Presentation on theme: "Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education Introducing Process Integration for Environmental Control in Engineering Curricula Module 4: Environmental."— Presentation transcript:
Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education Introducing Process Integration for Environmental Control in Engineering Curricula Module 4: Environmental Challenges – Pulp & Paper Industry Caroline Gaudreault Created at: École Polytechnique de Montréal & Texas A&M University, 2003
2 LEGEND Go to the web site Go to next subject More information on the same subject Look for the answer to the question
Tier II: Case Study Applications
4 Tier II: Statement of Intent The purpose of this module is to demonstrate the application of the minimum manufacturing concepts using the Thunder Bay and Louisiana- Pacific case studies, and introduces the concepts of BAT and strategic planning. Tier II also includes some selected readings, to help the student acquire a deeper understanding of this subject.
5 Tier II: Content Tier II is broken into four sections: 2.1 The Thunder Bay case study 2.2 The Louisiana Pacific Samoa case study 2.3 Strategic long-term planning for kraft mills, technology roadmaps, and MIM metrics 2.4 Best Available Technologies for the kraft processes At the end of Tier II, there is a short multiple- answer quiz
2.1 REVIEW OF THE CLOSE-CYCLE OPERATING EXPERIENCE at GREAT LAKES FOREST PRODUCT LIMITED (Thunder Bay Mill)
7 A Little Bit of History In 1974, Great Lakes Forest Products Limited (GLFP) decided to build a second kraft line (kraft mill B) in their mill located in Thunder Bay, Ontario. As a result of this, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (OMOE) asked them to construct a secondary treatment of the effluent in order to reduce BOD 5, toxic elements and suspended solids discharged to the river. GLFP considered aerated lagoons but there was no close available space to accommodate it. This is why they began to discussed with Howard Rapson at the University of Toronto about the “Closed-Cycle Mill” concept. They endorsed the concept and submitted the project to the OMOE in place of secondary treatment.Howard Rapson
8 A Little Bit of History (Cont’d) The OMOE gave the approval for the construction of the “close- cycle” kraft mill B, but with the provision than by March 1978, GLFP proves that: The system to be operational; To be as efficient as secondary treatment and, Following this, GLFP propose to install the “close-cycle” system to the other kraft line (kraft mill A). The B mill began its operations in 1976 but the “close-cycle” operations were initiated only in 1977 after the salt recovery plant was completed. From 1977 to 1985, the “close-cycle” system was developed continuously in collaboration with the University of Toronto as well than with other players.
9 A Little Bit of History (Cont’d) Pitch deposits and scaling problems severely limited close-cycle operations, and more particulary during hardwood processing. In 1985, the close-cycle operations were discontinued for a lot of reasons including: It was possible to obtain an equivalent BOD 5 reduction only by increasing evaporator condensate use and recovery; Operating costs were high. These costs include increased bleaching chemical costs and high energy costs for the salt recovery plant; Heat exchangers in the salt recovery plant were corroded and it would have been very expensive to replace/upgrade them.
10 Information about Kraft Mill B Bleached pulp production of 250 000 ton/year First Canadian “effluent-free” pulp and paper mill World’s first application of the Rapson- Reeve closed cycle concept
11 Bleach Plant Description A blend of spruce and jackpine chips was fed Kamyr continuous digester.Kamyr continuous digester The pulp was washed in a two-stage washer. The bleach plant consist in 5 stages D CEDED: D C: use of chlorine dioxide and elementary chlorine sequentially in the same stage, using ClO 2 in large quantity prior to chlorine in the first stage will allow for an overall bleach chemical reduction, an increased yield and a preserved pulp resistance; E: alkaline extraction (dissolution of reaction product with NaOH); D: chlorine dioxide (reaction with ClO 2 in acidic medium) Whitewater is used to wash the pulp counter-currently.
12 Salt Recovery Process Description Clarified white liquor from the recausticizing department was concentrated in an evaporator to increase the alkali content. Precipitated sodium carbonate and burkeite (2Na 2 SO 4.NACO 3 ) were removed by clarification and cyclone separation system. The clarified concentrated liquor was reconcentrated in an other evaporator to recover more 2Na 2 SO 4.NACO 3. The recovered salt was treated with sodium hypochlorite to oxidize organic impurities. Finally, after a sand filtration, the salt was used in the chlorine dioxide generators.
