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Swine Management and Industry

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1 Swine Management and Industry
Animal Science Level 2

2 Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet
WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING? AS Basic: Recognize, Identify, and Evaluate the effects of disease and parasites in animals AS.03.01: ID breeds and species that are economically important

3 Know Understand Do! Know Types of swine breeds
Basic Care Requirements Industry Standards Do Graphic Organizer of Swine Breeds Summarize care practices Analyze disease effects on Animals Understand Defining Characteristics of swine breeds Proper care and disease prevention Physiology of swine

4 Key Learning: Swine Management and Industry
Unit EQ: Why is the swine industry “under appreciated” ? Concept : Types Lesson EQ: How are swine breeds defined? Vocab Swine Index Confirmation Sound Concept : Industry Practices Lesson EQ: How is the swine industry efficient? Vocab Farrow – to- Finish Fabrication/Slaughte r Grouping Concept : Management and Care Lesson EQ: How are swine managed? Vocab PQA Farrowing Gilt, Boar

5 Swine Management and Industry
Animal Science Level 2 Breeds, Types, and Their Purposes

6 Warm Up Where does this product come from?
Pair Share with your face partner

7 Essential Question How are swine breeds defined?

8 Breeds of Swine: Follow Along with your graphic organizer

9 American Landrace Developed around 1895 Long body length
Ears large and drooping Sows noted for good milk production

10 Berkshire Developed in England Came to U.S. in 1823 Medium size hog
Erect ears, short snout 6 white points

11 Chester White Developed in PA. Drooped ears
Known for mothering ability

12 Duroc Developed in eastern U.S. Drooped ears Red in color
One of the most popular breeds in U.S.

13 Hampshire Developed in England Erect ears White band circling the body
Know for lean meat

14 Poland China Developed in Ohio Black with six white points
Drooping ears One of the larger breeds of hogs Used in cross breeding programs

15 Spotted Breed Developed in Indiana
At least 20% of body must be either black or white First known as the Spotted Poland China

16 Tamworth Originated in England Brought to U.S. in 1882 Red in color
Lean meat Excellent mothering ability

17 Yorkshire Developed in England Came to U.S. in 1800s Erect ears
Sometimes has black freckles

18 Vietnamese Potbelly Developed from a dwarf swine breed from Vietnam in the 1960s Brought to U.S from Canada in 1986 Full grown potbellied pigs weigh an average of lb. Utilized as a pet

19 Activities Complete your Graphic Organizer
Attempt your crossword puzzle. Discuss next class

20 Swine Management and Industry
Animal Science Level 2 Evaluating Swine: What makes the best pig?

21 Warm Up Take at these two photos, utilizing your notes THINK, PAIR, and then SHARE which pig would be better for Meat Production A Pet And why!

22 Picking the Perfect Pig: Major Categories
I. Visual appraisal II. Production testing III. Pedigree evaluation

23 Visual Appraisal Parts of the Hog (fill in your worksheet)

24 Visual Appraisal 1. Look at confirmation
2. Structural soundness of feet and legs- NPPC scoring system 3. Size and scale- weigh 200 at 6months, 4. Health and vigor

25 Visual Appraisal NPPC scoring system
Unsound- Obvious restriction of movement Intermediate- Structural condition is not serious enough to create risk in movement Sound- free of major or minor structural weakness

26 II. Swine Performance data
Based on: Sow productivity, growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass merit

27 Heritability: % rate that a trait/characteristic will be passed on to offspring Low heritability means it is unlikely that trait will be passed on High Heritability means that trait is easily passed on to each generation Why do we care? Heritability ensures we receive desired traits from generation to generation

28 A sow is productive if? Prolific- min 8/9 offspring
2.5 to 4 lb birth wt. 21 day litter wt= milking ability Sow index  

29 1. I think it means…… 2. Because….
Lit Frayer model: Copy the box and the sentence in the middle. THEN Complete box 1 and two on your own THEN Share with a partner 1. I think it means…… 2. Because…. 3. The sow won best in her class at the state fair because her sow index was highest out of every other sow in her group. 4. It is actually defined as ….. 5. An easy way I could remember this is…

