5 of 139 Interesting Talks David Pogue http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/7 TED : Ideas Worth Spreading www.ted.comwww.ted.com Tony Robbins http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/96
6 of 139 Interesting Talks (cont…) Sir Ken Robinson http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/66 TED : Ideas Worth Spreading www.ted.comwww.ted.com Richard St. John http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/70 http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/70
7 of 139 Interesting Talks (cont…) Hans Rosling http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/92 TED : Ideas Worth Spreading www.ted.comwww.ted.com Dick Hardt – the Lessig Style http://www.identity20.com/media/OSCON2005/ http://www.identity20.com/media/OSCON2005/
9 of 139 Presentation PMI Let’s do a quick PMI on presentations that you have been at –P: What things have people done in presentations that have worked well? –M: What things have people done in presentations that have worked badly? –I: What interesting things have you seen people do in presentations?
Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction 1. Gain attention - Curiosity motivates students to learn. 2. Inform learners of objectives - These objectives should form the basis for assessment. 3. Stimulate recall of prior learning - Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process. 4. Present the content - This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner. 5. Provide “learning guidance” - use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies. 6. Elicit performance (practice) - Eliciting performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further increases the likelihood of retention. 7. Provide feedback - guidance and answers provided at this stage are called formative feedback. 8. Assess performance - take a final assessment. 9. Enhance retention and transfer to the job - Effective education will have a "performance" focus.
Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory 1. Organizing Course Structure: Single organisation for complete course 2. Simple to complex: start with simplest ideas, in the first lesson, and then add elaborations in subsequent lessons. 3. Within-lesson sequence: general to detailed, simple to complex, abstract to concrete. 4. Summarizers: content reviews presented in rule-example-practice format 5. Synthesizers: Presentation devices that help the learner integrate content elements into a meaningful whole and assimilate them into prior knowledge, e.g. a concept hierarchy, a procedural flowchart or decision table, or a cause-effect model. 6. Analogies: relate the content to learners' prior knowledge, use multiple analogies, especially with a highly divergent group of learners. 7. Cognitive strategies: variety of cues - pictures, diagrams, mnemonics, etc. - can trigger cognitive strategies needed for processing of material. 8. Learner control: Learners are encouraged to exercise control over both content and instructional strategy. Clear labelling and separation of strategy components facilitates effective learner control of those components.
Component Display Theory` FactConceptProcedurePrinciple Use Identify or Classify Demonstrate – How to Explain why or predict Find State or DefineState stepsState relationship Remember Recall or Recognise Recall or Recognise definition or example Recall or Recognise steps or example Recall or Recognise principles or example
Course Website: http://www.comp.dit.ie/bmacnameehttp://www.comp.dit.ie/bmacnamee Take Home Presentation Tips
16 of 139 Edward Tufte’s Presentation Tips Edward Tufte makes the following suggestions for giving presentations: –Show up early –Have a strong opening What's the problem? Who cares? What's your solution? –On every subtopic move from the particular to the general and back to the particular –Give everyone at least one piece of paper –Know your audience
17 of 139 Edward Tufte’s Presentation Tips (cont…) –Rethink the overhead –The audience is sacred –Humour is good –Avoid masculine (or even feminine!) pronouns as universals “They” has been accepted by the Oxford English Dictionary for years –Take care with questions –Let people know you believe your material –Finish early –Drink lots of water
18 of 139 Edward Tufte’s Presentation Tips (cont…) –Have a strong conclusion –Think about all presentation possibilities –Practice, practice, practice Film your presentation Play it back and watch yourself Watch it without the sound Listen to it without the picture Watch it at twice the normal speed –Have your first couple of lines rehearsed
19 of 139 Rethinking The Overhead “PowerPoint presentations too often resemble a school play – very loud, very slow, and very simple” -Edward Tufte “The Cognitive Style Of Power- Point: Pitching Out Corrupts Within”, Edward Tufte, 2006 Edward Tufte is an analytical design guru (who would rail against being on this slide!)
20 of 139 NASA & PowerPoint After the Columbia space shuttle crashed in 2003 the Columbia Accident Investigation Board fingered PowerPoint as one of the culprits NASA, had become too reliant on presenting complex information via PowerPoint New York Times Article: PowerPoint Makes You DumbPowerPoint Makes You Dumb Wired.com Article: PowerPoint Is EvilPowerPoint Is Evil
24 of 139 Let’s Assume We Don’t! Tips for good PowerPoint presentations –Include only necessary information –Avoid long paragraphs of text –Don’t overcrowd the presentation –Don’t forget to spell check –Don’t be afraid to use pictures – but be careful of overused clip-art –Be consistent with formatting –Have a backup plan –Remember slides are not the same as notes
25 of 139 PowerPoint Tips: Colours & Fonts Colours: –Limit the number of colours –Use contrasting colours for background and text –Try to think about accessibility Font: –Always use size 20 or bigger –Larger font may be used for emphasis Somebody who is colour blind won’t be able to read this!
26 of 139 PowerPoint Tips: Colours & Fonts (cont…) Using too small font is impossible to read CAPITALIZE ONLY WHEN NECESSARY Don’t use complicated fonts Using a font colour that does not contrast with the background colour is hard to read Using a different colour for each point is unnecessary –Using a different colour for secondary points is also unnecessary Trying to be creative can also be bad
27 of 139 PowerPoint: Colours & Fonts (cont…) Avoid backgrounds that are distracting or difficult to read from Always be consistent with the background that you use
28 of 139 PowerPoint Tips: Animation Using animation in PowerPoint is almost always a bad idea! It just confuses people and makes your slides take forever to appear Also you spend all of your time pressing the next slide button So don’t do it! Except when it adds to the clarity of your presentation
29 of 139 Oral Presentation Tips Some tips for oral presentations: –Body language is important –Speak loudly and clearly –Try to put some feeling into your voice –Do not read from notes –Maintain eye contact with your audience –Speak to your audience –Don’t be afraid to take a pause –Don’t be afraid to correct yourself
30 of 139 Handling Questions Questions at the end are just about the most important part of a presentation –Repeat the question to the audience –Restate or ask for clarification if necessary –Request that questions are asked during the talk or afterwards –Avoid prolonged one-to-one discussions –If you can’t answer a question, just say so –Have a dedicated questions slide
31 of 139 Conclusion The most important things to remember when giving presentations are: –Think about your audience –Think about your objective –Think carefully about visual aides (slides) –Speak confidently, clearly and to the audience –PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE Presentation Zen: www.presentationzen.comwww.presentationzen.com