Basic Design Principles 4 Focus 4 Balance 4 Directional Flow 4 Unity 4 White Space 4 Borders 4 Choosing Type
Focus 4 Use contrasting size, density, and page position. 4 Use large, bold display type or graphics. 4 Use elements with visual weight. An element to which the eye first moves.
Balance 4 Formal Balance-- centers all design elements around the visual center. How elements are distributed on a page.
Balance 4 Informal Balance-- arranges design elements off center. 4 It is achieved by contrasts of weights around a balance point.
Directional Flow 4 Create flow on the page with lines within illustrations, rules, and lines of type, and with visuals. 4 Use the “Z” pattern of reading to place important information. 4 Use left-to-right and top- to-bottom for graphic elements. Created by lines that the eye follows on a page.
Unity 4 Create unity with the use of appropriate and consistent elements. 4 Use appropriate type, graphics, and color: be consistent!
White (Nonprinted) Space 4 Design the white space; do not overcrowd type and graphic elements. 4 20 to 25% of your documents should be white space.
Borders 4 Borders isolate a page or a section of a page. 4 Borders can be light or dark or on all sides or on selected sides.
Choosing Type 4 The type must contribute to the message, not detract from it. 4 The type must match the message. 4 Use the same typeface for the same elements. Vary the size to change the look. ABC a b c
Body Text 4 Choose a serif typeface for body text. 4 Body text should be from 9-12 points. 4 Leading should be at least a point more than the type size. 4 Avoid excessive hyphenation and too much space between words.
Headlines 4 Use a sans serif typeface. 4 Make headlines larger than body text--14 points or more. 4 Use all caps only for short headlines; otherwise use uppercase and lowercase. 4 Be consistent with headlines throughout your document. NEWS
Desktop Publishing Hazards 4 Forgetting your audience 4 Irregularly shaped type 4 Excessive underlining 4 Too many fonts 4 Grammar and spelling errors 4 Inappropriate borders 4 Inappropriate headlines 4 Violating the copyright law
Forgetting Your Audience 4 Don’t let your graphic design overwhelm your message. 4 Spend as much time on content as you do on design.
Irregularly Shaped Type Excessive Underlining 4 Irregular line shapes take more time to read. 4 Irregular line shapes are confusing to the reader. 4 Too much underlining confuses the reader.
Grammar and Spelling Errors Too Many Fonts 4 Proofread carefully after the computer does!! 4 Too many fonts creates a disorganized appearance and labels you as an amateur. 4 Limit fonts to 2-3 per page. 4 Use special effect fonts to attract extra attention--but only for a few words.
Inappropriate Borders 4 Borders can be functional or decorative. 4 The border should fit the nature of the product and the intended audience.
Inappropriate Headlines 4 Be careful how the lines end--you could give new meanings to your words. 4 Don’t use ALL CAPS if the headline is long. 4 Shorter is better! City Dumps Mayor Calls a Shame or City Dumps Mayor Calls a Shame
Violating the Copyright Law 4 Copyright laws give owners exclusive rights to their works. 4 To use copyrighted work, you must get permission and, possibly, pay a fee. 4 Clip art is OK!!!!!
The Final Steps 4 Print a sample copy. 4 Proofread it carefully. 4 Make adjustments. 4 Print your final copy or publish to the Web.
References Textbook Lake, Susan. Desktop Publishing-10 Hour Series. Ohio: South-Western Publishing. 2000. Reference Books Blanc, Iris. Desktop Publishing Activities. Ohio: South-Western Publishing. 1998. Davis, Graham. Quick Solutions to Great Layouts. Ohio: HOW Design Books. 2001. McWade, John. Before and After Page Design. California: JMS Publishing. 2003. OPAC Office Proficiency Assessment & Certification Software. Biddle and Associates, Inc., California.