30 Lets do the math Sow index:= 100+6.5(L-l)+1.0(W-w)
L= # piglets born alive l= avg. # piglets born alive for contemp group W= 21 day weight for individual w= 21 day weight for contemp group Basically, how well does your cow rank against her peers

31 b. growth weight   Number of days required to reach a specific weight Usually 230 pounds

32 c. Feed efficiency   amount of weight gained per amount of food eaten

33 What are the types of Hogs
What are the types of Hogs? Primary Lean Cuts = hams, loins, picnics, Boston Butts Meat Type Hog: more than half the weight of a Number 1 animal is Primary Lean Cuts (PLC) Bacon Type Hog: less than 1/2 is PLC –      large litter size –      little value in U.S. except to increase litter size d. Carcass merit  

34 d. Carcass merit USDA grades 1,2,3,4, Utility Based on yield of lean cuts: Backfat over last rib Muscling 1 is good and Utility is undesirable

35 What it comes down to: Hog Selection
U Feed Conversion Rate: pounds of feed needed to make a pound of hog – no more than 4 lbs of feed per 1 lb of hog U Minimum Litter Size = 9 U First Litter should have a combined pig wt at 21 days of 95 lbs or more –      110 lbs for a mature sow

36 Fun Facts: Did you know Uncle Sam was a New York pork packer who sent barrels of Pork to troops in the War of 1812 stamped U.S. Living High on the Hog came about because the higher rank you were in the army the better cut of pork you got. Heaviest Hog ever: was a Poland China named Big Bill weighing 2,552 lbs.

37 Activity Most Productive Piggie Worksheet
Calculators and extra paper Ready!

38 Swine Management and Industry
Animal Science Level 2 Management Systems

39 This or THAT Which pig is happier? Rally Robin
Each student only give 1 reason why you think pig A is happier than pig B

40 Essential Question How are swine managed?

41 Introduction Efficient use of resources is the key to profitability
To remain competitive swine producers MUST select breeding stock that will remain lean and feed efficiently

42 Factors That Affect Profitability
Number of pigs weaned per sow Minimum goal for producers should be pigs per year for each breeding female Females should be bred and managed to produce a minimums of 2.3 litters during each 12 month period Feed efficiency feed wastage should be considered and controlled

43 Types of Swine Production

44 Types Purebred Commercial
Feeder pig production Buying and finishing feeder pigs Complete sow and litter systems Swine production can also be classified according to the type of housing used Pasture, combination pasture and low-investment housing, high-investment total confinement

45 Pasture Management Farrowing a smaller number of sows per year
Requires enough pasture to be able to rotate pasture to reduce disease and parasite problems Farrowing only once or twice a year Low investment in building

46 Confinement Management
High level of mechanization to reduce labor requirements High investment in buildings and equipment Multiple farrowings per year with a large number of hogs raised High level of management ability needed High degree of control over feeding operation Better year-round working conditions Stringent disease and parasite control program Use of very little priced land

47 Purebred Production Specialized
Make up less than 1% of the total hogs raised Produce foundation stock used in commercial production Must be excellent managers Higher investment in labor and record keeping Must keep accurate records Must spend a great deal of time advertising, showing and promoting swine breeds

48 Commercial Means used to produce most of the pork produced in the United States Use crossbreeding Often cross purebred boars onto crossbred sows Good management is necessary

49 Feeder Pig Production Produces pigs that are sold to feeders who feed them to market weights Producer has a herd of breeding sows Baby pigs are taken care of until they reach weaning weight A high producing herd is required An average of pigs marketed per sow is required to break even Goal is to raise uniform groups of feeder pigs for sale Health problems MUST be prevented or carefully treated Generally requires only small investments Farrowing needs to be scheduled to have a steady supply of feeder pigs for sale Requires less total feed

