Presentation on theme: "Overcoming Prison Overcrowding by Dan White IDS 4934."— Presentation transcript:
Overcoming Prison Overcrowding by Dan White IDS 4934
Problem Statement Due to the ineffective policy of imprisonment of non-violent offenders for the purpose of rehabilitation the population of American prisons has skyrocketed to the point of serve overcrowding. Such overcrowding severely strains the criminal justice system financially and logistically as well as society as a whole by creating more hardened, violent criminals who are more likely to break the law again and end up back in prison.
Significance of Problem Rate of Increase 1920-1980 Rate of Increase 1980-2006 -There are nearly 5 times as many prisoners now as there were at the start of the 1980’s. -The rate of imprisonment is increasing along with the number of actual prisoners. -
Disciplinary Analysis of Problem Humanities Prison Overcrowding is the result of social trends -Communities with lower standard of living are most prone to violence. -Destitute people have less to lose and more to gain from turning to crime. -Theft -Drug Dealing -Use of drugs as a possible means for coping with poor quality of life. -Downward Spiral -The educated and wealthy leave these communities, for better opportunities. Lack intellectual and financial investment to improve conditions. Military Science Prison Overcrowding is the result of ineffective criminal justice system policies: -Locking Up Non-Violent Offenders for Rehabilitation -Makes them more violent to survive along side violent criminals. Making them more prone to turn to violence and get re-incarcerated in the future when they are released. -Takes up space that could be used to house violent prisoners. -Revolving Door -Prisoners are released with few good options but to return to crime to survive and cope.
Outline of Solution Make Community Service Primary Means of Punishment and Rehabilitation Overhaul Community Service Programs –Integrate Humanities and Military philosophies into program –Follow Military model of task organization More Organized Purpose and Direction –Standards and Merit based system rather than time based –Isolate offender from environment where they offended
Why Community Service Community Service serves both a means for punishment and rehabilitation. It allows an offender to give back to the community that they wronged to make amends for their crimes. By working to improve their community they will take ownership and pride in their community. Citizens in their community will reap the benefit of their service and take greater pride in their community as well and be more likely to reconcile and accept the offender as a contributing member of society and help them when they done serving their time in the program. Additionally service to one’s community is both dignified and honorable where as being sent to prison is not. In the end the volunteer work is a benefit to both the person doing and the person receiving the service, prison brings no such benefits to anyone it just removes the offender from mainstream populace.
Targeted Demographics Target Those Eligible for Community Service Program: Nonviolent Offenders Convicted of: a.Drug Offenses b.Property Offenses c.Public Order Offenses -Who’s Original Punishment would be Imprisonment Would serve to ideally reduce prison populations by up to half If all those eligible were to participate. However not all those eligible will participate or finish: -Only volunteers will be allowed. Not everyone will volunteer. -Not all will finish program since some will drop out or be dropped for failing to adapt or for misbehavior. -Those dropped from program would return to serve Their original prison sentence
Promoting Participation Community Service is better than prison: –More Rewarding –Greater Freedom –No Violence –Paid a stipend in exchange for efforts Shorter Sentences –Make Sentence of Community Service half as long as the Prison Sentence would be. Personal and Professional Development –Opportunities for Higher Education –Leadership training –Being apart of a team and making friends –Getting help and support for Drug Abuse –Link highly motivated and successful participants up with potential employers Clean Slate –Expunge Offense from records upon successful completion of program
Overhaul of Community Service Keys to improving the Community Service System: 1.) Voluntary Participation. -No one made to participate -Volunteers Work Hardest 2.) Isolate yet not remove from society -House and keep volunteers in an enclosed facility but don’t make it like prison with lockdowns and complete isolation (Think military barracks.) -Removes individuals from the source of their problem that cause their offense. 3.) Team Centric. -Mass Efforts for Greatest Effect -Teamwork is rewarding, and trains social skills needed to effectively transition back to mainstream society. 4.) Values Based -Values provide direction and purpose. 5.) Standards and Merit based System -Performance standards enforced rather than just amount of performance. (I.e 50 hours of quality work is preferable to 100 hours of sloppy work done by someone unmotivated) 6.) Education and Rehabilitate -Education is the key component of providing opportunities away from crime. -Education is empowerment. 7.) Develop Leadership and Technical Skills -Leadership is makes individual more prone to success in the long term. -Technical Skills give added opportunities for employment. 8.) Reintegrate Back into Community -Link strong performers up with community organizations for future employment. -Give the ultimate incentive of erasing their offense from record.