13 Key Features of the “Close-Cycle” System installed in Great Lakes Mill The main characteristics of the system were: Dry drum debarkers; Pressure (closed) primary knotters and screens; Use of pulp dryer vacuum pump seal water in the wet end of the dryer and use of excess white water on the final D stage bleach plant washer; Full countercurrent washing in the bleach plant; A new salt removal process (SRP) based on evaporation of the white liquor in two stages to produce crystalline sodium chloride; Use of excess filtrate from the E1 washer to dilute concentrated white liquor and to wash the unbleached pulp; Use of excess D C filtrate after neutralization with caustic or white liquor for brown pulp washing and in the lime kiln scrubber, and subsequently for smelt dissolving; 70% chlorine dioxide substitution for chlorine in the first stage to minimize chloride load to the recovery system; An extensive spill collection and recovery system; A stripping column to clean the foul condensates.
14 Overview of Water Recovery Bleach Plant Brownstock Washers Digesters Recovery Furnace Smelt Dissolver Causticizer DC Filtrate E 1 Filtrate SRP Process Evaporators ClO 2 Solution Concentrated White Liquor Condensate Salt Water (Adapted from Springer & al., 2001)
15 Expected Benefits from the Close-Cycle Mill Lower steam consumption Greater steam production Decrease of 1% fiber losses from screening, washing, etc. Increase of 1% in bleached pulp mill Lower consumption of bleach chemicals, and reduced salt cake and defoamer use Elimination of external waste treatment Reduction in kraft mill odor Substantial annual operating cost savings
16 Impact on Pulp Mill Operations The Bleach Plant Corrosion: High temperature and chloride levels will increase the potential for corrosion in the close-cycle system. Even in bleaching plant equipment building material was carefully selected. Early evidence of corrosion was noted. Deposits: Hardwood runs were characterized by deposits from wood extractives, residues from defoamers and other sources which caused a lot of problems: pitch, scale, defoamer residues and talc/pitch deposits plugged washer fabrics and wires, washer nozzles and filtrate lines. Because of that, some filtrate recycle streams were discontinued during hardwood runs. Initial Design Problems: A bad design of some of the bleaching tanks occasioned brightness problems and an increase in bleaching chemical consumption. Air separation devices for the washers was not well conceived. This caused foaming problem during the washing stages. The generation capacity of ClO2 was insufficient to meet the target of 70% substitution in the chlorination stage. The substitution averaged 50%. The capacity was increased. There was no purge stream in the system. This resulted in an accumulation of Ca and so, in severe scaling problems. Etc….
17 Impact on Pulp Mill Operations The Bleach Plant D C Closure: Prior to be recycled, the filtrate from this stage was neutralized with NaOH which result in a Ca/lignin/pitch precipitation that deposited on fabric and wire and in a impaired drainage. These deposit were removed using acid which result in corrosion. Also, because of the high organic content in the recycle stream, there was an increase in chemical consumption for this stage. E 1 Closure: E 1 filtrate was recycled to the brown decker which resulted in poor washing efficiency and carryover to the D C stage with incresed chemical consumption. This was corrected by recycling the E 1 filtrate to washer where the solids content matched more the dissolved solids in the filtrate. Availability of the SRP, pluggage, pitch and scale had also severely hampered E 1 closure.
18 Impact on Pulp Mill Operations Monitoring and Control Maintaining water balances was difficult during startups, shutdowns, upsets and disturbances. Because of they were upsetting the water balances, spill recovery was not very successful.
19 Impact on Pulp Mill Operations The Digester No noticeable effect on the digester operations.
20 Impact on Pulp Mill Operations The Black Liquor Evaporators Advanced corrosion in the black liquor evaporators reduced their life-time from 25 to 5 years. The pulp mill operations were restricted due to a limited evaporator capacity. The later was increased but the spills were never effectively recclaimed. 50% of total BOD 5 of the kraft mill B was attributable to the evaporators condensate.
21 Impact on Pulp Mill Operations Recovery Boiler Recovery boiler corrosion caused significant production losses and other costs.
22 Impact on Pulp Mill Operations Recausticizing and Lime Kilnb Neutralized D C filtrate was used in the lime kiln scrubber. The filtrate ended up in the weak wash, green liquor, and white liquor. The filtrate hampered dregs settling in the green liquor clarifier and lime mud settling in the white liquor clarifier. A high dust loading reduced the kiln capacity by 10 to 15%. The organic content of the filtrate had as consequence to form a yellow unreactive lime with variable slaking efficiency. Because of this higher temperatures were needed which result in higher fuel costs.
23 Impact on Pulp Mill Operations The Salt Recovery Plant Corrosion: Salt-falls in the evaporators caused corrosion. Some pitting corrosion occurred on the vapor side of the crystallizer heat exchanger. Design: The SRP experienced poor steam econokmy and high energy costs. Low Availability: The original liquor solids removal system (thickeners and vacuum filters) were not effective in handling large crystal size distributions. It was replaced by a cyclone. Heater Fouling: Scale occurred in the evaporators that needed frequent washes.