50 Buying and Finishing Feeder Pigs
Operator buys feeder pigs and raises them to market weight Lest investment and managerial ability Possible to feed pigs on pasture or with limited facilities Trend is towards investing in more confinement systems Cost are higher with this operation

51 Buying and Finishing Feeder Pigs
Requires higher investment to purchase pigs Well adapted to producers who have large amounts of grain for feed Requires less labor Disadvantages Health problems Variation in market prices It is a fairly high risk that there will be no profit made

52 Complete Sow and Litter System
Most common method of production Involves Breeding herd of sows Farrowing pigs Caring for and feeding the pigs to market weight Investments Can be low for pasture systems High for confinement systems and facilities Trend is toward more confinement systems with larger numbers of sows being kept in the producing herd

53 Complete Sow and Litter System
Confinement permits spreading the production and marketing of pigs more evenly through the years This results in an increased potential for profit Labor, management and investment requirements vary considerably

54 Activity Break Draw a representation of each type of swine management systems discussed in class

55 Management Practices Continued

56 Pre-breeding Management
Must decide on a breeding system Crossbreeding hogs for slaughter is recommended Crossbred pigs generally grow faster and use feed more efficiently Sows have larger litters and are better mothers

57 Multiple Farrowing Arranging the breeding program so that groups of sows farrow at regular intervals throughout the year Usually results in a higher average price for hogs on a yearly basis Chances of selling at a better prices are increased Income is spread more evenly through the year This makes more efficient use of facilities Reduces the investment per pig raised Year round labor supply is required as well

58 Replacement Gilts Select at 4-5 months of age
Separate from finishing hogs and feed separately Worm gilts and sows before first breeding Spray for external parasites

59 Boars Purchase at least 45-60 days before use
Buy only from healthy, purebred herds with good performance records Isolate the boar when he is first brought to the farm to help prevent disease Treat for internal and external parasites Semen test Test breed on a few market gilts to ensure the boar will breed

60 Boars Age determines the number of time a boar can mate per day or week Mating boars with too many females in a short period of time decreases the boars ability to service

61 Increasing conception and litter size
Can be done by using more than one boar on each female This is easier when hand-mating or using artificial insemination Can also be accomplished with pen breeding Rotate the boars once a day between pens

62 Artificial Insemination
Not widely used in the past Mostly only by the purebred producers Improvements in technology are trending toward more use of AI in commercial herds Advantages Increases the ability to bring superior genetics to the herd Makes the use of superior boars on more sows possible Reduces the risk of disease transmission Makes it possible to bring new bloodlines into the herd

63 Breeding-Gestation Period
Breed gilts at 7-8 months of age and a weight of pounds Breed during the second heat for larger litters Move gilts outside to dirt lots by the time they weigh pounds to increase conception rates Boars should be 7 ½ months of age before breeding

64 Breeding Check for standing heat at least 1 X day
Checking 2 X’s day increases conception rate Breed gilts at least twice at 12 hour intervals after standing heat is detected Breed sows at least twice at 24 hour intervals after standing heat is detected

65 Gestation Keep gilts and sows separate
Boars of the same size and age can be run together during the off-breeding season Do not run boars of different ages together Provide shade to animals on pasture Avoid overheating Supply plenty of fresh water Keep the breeding herd separate from the other hogs to avoid disease

66 Farrowing Period Behavior determines when a sow is about to farrow
Most sows farrow within about six hours after they begin a period of intensive activity Intensive activity is when a sow stands up and lies down more often than once per minute Sows will also root and paw at the pen floor when they are ready to begin farrowing

67 Farrowing Period Farrowing can be induced by giving the sow commercially available drugs days after breeding, the sow will farrow hours later

68 Advantages of Farrowing in a Short Period of Time
Easier to even up litter sizes by cross-fostering piglets Labor is more efficiently utilized Easier to keep a group of sows on a uniform rebreeding schedule Breeding herd can be better managed because the farrowing time is more predictable

69 Farrowing Facilities Must be cleaned and disinfected before sows are placed in them Traffic must be kept to a minimum in farrowing houses Sows must be washed with soap and water before being moved to clean pens Sows should be moved to farrowing pens at least 1 day before farrowing.