Disciplinary Philosophies Used in Overhaul Humanities: Ideals borrowed from Habitat for Humanity: Concept of Sweat Equity: -People invest own time and effort to a goal instead of having a solution handed to them. They take greater ownership of the results since they were actively involved in it. Volunteer Spirit: -Volunteers have greatest motivation to work General Humanist Theories: Humanitarian Theory of Punishment: -Punishment should be a means to a good end and a means to improvement. Improve Community - Lower Crime: -Improve basic appearance of community. Redemption: -Let successful participation in program absolve the crime they committed from their records. This will allow them to more successfully integrate back into society with a clean record and the ability to get a job without scrutiny. Education as a means of Reform: -Offer Technical skills training and availability of GED programs, and College Education. Listed below are hand picked ideals from the disciplines employed in developing the solution.
Military Science: Volunteer Spirit: -Volunteer organization works harder and will be more professional and progressive. Team Work: -Together people achieve more -Peers hold each other accountable for their behavior and performance within program Socialism for Cause: -Self contained system with semi-isolation that provides pay, basic housing and welfare needs for those who work within it. Reform the Whole Person: -Discipline and mentor a troubled individual and they will be less trouble in the future than outright judicially punishing them. Community Building is Nation Building: -Improvement in the stability of a country is as much attributed to the grass roots efforts of those working within communities to improve local conditions as the policies of those at the top. Decentralized Leadership: -Leaders are given guidance and intent and held to standards but are given freedom to use their leadership. -Yields greatest motivation and initiative. Transformational Leadership: -Leadership style that focuses on developing subordinates and building teams. Professional Education: -Professional Education courses are required for promotion. Disciplinary Philosophies Used in Overhaul Listed below are hand picked ideals from the disciplines employed in developing the solution.
Integration of Philosophies HumanitiesMilitary Science Integrated -Sweat Equity -Volunteer Spirit -Improve Community -Punish as a Means to Greater Good -Redemption -Reform Through Education -Volunteer Spirit -Reform and Discipline -Transformational Leadership -Decentralized Command -Socialism for Cause -Team Work -Build Community for Greater Good -Professional Education for Advancement -Volunteer Program -Pay Sweat Equity to Community to avoid prison -Community Service improves community and builds pride in self and community -Service is punishment for the cause of Reforming the individual -Program is a self sustaining entity that houses and provides all basics needs and with out being a prison environment. -Don’t treat offenders like convicts to avoid making them a self-fulfilling prophecy -Military Task Organization -Satisfactory participation expunges crime from records. -Provide Educational Opportunities for personal reform and professional development
Disciplinary Conflicts and Resolution Conflict: -Military tactics, techniques and procedures are designed for combat readiness and effectiveness a concept not easily transferred to civilian projects. Resolution: -Utilize Military Science discipline for task organization and training theory to facilitate the implementation of Humanities theories on punishment and reform integrated with Military discipline and leadership.
Community Services Description of Actual Services Provided: Community Service Projects be based on the needs of the community and will be ever changing. They will not interfere or compete with local businesses. –Community Maintenance Picking Up Trash Repairing Basic Infrastructure (Roads, Low Income Housing etc.) Cleaning Graffiti –Supporting Community Events Youth Mentoring (Discouraging drug use, gangs etc.) Providing support for School Functions (Helping to set up and run events, Academic Mentoring.)
