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MIDDLE AGES McKay-Chapter 12. CATASTROPHES 1300-1453 climactic change ecological collapse European pandemic fall of Byzantine Empire economic decline.

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Presentation on theme: "MIDDLE AGES McKay-Chapter 12. CATASTROPHES 1300-1453 climactic change ecological collapse European pandemic fall of Byzantine Empire economic decline."— Presentation transcript:

1 MIDDLE AGES McKay-Chapter 12

2 CATASTROPHES climactic change ecological collapse European pandemic fall of Byzantine Empire economic decline civil strife in new cities and nations religious upheavals steep decline in European population

3 LITTLE ICE AGE Unusual amount of storms brought torrential rains, ruining the crops Poor harvests (1 in 4) led to starvation

4 GREAT FAMINE Between repeated waves of local famine swept over various parts of Europe Inadequate food supplies Less energy= lower productivity (not enough to eat during Great Famine) Kings across Europe selfish and not help their people Overpopulation, economic depression, famine, and bad health progressively weakened Europe’s population- vulnerable to bubonic plague

5 BLACK DEATH Called Black Death because of the way it colored the bodies Cause- rat flea with microorganism “Yersinia pestis” inhabited black rat (rattus rattus) Spread- drought in Mongolia/China, ships followed trade routes to Europe st - Constantinople, Sicily, then Venice, Genoa, Pisa, 1348 France, Spain, England _spielvogel/InteractiveMaps/swfs/map11_1.html

6 CAUSES OF BLACK DEATH? Feared causes- bad air, wrath of God, Jews, cats, dogs Some thought earthquakes Others thought sexual promiscuity Blamed Jews-Pogroms occurred (organized riots against Jews)

7 REMEDIES Affected the Lungs Coughing, wheezing- airborne so spread quickly Flagellants- hitting oneself (done by religious fanatics)- but dirty, bleeding diseases may have spread the Plague even more; finally outlawed

8 Ring Around the Rosie Ring around the rosy, A pocketful of posies. ashes, ashes. We all fall down!. Ring a-ring o' roses, A pocketful of posies. a-tishoo!, a-tishoo!. We all fall down.

9 ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF BLACK DEATH Shrunken labor supply Decline in value of nobility estates Farms decline- # of farm labors decrease, so wages increase Agricultural products demand down, so price down Noble landowners suffered worst because forced to pay for finished products and farm labor, while receiving smaller return on agricultural produce

10 ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF BLACK DEATH- Peasants Revolt To recoup losses, landowners converted their land to sheep pasture, substituting more profitable wool production for labor-intensive grains English Parliament passed Statute of Laborers- limited wages to pre-plague levels, restricted ability of peasants to leave their masters’ land couldn’t stand such legislation, revolted!

11 SOCIAL EFFECTS OF BLACK DEATH intensification of superstition and hysteria rise of religious fanaticism civil and church persecution of witchcraft served as excuse to continue Jewish pograms upswing in violent death morbid preoccupation with death abandonment of duties belief in return of Christ and end of the world increase in pleasurable activities suspicion of travellers and pilgrims profound pessimism slighting of funeral rites

12 SOCIAL EFFECTS OF BLACK DEATH Rise of cities- cities passed legislation to regulate competition from rural areas and to control immigration (so as not to overcrowd) After the Plague, this legislation extended into rural areas where nobles lived- they were then integrated into urban life Demand for furs, jewels, expensive clothes- always in small supply, but now skilled artisans in shortage, so even more expensive This rise in price encouraged workers to migrate to the city and learn the artisan skills Cities now full of wealth, products from countryside declined

13 HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR Normans of England vs. Capetian kings of France Between A struggle for national identity

14 CAUSES OF HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR Began when England’s King Edward III (only 15yrs), grandson of France’s Philip the Fair- wanted the throne because no apparent French Heir. Instead chose Charles Philip VI of Valois, nephew of Philip the Fair (ruled in early 1300s) England and France always enemies Edward also vassal (person granted land for accepting obligations to render services to a lord) of Philip VI- holding several territories in France England owning land in France threatened centralized power- could be swayed into going either French of English English had better technology (used longbow), and more clever Kings

15 HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR England captured France’s King, John II- created political breakdown in France Power in France then by the Estates General (representive council of townspeople, clergy, nobles)- but too divided to be effective government Both England and France having rebellions in own country (civil wars over taxes and peasants vs. nobles). Peasants rebelled (rebellions known as Jacquerie), but nobles quickly put these to rest. When Edward III died, England’s effort lessened because having own peasant rebellions. Henry V ( ) took over, but France highly divided Then came Charles VII to lead France to victory

16 Hundred Years’ War- Joan of Arc Peasant Went to French King (then Charles VII, losing political power b/c losing war), said King of Heaven told her to safe Orleans from English Orleans key to control French territory English in Orleans exhausted when Joan arrived Not a great military expert, but gave troops feeling of national identity and destiny Charles VII forgot about her soon after when he was in full power. The Burgundians (under English rule), captured Joan, turned over to Inquisition Burned as Heritic. Eventually made a Saint in Catholic Church