24 Obstacles to Increased Mill Closure 1.SRP reliability It was poor. After equipment and process modification the availability was adequate for 50% closure if the pulp mill uses 50% hardwood and 50% softwood. 2.Water balance problems The problems occurred during startups and shutdowns and there were problems recovering excess filtrates generated during upsets. 3.Equipment and process restrictions During the SRP shutdowns, there was no capacity to store and recover E 1 filtrate used to dilute the SRP white liquor. 4.Pitch problems These occurred particularly with hardwood pulping and bleaching. 5.Recovery boiler corrosion Chloride input to the recovery cycle was restricted to reduce the potential for more corrosion.
25 Sucesses and Benefits Change in the operating philosophy to one minimizing water inputs and controlling effluent discharges. Low volume of effluent discharged from the bleach plant. Some successful recycle of bleach plant filtrates to the chemical recovery. Successful salt removal from the white liquor. Use of removed salt in the chlorine dioxide generators. High chlorine dioxide substitution pulp with not detectable levels of dioxines and furans. Development of techniques to minimize impact of wood extractives. During they operate in close-cycle, they assess secondary treatment for all their operations. They finally installed an oxygen activated sludge treatment instead of an aerated lagoon.
26 How Could Thunder Bay Have Beneficiated from PI Process Simulation: Process simulation will have give more insight on the process and the potential build-up of contaminant. This way, interception equipment could have been put in place in order to avoid corrosion and other troubles due to contaminant build-up. Mass Integration: The first advantage of mass integration is to target what is possible in terms of water reduction. Knowing the target helps in achieving the reduction. Furthermore, mass integration will have allow to implement the best trade-off between water reduction and cost. Life Cycle Assessment: The main objective of the project was to avoid the secondary treatment. LCA could have help in evaluating the solution in term of environmental impact and convince the Ministry of Environment that a total closing of the water loop was not necessary.
27 References DONNOVAN, D.A. A Review of the Closed- Cycle Operating Experience at Great Lakes Forest Products Limited 1977 – 1985. Tappi 94 Annual Meeting, Atlanta, US. PATTYSON, G. RAE, R.G. REEVE, D.W. RAPSON, W.H. Bleaching in the Closed Cycle Mill at Great Lakes Forest Products Ltd. Pulp and Paper Canada, 82(6), 1991, p.212-220. Great Lakes Paper Launches First Closed- Cycle Kraft Pulp Mill. Paper Trade Journal. March 15, 1977, p.29-34.
2.2CLOSED-CYCLE TOTALLY CHLORINE FREE BLEACHED KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION at LOUISIANA PACIFIC’S SAMOA PULP MILL
29 Background According to the US Clean Water Act, it was a national goal that the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated. As a result of that, the kraft pulp industry had to develop pulping and bleaching technologies that can achieve this goal. The most polluting wastewater was generated during the bleaching process. Chlorine, BOD, COD, color, toxicity, and dissolved organics was the major preoccupations. Because they had exhausted many end-of-pipe pollution controls pulp and paper industry tried to innovate process changes that would improve wastewater quality from which the more promising were: Find substitutes for elemental chlorine and hypochlorite bleaching agents Reduce or eliminate bleach plant effluent
30 Background Two bleached technologies had evolved to achieve the previous objectives: Total Chlorine Free (TCF): Bleaching process that uses no chlorine compounds. Elementary Chlorine Free (ECF): Bleaching process that uses chlorine dioxide. These alternative bleaching technologies, more specifically TCF had made energy, process water and bleaching chemical recovery a possible approach to pollution prevention. The European pulp and paper industry had first developed closed-cycle technologies, but in North America little progress has been achieved before Louisiana-Pacific's (L.-P.) project.
31 L.-P. Samoa Pulp Mill Plant Overview Samoa bleached pulp mill is owned by L.-P. and located in a environmentally sensible area of the northern California coast. The mill had a capacity of approximately 700 ton/day of bleached and unbleached pulp. The next slide gives an overview of the process.