70 Farrowing Crates

71 Farrowing Facilities Guard rails and artificial heat are used to protect the baby pigs after birth For newborn pigs the temperature should be degrees F under the heat lamp Heat maps are placed 18” above the pigs After 4-5 days the temperature is lowered to degrees F by raising the heat lamp

72 Caring for Baby Pigs Many are saved by the operator being present at farrowing time Sows need assistance Piglets trapped in after-birth can be saved Baby pigs must be kept warm and dry

73 Caring for Baby Pigs Clip needle teeth Done with disinfected clippers
Pigs less than 2 days old, clip needle teeth at the gum line Pigs over 2 days old, clip 1/3 to ½ of the tooth Avoid injuring the gum The navel cord should also be clipped shortly after birth to 1-1.5” and disinfected with tincture of iodine

74 Video Break! Mike Rowe: On a Pig Farm Be ready to share Rally Robin
The types of management practices you see in the video that we just discussed in our notes

75 Ear Notching Used for identification
Required for registration in purebred associations Determination of right and left ear is made from the rear

76 Ear Notching Most used identification method for baby pigs
Removing a portion of the ear The notches grow as the pig grows Permanent identification Litter # and Pig # Litter # - the pigs right ear Pig # - the pigs left eat

77 Ear Notching Litter # Pig # Number of litter for the whole farm
Not for individual sow Pig # Individual number for the baby pig Has nothing to do with the rest of the farm

78 Ear Notching

79 Ear Notching

80 Ear Notching Activity Foldable Fold like a hot dog
Provide the front and rear views of the following animals 87-5 170-3 92-12 112-9 FRONT VIEW REAR VIEW

81 Ear Notching NOTCH to NUMBER: Put these on the BACK of your Foldable

82 Caring for Baby Pigs Efforts should be made to save runts
Use milk replacer or other methods Feed orally once or twice a day Saves about ½ the pigs that would otherwise die Litter size should equalized Move pigs from large litters to small in order to make them equal. Be sure that pigs nurse colostrums milk before moving them. Make sure the sow has the nursing ability and the number of teats necessary for the number of pigs that are in the litter.

83 Farrowing to Weaning Period
Several important management practices Tail docking Cutting the pigs tail ¼-1/2 inch from the body Done when pigs are 1-3 days old Use side cutting pliers or chicken debeaker Disinfect the tail stub with iodine spray and disinfect the cutter between pigs. Producers of feeder pigs should always Do not dock tail while pigs have scours Docking the tail prevents tail biting among pigs in confinement.

84 Docking Tails

85 Farrowing to weaning period
Give iron injections or oral iron doses Should be done at 2-4 days old Injections should be given in the neck or forearm Iron-dextran shots are given at the rate of mg per pig Give a second dose at 2 wks of age Iron can be added to feed or water at this time. Use care when giving iron shots as an overdose may cause shock

86 Injections 3 types of injections Two sites to give an injection
Subcutaneous Intramuscular Intravenous Two sites to give an injection Neck Ham

87 Injections

88 Injections

89 Farrowing to Weaning Period
Watch closely for scours Treatments with oral drugs work better. Castrate male pigs that will be raised for slaughter Best done when young, before 2 weeks of age is best Do not castrate, vaccinate and wean all in the same period of time as it overstresses the animal.

90 Farrowing to Weaning Period
Start pigs on feed as soon as possible. Control diseases and parasites. This program should be tailored to the farm.

