foods? vegetable = tomato sauce grain = crust dairy product = cheese fruit = ? meat = ? TACO

51 Lack of Variety in Adolescent Diets In some situations, students must try to make a better “bad choice,” based on knowledge. –Drink water instead of sweetened drinks. –Reduce portion sizes. –Avoid fried foods. Eating habits often are linked to convenience. Use a dinner plate to estimate how much of your diet should come from fruits and vegetables. –1/2 of plate should contain fruits and vegetables. –Other 1/2 should contain a protein and a starch. Include variety: try a new fruit or vegetable each week.

52 Food and Fitness Virtual Workshop Activity Three: Your Energy Needs

53 How many calories do you need each day?

54 Calories In Versus Calories Expended Compare your daily Calorie intake to recommendations, based on Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and activity levels. If Calories eaten > Calories used, excess energy is stored as fat. If Calories eaten = Calories used, a constant body weight is maintained. If Calories eaten < Calories used, fat is burned to make up the difference.

55 Females take your body weight and multiply by 10 Males take your body weight and multiply by 11

56 This gives you the amount of calories needed for you to breath, heart beat, and cell functioning.

57 Activity Calories Depending on your activity level take the # you got for your BMR and multiply it by:.30 if inactive.50 if average activity.75 very active or some strenuous activity

58 Digestive calories Add the # of calories for BMI to # of calories for activity and multiply by 0.1


60 Fats and oils are concentrated energy sources. Fats have nine Calories (kcal) per gram. Proteins and carbohydrates have four Calories (kcal) per gram. Some fats are important for health. Omega-3 fats from fish and flaxseed oils may help protect against cardiovascular disease. Unsaturated fats, such as olive, peanut, canola, or corn oil can help raise levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol. As a general rule, liquid vegetable oils are the healthiest choices

61 Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Changes with Age Daily Baseline Calorie (kcal) Needs Age in Years Daily Baseline Calorie Needs of a Female, by Age (weight = 127pounds, height = 64 inches

62 Six Nutrients needed by the body

63 Carbohydrates Main source of food Energy – 4 Cal/g


65 3 classes of Carbohydrates Simple sugars - glucose Short-chained sugars- fruits, vegetables, honey, table sugar Long-chained sugars – starches and fiber – vegetables, grains, potatoes

66 Why is dietary fiber Important? Roughage and the lowering of blood cholesterol.

67 Carbohydrates should make up 45 to 65% of our daily calorie intake. 10% from sugars 25 – 35 grams of fiber.

68 When you eat more carbohydrates than the body needs, it is stored as glycogen. Glycogen is the body’s quick energy source.

69 Fat Most concentrated form of energy food 9 Calories/gram – 252 Calories/ oz.

70 Fat is harder to digest than carbs and proteins and stored in the body in the fatty tissue.

71 Fat intake for teens should be 25 to 35% of total calorie intake.

72 Uses of Fat Body heat Organ protection Sense of fullness Needed for vitamin use

73 2 Types of Fat Saturated – animal, palm and coconut oil (Solid at room temp) Unsaturated – vegetable, fish oils

74 Two types of unsaturated oil Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Both help reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease.

75 What is Trans fats? Trans fats are formed when vegetable oils are made into hard margarines. Trans fats increase the risk of heart disease.

76 CHOLESTEROL Fat like substance found in foods of animal origins also produced by liver.

77 Is cholesterol a type of fat? Cholesterol is a type of steroid Steroids are types of lipids Lipid is a compound made of carbon and hydrogen. testosterone and estrogen

78 Two types of cholesterol HDL – “good” LDL – “bad” – it can build up on the blood vessel walls – restricts or blocks blood flow.


80 How do you figure cholesterol level? Divide total cholesterol level by the HDL level. Ratio between 5 and 9 is normal

81 PROTEINS Made of chains of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

82 Proteins are used for growth and repair Eating extra protein is important if I want to build bigger muscles? TRUE or FALSE Muscles grow in response to weight training.

83 What is PEM? Protein-energy malnutrition Most prevalent in children of developing countries because of their high energy needs

84 Child with PEM

85 Proteins are made of 20 amino acids, 11 of which are made in the body -----

86 The other 9 – the Essential amino acids – Must be gotten from the food eaten

87 Complete proteins come from foods that contain all 9 of the EAA Animal sources

88 Incomplete Proteins – contain only some of the 9 EAA Plant sources

89 The incomplete proteins must be mixed in order to get the amino acids needed. +

90 Choosing a Vegetarian Diet A vegetarian diet is one in which few or no animal products are eaten. Vegans are vegetarians that eat no animal products in any form. Most vegetarians get all the proteins they need from the small amounts of animal products they eat. Vegans must eat from a variety of plant sources to get all the essential amino acids and other important nutrients.