32 Samoa Mill Process Overview Chips Fresh Water Bleached Pulp White Liquor Green Liquor Weak Wash Recycle Water (Adapted from Louisiana-Pacific, 2000) Pulping Evaporators Recovery Boiler Recausticizer Bleaching Pulp Processing Wastewater Discharge
33 A Little Bit of History In 1989, a lawsuit forced L.-P. to development a long-term plan for environmental improvement. Because of its location, a conventional secondary treatment was not considered appropriate by the EPA for the Samoa mill. Furthermore, building an secondary treatment was not an option for the Samoa mill because it was located in a costal dune habitat with endangered plant species. In 1989, L.-P. implemented oxygen delignification and build a new recovery boiler. In 1990, L.-P. proposed to eliminate the chlorine usage and to recycle part of the wastewater, but at this time only a few Scandinavian mills had implemented TCF (the environmental benefits were substantial but not well documented ). They removed all chlorine and chlorine dioxide facilities, added peroxide storage and distribution piping, and a stripper for condensates. In 1994, Samoa became the first North American kraft mill to used completely TCF bleaching. They used peroxide and oxygen as alternative bleaching agents. In 2000, Samoa was still the only North American mill to use TCF and successfully produced 5000 tons of TCF pulp
34 Positive Impacts of the TCF Process The use of oxygen and peroxide facilitated the recycling of wastewater because they were less corrosive. The use of oxygen delignification, the recovery of bleaching chemicals and the recycling of wastewater had the following benefits: Cut bleach-plant effluent by 71% Cut bleach-plant water usage by 50% Cut mill process water usage by 31% Reduced bleach-plant steam usage by 17% Improved the wastewater clarity Eliminated discharge of chlorinated organics into the ocean Reduced plant odor
35 Negative Impacts of the TCF Process Pulp brightness was reduced. However it proved with operator's experience of the TCF process. The TCF process reduced the pulp production by 16%.
36 Close-Cycle Opportunities Offered by the TCF Process L.-P. saw a need to increase TCF cost- efficiency, and a desire to cut wastewater discharge and continue reducing environmental impacts. They also wanted to promote the TCF process in order to gain a competitive advantage over the competitors. In 1995, they initiated a close cycle TCF (CC-TCF) with full bleach recycle (FBR).
37 Close-Cycle Upgrade: Project Objective The goal was to commercialize the first strong, bright and cost-efficient kraft pulp mill in the world with a zero-effluent bleach plant The first plant upgrades, which were completed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, allowed a reduction of about 71% of the effluent. The expectations were that the close-cycle plant modifications will allow for a nearly discharge free bleach plant.
38 Close-Cycle Upgrade: Project Approach Adopting close-cycle posed the following problems: Mineral buildup within the system; Spills and overflow during start-up, normal operation, and shutdown; Hydraulic control of internal process waste-water flows; Control of transition metals that impact peroxide efficiency. The project approach consisted in using existing mill data and computer simulations to evaluate alternative system configurations. Optimal alternatives were also tested using mill trials. The design process included new equipment, process synthesis, computer simulation, and trial-and-error to minimize capital cost. The following technologies were added to enable to close-cycle operations: advanced green liquor filtration, extended digester cooking, and modified filtrate-recycle configuration.
39 Main Issues The project took longer than expected because it was a trial-and-error process and the lack of demand for the TCF product. A build-up of non-process elements such as potassium, chloride, magnesium and calcium necessitated the implementation of an advanced green liquor filtration system in order to increase the their purge capability. They also purged recovery boiler precipitator dust.
40 Close-Cycle Upgrade: Results and Benefits Benefits of the CC-TCF process are summarized in the following table (these are additional to the ones due to the implementation of the other previous plant modifications): Bleach plant steam useReduction of 43% Lime-Kiln gas useReduction of 5% Bleach plant effluentReduction of 13% Mill effluentReduction of 31& Mill process water use Reduction of 19% (Excludes part of cooling water and non-contact process water) Pulp productionIncrease of 5% Mill electricity useNo difference The CC-TCF had some negative impacts on pulp quality (strength) but they were negligible.
41 Close-Cycle Upgrade: Environmental Benefits Reduction in wastewater discharge and energy savings were not the only environmental benefits. The CC-TCF process also resulted in the following improvements: Improved effluent color; Lower BOD and COD loadings.
42 Close-Cycle Upgrade: Lessons Staff dedication, persistence, and creativity are very important to the success of such a project. Modifying plant processes is a more cost- effective approah to pollution prevention thant “end-of-the-pipe” wastewater treatment. There is a lot to learn from others. L.-P. has inspired itself from the Scandinavian pulp plants which pioneered TCF pulp processes. We must constantly re-evaluate the plant processes to seek improvement.
43 Continuous Improvement at L.-P. After the CC-TCF project, L.-P. as identified an approach to further reduce wastewater by 38% in combination with heat recovery from the wastewater flows. Next step will be: 1.Oxygen Delignification Retrofit Conversion of the existing single-stage oxygen delignification system to a two-stage oxygen delignification unit in order to increase the degree of delignification achieved from the current 48% to 65%. 2.New Pulp Presses Installation of 2 new pulp wash presses to improve the washing capacity (removal of most of the water from the pulp mat). Recycling of the filtrate in previous wash stages. This will allow for a lignin removal by the washing significantly greater.than that removed by the existing vacuum and improve the performance of the oxygen delignification stage and bleaching process.
