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River to River CWMA: Addressing the Issue of Invasive Plants in Southern Illinois Christopher Evans, River to River CWMA Coordinator.

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Presentation on theme: "River to River CWMA: Addressing the Issue of Invasive Plants in Southern Illinois Christopher Evans, River to River CWMA Coordinator."— Presentation transcript:

1 River to River CWMA: Addressing the Issue of Invasive Plants in Southern Illinois Christopher Evans, River to River CWMA Coordinator

2 Outline ► What is a CWMA ► River to River CWMA  Area  Members  Goals ► Invasive Plants  Definitions  Problems  CWMA species ► Solutions

3 What is a CWMA? ► Cooperative Weed Management Area ► Collaborative effort between multiple agencies and organizations to coordinate efforts and programs for managing invasive plants ► Well-defined area – counties, watersheds, regions etc. ► Different scopes – one species, suite of species, habitats, etc.

4 Cooperation is Key “Conservation can be achieved only be the cooperative efforts of agencies, organizations, and individuals across the nation.” - Natural Resource Conservation Service Strategic Plan

5 River to River CWMA ► Formally established in 2006 ► Coordinator hired in April, 2007 ► Address terrestrial and aquatic non-native invasive plants in Southern Illinois

6 11 Southernmost Counties in Illinois Alexander Gallatin Hardin Jackson Johnson Massac Pope Pulaski Saline Williamson Union

7 River to River CWMA ► Members  Shawnee National Forest  Illinois Department of Natural Resources  Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge  Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge  The Nature Conservancy  USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service  Illinois Department of Transportation  Illinois Department of Agriculture  University of Illinois – Extension  USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service  Shawnee Resource Conservation and Development Area, Inc.  Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

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9 River to River CWMA Goal “Work cooperatively in inventorying, monitoring, controlling, and preventing the spread of non-native invasive plants across jurisdictional boundaries in the 11 southern counties in Illinois.” - RTR CWMA Memorandum of Understanding, 2006

10 River to River CWMA Goal ► By coordinating our efforts, we can:  Reduce the costs and time of management activities  Manage across boundaries  Pool available resources  Increase the chances of success  Better detect/prevent new introductions  Better raise public awareness about invasive plants  Prioritize issues

11 Synergy – Getting more out of your work through coordination

12 Weeds Can’t Read! Jil Swearingen, NPS

13 Synergy – Getting more out of your work through coordination Landowner ALandowner B

14 Synergy – Getting more out of your work through coordination Landowner ALandowner B$$$

15 Need for Cooperation “There is a bountiful seed source of many of the exotic/invasive species on the lands surrounding the Refuge, thus in order to be effective in our management plans, we must bring together a complex set of interests including private landowner, commercial, and public agencies.” - Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan, page 24

16 Invasive Species ► Not native to Southern Illinois ► Introduced ► Ability to reproduce in the wild ► Potential to spread and cause economic or ecological damage  Loss of species diversity  Loss of ecosystem functions  Loss of productivity  Loss of wildlife habitat

17 Loss of productivity ► Bush honeysuckle invasion leads to a decline in the growth rate of trees by over 50% - Hartman and McCarthy 2007 Troy Evans, EKU

18 Invasive Species ► New habitat is free of natural predators, parasites, and diseases  Often gives exotic plants a competitive edge over native species ► Can readily invade disturbed areas due to:  High seed production  Quick maturation time  Efficient methods of seed dispersal  Allelopathic effects of some invasives?

19 Allelopathy Some plants give off chemicals through their roots that kill/inhibit other plants

20 Allelopathy ► Garlic Mustard release chemicals from its roots that kills the native micorrhizal community  Native plants depend upon micorrhizae to help absorb nutrients from the soil  Even after garlic mustard control, recolonization of the site by micorrhizae may be slow  Restoration efforts hampered

21 Invasive Species Damage ► Invade and occupy space before native species can colonize ► Grow over, crowd, or girdle native species ► Cast heavy shade and form dense monocultures, limiting the ability of native plants to grow ► Close-in open areas ► Limit animal and human movement through an area ► Limit recreational activities ► Overwhelm seedbanks  Once the invasive is cleared, only new invasives come back