91 Weaning Trend towards earlier weaning
Earlier weaning requires higher levels of management and nutrition Usually means pigs are weaned before 5 weeks of age Average is between 5 and 8 weeks Pigs should weigh at least 12 pounds at the time of weaning Avoid drafts and great temperature change when weaning pigs Group pigs according to size Groups should be no more than 30 pigs if possible

92 Weaning to Market Most management centers around feeding and facilities Hogs are raised either in confinement or on pasture OR

93 Confinement Requires more capital investment Hogs gain a little faster

94 Pasture Good pasture can reduce the need for protein supplements

95 Grouping Group hogs in uniform size lots by weight
Groups should be no large than head Weight range should be no more than 20% above or below the average of the group Hogs should be marketed at about 230 pounds

96 Feed Accounts for 60-65% of the expenses
Wasted feed reduces feed efficiency Feed loss can be reduced by Adjusting feeders at least once a week Controlling rodents in feed storage and feeding areas

97 Medicated Early Weaning
Can help reduce the incidence of disease Sows are given broad spectrum antibiotics before farrowing and during lactation Pigs are weaned at 10 days of age and moved to a new location Pigs are given broad spectrum antibiotics during the first 5 days after birth Phase feeding is used to feed the pigs

98 Advantages Reduced incidence of disease
Research shows an increase of 14% in average daily gain Also shows an increase of 9% in feed efficiency Death loss is reduced

99 Disadvantages Increased cost when multiple sites are used
More facilities are needed Pigs and feed must be transported to other sites Other hog facilities must be 2-10 miles away depending on the disease that is the problem

100 All In/ All Out Method Can improve rate of gain and feed efficiency
Reduces incidence of disease Pigs move as a group from nursery, through growing and finishing and to market Groups consist of pigs farrowed within a short period of time-usually 2-3 weeks

101 All In/ All Out Facilities are cleaned and disinfected between groups
Manure, bedding and feed is moved from the facility when it is cleaned Facilities are left idle for a short period of time between groups

102 Feeder Pigs Generally 8-9 weeks of age Average 35-50 pounds
Faster turnover in the volume of pigs handled Less feed is required for each dollars worth of pig sold Labor is needed year round Good sanitation and disease control are necessary

103 Feeder Pigs Large volume operators have lower costs per pig than small volume operators Net returns are higher for large volume operators as well Up to weaning, feeding and management practices are about the same for feeder pig production as other types pig production Good management and marketing practices are necessary if feeder pig production is to be profitable.

104 Feeder Pigs Should be bought from a reliable source
Isolate newly arrived feeder pigs from other pigs Allow pigs sufficient space, time to rest and shade if is hot Sort pigs into uniform lots according to size Feeding and management practices are similar to those for market hogs

105 Video Review Swine management video with worksheets

106 Swine Management and Care
Animal Science Level 2 Selecting Feed for Swine

107 Feed Costs Range from 55-70% of the total cost of raising hogs
Combining the right kinds of feed in a well balanced ration is one of the most important tasks of the hog producer. Nutrient needs of hogs include Energy Protein Minerals Vitamins water

108 Energy Feeds Corn Barley Buckwheat Milo Wheat Oats Rye Triticale
Potatoes Bakery waste Fats,tallows and greases Molasses

109 Corn Basic energy feed High in digestible carbs Low in fiber Palatable
Other feeds are compared to corn when determining their feed value See table 22-2

110 Corn Co-Products Products from the corn-refining industry
Corn gluten feed Corn germ meal

111 Barley Good substitute for corn
In some parts of the US it is fed more than corn High fiber Slightly less digestible Higher protein Must be supplemented with proteins, minerals, and vitamins Ground medium fine Also rolled or pelleted Not as palatable Poisonous to hogs if scabby

112 Buckwheat Has 80-90% of the feed value of corn 11% crude fiber
Not as palatable Generally mixed with other grains Less protein supplement needed Not recommended for lactating sows or small pigs Can be used for gestating sows and in fast growing rations Not recommended that it be used for more than 50% of the ration Can cause buckwheat rash in white pigs when they are exposed to sunlight

113 Milo Higher protein than corn Can replace all the corn in hog rations
Must be supplemented with protein, minerals and vitamins Has a relative feed value of 90-95% compared to corn

114 Wheat Equal to or slightly higher in feed value than corn Higher in
Protein Lysine Phosphorus Relative feed value is % compared to corn Energy value is slightly lower Relative price of wheat compared to other grains is a determining factor when considering its use in swine rations Must be processed through a roller mill