General Task Organization Headquarters and Administration Notes: -Headquarters Element comprised entirely of professional full time cadre of trained professionals managing, training and mentoring the Volunteers. -Administration is composed mostly of trained and highly motivated and successful volunteers. Volunteers make up the majority of instructor positions, technical specialists, and administrators. Operate under supervision of cadre and appointed volunteer managers. All Volunteers in these positions are promoted only after undergoing specific training in the selected area and after being promoted up to rank of Journeyman in the Service Element. Service Element Notes: -Cadre Mentor and Supervise Master and Journeyman Classes to help develop their leadership abilities. Service Element Structures: Apprentice Class: (1-3 Months) Paid 25% of Minimum Wage -All New Volunteers -Primary Workers -Perform most of the manual labor tasks -Primarily responsible for adapting to program and adhering to standards. -New Volunteers Paired with a “Big Brother” who is a more senior Apprentice. Adept Class: (2-4 Months) Paid of 50% Minimum Wage -In charge of a team of Apprentices -Must teach Apprentices the standards and hold them accountable for their performance -Primary Mentors of Apprentices Journeyman Class: (3-5 Months) Paid 75% of Minimum Wage -In Charge of a Team of Adepts -Responsible for the performance of all subordinates -Primary Mentors to Adepts as well as senor mentors to Apprentices -Accountable for subordinates performance and behavior Specialist: (Unspecified Promotion time) -Manages Logistics and other technical support Master Class: (3-5 Months) 100% of Minimum wage -Managers of a team of Journeyman and their subordinates -Drafts effective plans to implementing services -Monitors Safety Senior Master Class: (Time in leadership dependant on performance) 100% of Minimum Wage -Top Manager of Service Element
Promotion and Merit System Promotion brings greater benefits: -Greater pay: -Pay is in fractions of minimum wage. -Minimum wage is maximum amount of pay that can be earn to prevent the program from motivating people to break the law in order to gain entry into the program. -More responsibility -Less manual labor, more leadership tasks Promotion is based off of time and performance in current position: -Adherence to values -Leadership -Disciplinary record Provides added motivation for self improvement Theory: Length of sentence is indicative of the amount of rehabilitation an individual needs. Offenders in the program for shorter periods of time don’t receive the same degree of self improvement however they need less rehabilitation and have less of a debt owed to society.
Service Element Task Organization Notes: Model operates off the military rule of 2-4: -A leader can effectively manage 2-4 people Senior Volunteers mentor their juniors. Rank Structure is a means for enforcing discipline.
Education and Training Training Attained at each level required for promotion to next higher level Apprentices: -Values Classes -Instructed on standards for course -Interpersonal Tact and Manners classes Adept: -Small Unit Leadership Classes -Communication Classes -Mentoring Classes Journeyman: -Management classes -Professional Writing Classes -Planning classes -Mentoring training -Computer Skills Training Master Class: -Higher Management Classes -Planning classes -Financial Planning classes -Instructor Training Senior Master Class: -Instructor training -Management Classes The objective off all training is to develop the professionalism and leadership of all volunteers and to leave them with a set of life skills that will make them successful.
Higher Task Organization Top Down Method: The Community Service Program Is designed to be a primarily State run. States know how to most effectively administer justice within their state. This particular solution would apply to all of Florida with it’s effectiveness influencing the policy of the Justice Department as a whole. Program is implemented at County Government level. The services of the program are directed at the most troubled, impoverished disenfranchised communities within the county. Bottom Up Method: Effectiveness of County program influences policy at state level which influences policy at national Level
Good Order and Discipline Self Discipline is the Key: Program is ideally tailored to achieving the end state of doing the right thing because it’s right not because of consequences -Authoritarian rule is ineffective as a long term solution for good order and discipline. -Accountability and responsibility are more effective than fear of punishment. With empowerment comes self- discipline. -Treat Volunteers as people rather than convicts. Respect given begets respect back. -Peer pressure is most effective at keeping people in line -Habitual trouble makers are moved out of their respective unit -Uniforms create sense of unity, pride and sameness -Uniform should be simple professional attire -Enforcing all, including small seemingly trivial standards for appearance or room upkeep cause attention to the bigger details. -Merit based system: -Good performance yields promotion -promotion yields greater benefits and responsibilities -Reward in Public, Punish in Private. -Values as a basis for doing what is right.