22 Invade and occupy space before native species can colonize Autumn olive and sericea lespedeza invading old roadbed

23 Grow over, crowd, or girdle native species Kudzu overwhelming a hardwood forest

24 Cast heavy shade and form dense monocultures Japanese stiltgrass forming a solid mat of vegetation

25 Close-in open areas Bush honeysuckle invading an opening in a savanna restoration

26 Limit animal and human movement through an area Multiflora rose thorns – a serious deterrent to anything trying to travel through an infested area

27 Limit Recreational Activities Curly leaf pondweed infestation, reducing the ability of anglers to fish

28 Overwhelm seedbanks Rosettes of garlic mustard, showing domination of seedbank

29 Invasive Plants of Southern Illinois ► Autumn olive ► Bush honeysuckle ► Chinese yam ► Common reed (Phragmites) ► Crown vetch ► Curly leaf pondweed ► Eurasian watermilfoil ► Garlic mustard ► Japanese honeysuckle ► Japanese hops ► Japanese knotweed ► Japanese stiltgrass ► Johnsongrass ► Kudzu ► Multiflora rose ► Musk thistle ► Oriental bittersweet ► Princess tree ► Purple loosestrife ► Reed canarygrass ► Sawtooth oak ► Sericea lespedeza ► Tree-of-heaven

30 Other species we do not know about? Time Abundance

31 Other species we do not know about? ► Need for an Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) System  Any new or suspected invasive species is reported  Identification/threat is verified  If so, necessary steps are taken to eradicate or contain infestation

32 Which is Easier to Control?

33 Need for Control and Management “Exotic and invasive plant species pose one of the greatest threats to the maintenance and restoration of the diverse habitats found on the Refuge.” - Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan, page 24 “Eradicate, control, and prevent the introduction of invasive exotic species” - One of six primary challenges set forth at the beginning of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources State Wildlife Action Plan

34 Need for Control and Management “Non-native invasive species must be controlled or eradicated.” - Shawnee National Forest, Land and Resource Management Plan “We control invasive species because they are harming the native plants and animals we care so much about protecting.” - The Nature Conservancy Global Invasive Species Initiative website:

35 What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects Strategic Planning ► Develop a CWMA strategic plan  Informs agency’s management decisions  Prioritize species  Direct management activities  Defines goals and objectives for CWMA

36 What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects Educational campaign ► Contact and inform anyone that has the potential to cause or prevent the spread of invasive species  Hunter and angler community  Other outdoor recreationists  Fish/water garden stores  Plant nurseries  Loggers  Etc.

37 Prevention “First line of defense and the most cost effective strategy against invasive species” - National Invasive Species Management Plan ► Reduced use ► Sanitation ► Inspection ► Proper disposal

38 Prevention Fill dirt pile infested with musk thistle Kris Johnson, NPS

39 What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects Control and ID trainings ► For agency personnel, land owners, and the general public  Identification  Need for control  Management issues  Control recommendations

40 What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects ► Invasive species distribution data collection and mapping  SIU database  8,000 records for Southern Illinois ► Continued collection of data  Training volunteers  Surveys ► Online mapping system (eventually)

41 What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects ► Management on public lands and natural areas  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Illinois DNR, The Nature Conservancy ► Management and prevention in roadside maintenance and construction areas  ILDOT ► Survey, Inspection, and Detection  USDA-APHIS and Department of Agriculture ► Research on invasive species biology and management  SIU ► Technical assistance  University of Illinois Extension and NRCS ► Cost share programs  NRCS and Illinois DNR ► Educational programs/Early Detection program  Everyone

42 Get Involved ► Learn to identify the invasive species in your area ► Report any infestations of new invasive species ► Start a control program on your land ► Do not plant or spread invasive species ► Talk to local groups/communities about invasive species ► Talk to your local and state government about invasive species

43 Get Involved ► Sign up for newsletter / list ► Talk to me   ► On the web: ► Contact any of the CWMA members for more specifics on their programs (contact information available at CWMA website)


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