115 Oats Higher protein, but poorer quality
Protein supplement must be used High in fiber Relative feed value of 85-90% Should not be substituted for more than 20% for growing-finishing hogs Should be medium to finely ground Hulled, rolled oats make an excellent starter ration for baby pigs

116 Rye Not a very good feed for hogs Relative feed value of 90%
Less palatable than other grains Should not make up more than 25% of the grain ration Harder than corn and should be ground Sometimes infested with a fungus called ergot Ergot will cause abortion in pregnant sows and ergot infested rye should never be fed to them It will also slow down gains in growing-finishing hogs

117 Triticale Hybrid cereal grain Cross between wheat and rye
More lysine than corn Not as palatable No more than 50% of the ration should be triticale Some varieties maybe infested with ergot Ergot infested triticale should not be fed to pregnant sows.

118 Triticale Wheat Rye Triticale

119 Potatoes May be fed to hogs Contain mainly carbs
Must be fed with a protein supplement Heavier hogs make better use of potatoes Takes about 400 lbs of spuds to equal the feed value of 100 lbs of corn Should be fed at the rate of 1 part potatoes to 3 parts grain Should be cooked before they are fed

120 Bakery Waste Include Average protein content is about 10%
Stale bread, bread crumbs, cookies, crackers Average protein content is about 10% A good protein supplement must be fed

121 Fats, Tallow and Greases
High energy Make up less than 5% of the ration Used to improve the binding qualities of pelleted feed Binding quality is how well the feed particles stick together Decreases carcass quality if feed in excess Contain no protein, minerals, or vitamins Proper nutrient supplements are essential when these substances are part of the ration

122 Molasses Provide carbs Can be substituted for part of the grain
Should never be more than 5% of the ration May result in scours if over-fed

123 Plant Proteins

124 Soybean Oil Meal Available with a 44 or 49% protein content
49% meal is used in pre-starter and starter rations Both are equal in value for growing-finishing pigs Protein quality is excellent Most widely used protein source in hog rations Very palatable Hogs will overeat soybean oil meal if fed free choice Good balance of amino acids Other feeds that are fed are compared to soybean oil meal when determining their feed value.

125 Cottonseed Meal 40-45% protein Poor quality Low in lysine
Maybe fed as 5% of the protein in the ration Some contains gossypol which is toxic to hogs If the gossypol is removed cottonseed meal may replace up to 50% of the soybean oil meal in the ration Low in minerals Fair in in Vitamin B Not palatable to hogs Do not use as a starter ration

126 Linseed Meal 35-36% protein Poor quality
Must be fed with other protein sources Usually makes up no more than 5% of the ration More calcium than soybean or cotton meals, about the same for Vitamin B Best fed in combination with animal protein sources Acts as a laxative in large amounts

127 Peanut Meal 47% protein Low in several amino acids
Must be fed with other protein sources Becomes rancid if stored more than a few weeks Low in vitamins and minerals

128 Whole Soybeans About 37% protein
Can be used to replace soybean oil meal Higher in energy Lower in protein 6 lbs of whole cooked soybeans can substitute for 5 lbs of soybean oil meal Higher energy of the whole soybeans may increase feed efficiency by 5% Do not use raw soybeans in growing-finishing ration They contain an antitrypsin factor that prevents the action of the enzyme trypsin in non-ruminants such as swine, resulting in a reduction in the availability of tryptophan, an essential amino acid Heating the soybeans destroy the antitrypsin factor

129 Animal Proteins

130 Tankage and Meat Scraps
50-60% protein Inadequate amounts of the amino acid tryptophan Must be used with other protein sources High in calcium, phosphorus Vitamin content is variable Not as palatable as soybean meal Maximum percentage of tankage included depends on the ration being fed Gestation rations 10% Lactation 5% Growing and finishing 5% Starter rations 0%

131 Meat and Bone Meal 50% protein
The amount of bone in the mix determines the value Low in lysine Maximum percentage varies with the type of ration Gestation 10% Lactation, starter, grower, finisher 5%