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18 EFFECTS OF HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR Ended b/c Burgundians made peace with Charles VII, helped push English out Devastated France and weakened them nationally Hastened transition from feudal monarchy to centralized state Hit Peasants hardest b/c forced to support war with taxes and services Presented opportunities for wealth- Poor and unemployed knights were offered regular wages; criminals granted pardons; nobles given estates; fighters could keep whatever seized if won; Decline of Medieval Chivalry

19 DECLINE IN CHURCH PRESTIGE Heresy Babylonian Captivity Great Schism Council of Pisa Council of Constance Conciliar Movement

20 WYCLIFFE John Wycliffe- English. Wanted end to Papal claims of power. Said we should look only to scriptures (Bible). Get rid of saints, luxuries, etc. Because of him- first English Bible! People could actually read it on their own! Precursor to Protestant Reformation

21 HUS Jan Hus- Czech Supported vernacular translations of Bible Advocated communion with cup and bread (before just for the clergy- showed their superiority over everyone) Hus leader of Wycliff teachings in Bohemia Followers called Hussites His teaching brought him to excommunication in 1410 Burned at the stake in 1414 for Heresy Bohemia revolted after their national hero burned Hussites won significant control over the Bohemian church with religious reforms after a decade of fighting

22 BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY From Popes live in Avignon, south- eastern France Philip the Fair of France (start of 100 yrs war) wanted Pope Clement V to move to Avignon so could control the Church Clement too sick with Cancer, followed Philip’s advice Period of time called Babylonian Captivity b/c of reference to 70 yrs of Hebrew captivity in Mesopotamian Babylon

23 BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY Badly damaged papal prestige Popes here focused more on bureaucratic matters, no spiritual objectives Life of luxury and extravagance Cut off from Rome

24 GREAT SCHISM Popes back at Rome Urban VI ( ): Italian; chosen as Pope b/c cardinals voting were pressured to bring Church back to Rome officially with Italian Pope- but cardinals swore it was voted sincerely Urban want to reform church- no luxuries, but in a tactless and bullheaded manner Cardinals called out for luxuries- defacing their reputation

25 GREAT SCHISM Urban VI becoming arrogant with Power, now corrupt Cardinals slipped away to France, declared Urban’s election invalid b/c made under threats In Fondi (btw Rome and Naples), elected Clement VII Pope Thus 2 Popes This divide (called the Great Schism) split Western Christendom until 1417 France with Clement, England with Urban Brought about ideas of the Church government

26 COUNCILS Constance permanently ended split elected Martin V

27 CONCILIAR MOVEMENT Conciliarists- believe reform of church best be achieved through periodic assemblies, or general councils, representing all Christian people Pope head, but Pope receive authority from entire Christian community- not an absolute monarch Wanted Papal authority shared with general council, not monarchy

28 DECLINE OF FEUDALISM resurgence of Roman law (displaces feudal contract) new weapons (replaces castles) growth of commerce (displaces manorial system) Black Death (caused labor shortage, higher wages) Hundred Years War nobility seek more power national identity established (popes have less power and prestige)

29 14 TH CENTURY MARRIAGE Church said for marriage to be valid, both partners must consent- but parents arranged due to financial reasons When decided on a spouse for child, parents paid a merchet- fine to lord for woman’s marriage, since he lost a worker Women married around Men married in 20s Peasants didn’t marry until mid-late 20s (m &w) More tolerance for male sexuality than female- prostitution not respected for women, but legal Loved their children, had lots to work the land Divorce not allowed Annulments granted in extraordinary circumstances

30 PARISH LIFE Intertwined with Farm life for peasants Apprenticeships typical Life in general patriarchal- women had very defined roles Fur-collar crime: inflation led the nobles to steal from the peasants (called fur-collar b/c only nobility allowed to wear fur)  Think Robin Hood  Represented the deep resentment for aristocratic corruption

31 FRENCH PEASANT REVOLT Cause- breakdown in order and economic dislocation; action of desperation Sides- Parisians wanted to limit monarchial power, while landed nobles wanted to hold onto politically privileged position Results- initially successful in short-term gains): (castles burned, nobles killed); quickly crushed (privileged classes closed ranks, savagely massacred rebels and ended revolt) Why failed- geographically dispersed, no unity between urban and rural, no long-range goals, no experience ruling

32 ENGLISH PEASANT REVOLT Cause- product not of desperation but of rising expectations; monarch’s imposition of poll tax on each adult Sides- peasants (greater freedom, higher wages, lower rent); aristocratic landlords (legislation to depress wages, attempt to re-impose old feudal dues) Results- initial success (manors burned, officials murdered) but march on London demanded end to serfdom and immunity

33 VERNACULAR LITERATURE Dante- The Inferno, Divine Comedy Chaucer- Canterbury Tales (1 st to use rhymed couplets in iambic pentameter); 1 st great English poet, Villon- Grant Testament de Pisan- The Book of the City of Ladies

34 CHRISTIAN PILGRIMAGES Goal- travel either to Canterbury Cathedral or Jerusalem Purposes- expose them to religious sites and sacred objects Why go?- cure ailments, ill relations, show of devotion, enjoyment and recreation,

35 EFFECTS OF PRINTING PRESS reading increased quantity of books increased price of books decreased power of Church decreased knowledge increased


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