91 Proteins should make up 10 to 35% of the daily calorie intake

92 Vitamins Compounds that help regulate certain chemical reactions in the body

93 Body makes D and K

94 Two types of Vitamins Fat-soluble – A,D,E,& K stored in fat Water-soluble – B & C not stored in body



97 Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin Anight blindness, death, dryness of eye Vitamin B1Poor memory, beriberi Vitamin B2skin cracking in corners of mouth Vitamin B6Nerve damage and convulsions FolateDiarrhea, wt loss, birth defects Vitamin DRickets – skeletal deformities in children Vitamin Eanemia, destruction of nerve cells, loss of reflexes

98 Minerals Natural occurring substances that contribute to the normal functioning of the body. 20 minerals needed

99 Types of Minerals Macro minerals – calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulphur.

100 Trace minerals Copper, Fluorine, Iodine Iron, Zinc

101 Importance of Minerals Minerals combine to form salts. When in solution they dissolve and form charged particles called Electrolytes.

102 Sodium & chlorine is Important for fluid balance Too much Sodium causes high blood pressure


104 Mineral Deficiencies Calcium – muscle cramps, retarded growth in children Copper – anemia Iodine – goiter, retardation of brain development Iron – anemia, weakness Magnesium – nervous system disturbances Phosphorus – weakness Sodium – muscle cramps, loss of appetite Zinc – under development of sex glands, slow wound healing.

105 1 teaspoon of salt = 2000 mg Daily intake should be no more than 3000 mg

106 Water The body’s most essential nutrient – vital in every body function.

107 Uses of Water Carries nutrients Lubricates joints Enables swallowing and digestion Cools body

108 How do we obtain water? How much water do we need?

109 What is a good way to check for dehydration? Urine color – Clear – ok Colored – add water

110 What is the Food Pyramid and its use?





115 Fad Diets Diets that promise quick and unrealistic results

116 Fad Diets are the ones that promise quick result in a short amount of time.

117 Weight loss and weight gain should be done at a slow rate by cutting or adding calories and exercise over a period of time.

118 What are some popular Fad Diets? Grapefruit diet 3 day diet 7-day diet Sugar Busters

119 Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa–dieting to an extreme –emotional problems

120 Bulimia – binging on food – Eating large amounts of food in a short period of time.



123 Nutrition Throughout Life Infants who are fed breast milk or formula get the right mix of nutrients, Calories, and other substances necessary for growth and protection from infection. An infant’s diet is high in fat to provide energy for rapid growth and brain development. The nutritional needs of children over 2 can be met by following the Food Guide Pyramid, but with smaller serving sizes. An infant’s diet is high in fat to provide energy for rapid growth and brain development. The nutritional needs of children over 2 can be met by following the Food Guide Pyramid, but with smaller serving sizes.

124 Nutrition Throughout Life During the teen years, the body grows and changes rapidly. Adolescent boys should use the high end of the serving ranges on the Food Guide Pyramid. Adolescent girls should use the middle of the ranges. girls should use the middle of the ranges

125 Nutrition Throughout Life Teens should make sure to meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy needs. Because adults grow less and are less active than teens, they need fewer Calories per day. Adults must still make sure their nutrient needs are met.

126 Special Dietary Needs Athletes must drink lots of fluids and avoid dehydration. Athletes need a diet high in carbohydrates for extra energy. Most athletes do not need extra protein in their diets. Athletes need a diet high in carbohydrates for extra energy. Most athletes do not need extra protein in their diets.

127 Special Dietary Needs Athletes do not need dietary supplements to improve performance. In fact, these supplements can be dangerous. If you take a dietary supplement, do not exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Limit for any nutrient

128 Special Dietary Needs Pregnant women need up to an additional 450 Calories per day. Pregnant women also need additional protein, B vitamins, folate, iron, and zinc. If you have a cold, flu, or other mild illness, drink plenty of fluids. If you have a chronic or long-term illness, you must make sure your diet gives you enough energy and the proper nutrients to fight the illness.

129 Food Safety

130 Food-Borne Illness A food-borne illness is an illness caused by eating or drinking a food that contains a toxin or disease-causing organism.

131 Food-borne Illness Affect the stomach and intestines Food-borne illness can cause diarrhea, cramping,fever, headache, vomiting, and exhaustion

132 Symptoms may appear 30 minutes to several days later, may last a couple of days or less or 7 to 10 days

133 Especially dangerous for young people and older people, as well as people already sick with another infection.

134 30% of food-borne Illness comes from unsafe food handling.

135 Most food born illnesses can be prevented by proper selection, storage, handling, and cooking of food. Replace and wash dishcloths frequently Keep your refrigerator at 41  F Wash hands, utensils, and surfaces with warm, soapy water between each step Cook food to recommended temperatures

136 What are some good practices to develop about the handling of food? Do not leave food standing at room temp too long Cook at a high enough temp to kill bacteria Thaw frozen foods in refrigerator or microwave. Eat leftovers quickly or discard them Review “use by” dates, and other label warnings. Don’t overcrowd the refrigerator.

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