132 Fish Meal 60-70% protein Excellent quality
High in minerals and vitamins Palatable Usually to expensive to use except in creep rations Maximum fish meal to use is 5%

133 Skim Milk and Buttermilk
33% protein when dry Only worth 1/10 that much when in liquid form Quality is good Good sources of B vitamins Often used in creep rations in the dry form Maximum amount to use in starter rations 20% Dried skim milk should not be used in gestation, lactation, grower or finishing rations

134 Whey Liquid form 1% protein Dry 13-14% protein Excellent quality
Starter rations may contain up to 20% dry whey In gestation, lactation, grower, and finisher rations whey should be limited to no more than 5% dry whey

135 Roughages

136 Alfalfa Meal 13-17% protein Large amounts of vitamins A & B
Excellent roughage for hogs Good source of minerals Should be limited to no more than 5% of the ration for growing-finishing hogs For brood sows it may make up as much as 50% of the ration; it helps keep them from getting too fat For lactating sows it may make up a maximum of 10% of the ration Do not use alfalfa meal in starter rations

137 Alfalfa Hay Generally not used in hog rations except for the breeding herd Hay must be ground and mixed in the ration for self feeding sows and gilts It can be used to make up as much as 1/3 of the ration

138 Silage Most valuable in the ration of breeding stock
10-12 lbs of corn or grass-legume silage can be fed per day to sows and gilts during pregnancy Must be supplemented with protein and minerals Moldy silage should never be fed.

139 Pasture Valuable for feeding the breeding herd
Good quality pasture supplies the same nutrients as alfalfa meal and hay Growing-finishing hogs will not gain as rapidly as those in a dry lot However, pregnant sows and gilts get the exercise they need Putting the breeding herd on good quality pasture supplies enough nutrients that concentrates may be reduced by up to 40% Pasture is also sufficient for the herd boar

140 Minerals & Vitamins

141 4 Major Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Sodium chlorine

142 Trace Minerals Zinc Iron Copper Selenium Manganese iodine

143 Salt Adds sodium and chlorine Should make up about 0.5% of the ration

144 Calcium & Phosphorus Most common source is ground limestone
Ration should contain % Ca Dicalcium phossphate supplies both calcium and phosphorus Ration should contain % phosphorus Other sources of calcium and phosphorus Steamed bone meal Defluorinated rock phosphate

145 Calcium & Phosphorus Feeding too much calcium or phosphorus may reduce the rate of gain for growing-finishing hogs Excess calcium will interact with zinc and cause a zinc deficiency Ratio of calcium to phosphorus should be 1.0 to 1.5 calcium to 1.0 total phosphorus in a grain-soybean meal diet

146 Sources of Trace Minerals
Found in commercial protein supplement mixes Trace mineralized salt is another source Trace mineral premixes are also available

147 Iron and Copper Especially important in baby pig rations
They prevent anemia In addition to the iron supplied in the ration baby pigs should be given iron shots when they are 2-4 days old

148 Zinc Needed to prevent parakeratosis
Early weaned pigs have a higher zinc requirement than older pigs

149 Feeding Minerals Care must be taken
Excess minerals slow the rate of gain Minerals shouldn’t be added to rations that contain commercial protein supplements unless the feed tag says otherwise Mineral mixes can be fed free choice to hogs since they will not overeat minerals if they are receiving enough in the ration.

150 Vitamins Many that are required are already present in the feeds
Vitamins that must be added to the ration are A D E K Riboflavin Niacin Pantothenic acid Choline Vitamin B12

151 Vitamins May be added as part of
complete protein supplements Mineral-vitamin premixes Vitamin premixes The major differences between these sources is the amount of vitamins they contain and their costs

152 Vitamins It is difficult to determine the exact amount of vitamins they contain since the feed tags do not usually list the amounts Past experience with a particular mix is the best guide to follow in selecting a vitamin source