Values System Humanist Values Treat a person with respect and dignity, not as a criminal Do good for others Belief in the genuine goodness of people Golden Rule Self Improvement Equality regardless of Race, Creed or Gender Empathy for Others Army Values Loyalty Duty Respect Selfless Service Honor Integrity Personal Courage Program’s Espoused Values Loyalty to Community, Family and Self Equality Duty to do good for others Treat others with respect and receive respect Volunteer Spirit Volunteers will not be treated as criminals by the Cadre Selfless dedication to self improvement Integrity is Everything Have the Courage to do what is right not what is easy The decisions a person makes defines them Values are a key component of the Program. In order to ensure lasting improvement, and ensure that individuals don’t commit future offenses a new set of personal values must be instilled in them to ensure that they have a better moral guidelines. The ultimate key to keeping people out of prison is putting them in the right direction in life to stay out of trouble.
Financing Initial financing will be more expensive due to the creation of new facilities to house volunteers Money will be saved long term Integration of Humanistic Ideals for cost reduction: -Program will be open to public investment in form of donations –Money can be donated directly as a gratitude for services. –Items can be donated to be sold for revenue at a store run by the Volunteer Program. -Based off the Habitat for Humanity method of accepting donations and selling them at very low prices to raise money for their projects. Integration of Military measures to manage cost: -Maintain facilities and equipment at all times. Maintenance done internally (No outsourced janitorial or maintenance service) and daily. -Property Accountability: Prevent loss of equipment so that more doesn’t need to be purchased. Program will be financed according to the following equation: (X - (A+B)) - C = Y Total Cost of Program: X Total Value of Donated Money: A Total Revenue made selling Donated Items: B Total Cost of housing a volunteer for what would have been their longer prison sentence: C Savings to Community: Y
Key Contingencies The greatest threats to the effectiveness of the plan and their countermeasures: Drug Abuse -Drug Rehab and Counseling for Addicts -Health and Welfare Inspections periodically or when ever drug use is suspected in order to discourage it’s use -Random Drug Testing Theft -Issue Everyone the exactly same clothes and belongings -Lock up personal belongings in safe -No Cash is allowed, all volunteers given a Debit Card with Photo ID on it. Runaways -Runaways when caught are sent to jail to serve what would have been their equivalent prison sentence Violence -Anger Management Classes for those showing signs of problems -Conflict Resolution employed to solve disputes that could turn to violence -Move chronic agitators to different units -Go to Prison for additional charges filed for violent crime Lack of Motivation -Faster promotion for good performance -Slower or lack of promotion for poor performance
Community Outreach Service Program Community as a Whole Individual Individual Efforts go into Team efforts which make the program which give back to the community which provides resources to the program to benefit the individual. As program reaches out to the community so does the community provide outreach to the program Offense is expunged from records. Community accepts individual back as an important and contributing member. Individual returns to society with greater appreciation for hard work, trained leadership ability, new values, increased sense of pride in community that he worked for and thus less likely to commit another offense in the community. Individual hard work goes into community service. Program is run by those involved in it. Program provide for needs of individuals participating -Reforms individuals through education, and discipline -Provides advanced educational, and vocational skills training -Provides leadership and mentoring -Provides rehabilitative counseling Program services benefit the community through beautification Repair of infrastructure, and support of community events Community supports program with donations. Provides access to educational opportunities Provides access to equipment needed to be successful. Provides access to technical skills training. Provides funding.
The Bigger Picture Effect on Prison Overcrowding Immediate Effect: -Lower numbers of people actually in Prison. -Prison for Violent Offenders primarily who have less nonviolent offenders to corrupt with violent behavior Long Term: -Less convicts returning to prison Effect on Society Immediate Effect: -Less money allocated used to house prisoners who don’t contribute back into society -Community benefits from hard work of the Volunteers. Long Term: -Conditions are improved in destitute areas reversing a cycle of disenfranchisement which breeds crime.
End State Prison Overcrowding Stopped Less People Returning to Prison Community Improved Money Saved from Lowering Prison Populations Crime rates decreased Individuals leaving program better able to contribute to society