153 Vitamins Complete supplements and mineral-vitamin premixes usually cost more than vitamin premixes If the producer does not have mixing equipment on the farm it is best to use complete mixes. Premixes are used in such small amounts per ton that it is difficult to mix them into the ration properly

154 Water

155 Water One of the most important nutrients
Plenty of water should be available at all times It should be fresh, clean and no colder than 45 degrees F It should be checked periodically for nitrate content To much nitrate or nitrite in the water is not good for hogs See fig 22-2 p. 423

156 Additives

157 Additives Increase efficiency Enable pigs to Grow at a faster rate
Improve feed conversion Reduce disease stress

158 Common Additives Anthelmintics Antibiotics Arsenicals Nitrofurans
Sulfa compounds

159 Sources of Additives Complete protein supplements Complete mixed feeds
Premixes Must be carefully mixed into the ration for even distribution

160 Factors to Consider when Evaluating Additives
Costs Which additives are included Amounts of additives in the source

161 Other Rules for Additives
Feed tag instructions must be carefully followed Withdrawal times must be observed when marketing hogs

162 Preparation of Feeds

163 Preparation of feeds Hog feeds are generally ground for most efficient use Corn, barley, milo, and oats should be finely ground Wheat should be coarsely ground

164 Pelleting Feed Improves efficiency Less feed waste
Improves high fiber rations Buying complete pelleted feed may be less expensive

165 Liquid or Paste Reduces waste Rate of gain increase
Higher costs for labor No clear advantage to feeding liquids or pastes

166 Wet Feeding Made from different materials
Stainless steel last longer but is more expensive Some are made of plastic—they are easier to clean Need to be kept in an area that doesn’t freeze Must be checked frequently Better management is needed No advantage to cooking, soaking or fermenting

167 Activity Design a Crossword Puzzle Complete a Crossword Puzzle
Complete the Summary Graphic Organizer

168 Summarizing Feed in Swine
Feed Stuff/ Ingredient Category Why is it used in Swine? (3 points) 5 Examples within the group Picture to help you remember Roughages Plant Proteins Animal Proteins Energy Feeds Vitamins and Minerals

169 Swine Industry Overview
Animal Science Level 2 Industry Overview

170 Slaughter Processes Three Stages:
Preslaughter handling, stunning, slaughter Humane Slaughter Act: required throughout processing

171 Preslaughter Handling
Major Concern Especially in pork Increased stress releases hormones and changes meat quality Stress can be reduced by: Not mixing groups of animals Adequate ventilation No overcrowding No food hours prior. Only water !

172 Stunning Restrained in a chute single file Three methods Electrical
Electricity passes through the brain Mechanical Pistol Gasing Carbon Dioxide

173 Slaughter Normally suspended by hind leg Bled out (exsanguination)
Sever carotid artery and jugular vein. Process varies by species

174 Slaughter: Swine Stunned electrically or by gas Hung by back legs
Exsanguination Skin left on! Scalding tank (145 degrees) loosens scurf (hair etc) Dehairing machine Head removed Evisceration Intestines saved for natural casing

175 Hog Farm Density in US

176 Activity Research States with the highest hog density using a computer with a partner What possibly environmental risks are present? Why are these areas “good” for hog farming? Written Response Pair/Share Carousel Critique Spend 2 minutes reading their paper 1 minute giving 1 positive and 1 minute giving something to add

177 Peer Edit Following the rubric below, give your peer a grade. Once finished grade your letter _____/20. Give 2 things they could do improve their letter. Return to the owner. After review these will be collected Category 1 3 5 Sentence Structure Many errors that effect ability to understand their point Some errors, but still able to understand the main ideas Easy to read, good punctuations, no spelling errors Information Made no connections to the video Mentioned problems, but did not connect to the video Explained all Problems and used examples from the vide Length Did not meet the 1 page requirement Met requirement partially, not correct spacing or length Met length requirement double spaced one page Delivery Information not helpful Information minorly helpful Information very helpful

178 Hog Life Cycle Review Model
Birth to Weaning Weaning to Market Weight Slaughter Process Answer all the EQs (4) A Hog’s Life


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