44 Continuous Improvement at L.-P. Next step will be (cont’d): 3.Pressurized Peroxide Bleaching System Changing of the peroxide bleaching system for a pressurized one in order to reduce chemical consumption while improving pulp brightness. 4.Replacement of Bleached Pulp Cleaners Replacement of the current 35-year-old pulp cleaning system with one of a more modern design that will will be more efficient dirt removal from the pulp and may include additional processing capability to remove lighter particles such as plastics. 5.Focusing on solid wastes Usage of solid waste from green liquor filtration as a lime replacement in agricultural applications.
45 The EPA’s Cluster Rule L.-P. experience with TCF process has been reviewed by the EPA and their research was integrated in the Cluster Rule’s development.
46 Characteristics of Candidate for Closed- Cycle TCF Process Confronted with a necessary reduction and/or improvement in wastewater discharge and/or air emissions (for instance new regulation); Confronted with an increase of water supply costs; Confronted with an increase of wastewater treatment costs; Lost of valuable by-products in wastewater streams; Have completed some modernization.
47 How Could L.-P. Have Beneficiated from PI Process Simulation & Mass Integration: L.-P. is already a success story. However, the do had some problems with NPEs and maybe their final water network is not optimal in terms of water/reduction and costs incurred. A combined process simulation and mass integration approach will have ensure them optimality or at least they will know they are not. Life Cycle Assessment : The most advantages L.-P. can have come from LCA. They are opportunist and think in terms of competitive advantage. LCA will have enable to communicate their environmental friendliness.
48 References Louisiana Pacific Corporation. Closed- Cycle Totally Chlorine Free Bleached Kraft Pulp Production at Louisiana Pacific’s Samoa Pulp Mill - Analysis of Business, Environmental, and Energy Issues, 2000, 54 pages.
2.3 STRATEGIC LONG-TERM PLANNING FOR KRAFT MILLS, TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS, AND MIM METRICS
50 Strategic Planning Definition Long-term decision- making process by which an enterprise determines its strategic choices and the action programs aiming at the implementation of these choice. (Grand Dictionnaire Terminologique, 2004)
51 Strategic Planning Issues Strategic planning is an complex process that must involve the highest levels of the organization. It should be guided by an impartial party that knows the industrial sector. “Ultimately, strategic planning facilitates making modifications to manufacturing operations in consideration of legal, environmental, financial, and logistical concerns.” (Watson and Sapp, 1991) Statistics showed that 90% of strategic plans fail. One of the reason behind this is that technical, engineering and design are over looked in the process. Engineers usually have the understanding of the economic tradeoffs of invested capital versus operating, production, safety, and environmental requirements.
52 EVALUATION & CONTROL STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY FORMULATION ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING MISSION AND OBJECTIVES Strategic Planning Process (adapted from QuickMBA, 2004) Likely future trends/ events To learn more on the strategic planning process click on the step boxes
53 Examples of Strategic Planning The implementation of close-cycle process by GLFP at the Thunder Bay mill was only a reactive response to governmental pressures and lack of place to implement a secondary treatment. It was not thought in order to have a competitive advantage in the future. For this reason, this project can not be considered as strategic planning. One of the reasons why L.-P. strives to further close their operations and implement more environmental actions is to gain a competitive advantage on its competitors. This is a form of strategic planning.
54 Competitiveness and Environment “Consumer demand dictates the mix of production. Manufacturers of each product compete for market share by making better products at lower cost. Technology is the tool that adds value to products and boosts the efficiency of the manufacturing process.” (Burke, 1997) Competitiveness is not longer as simple as make better products at lower costs but issues such as sustainable development, environmental stewardship and global competition are more and more important. “Added-value” that was originally defined as higher product quality and better process efficiency, now includes notions such as sustainable production and minimum impact on the environment. As a result of this, technology must no longer only enhance product and process efficiency, but also be more sustainable.
55 Competitiveness and Environment Over the last decades, technological leadership in the pulp and paper industry has switched from the U.S. to the Canada and Scandinavian countries. Fiber supply, pollution prevention, energy consumption, water usage and capital effectiveness are key challenges facing the industry. Some people think that the use of recycle fibers may become an economical issue more than a political issue. There is a consensus that legislations will be more and more stringent over the next 25 years.
56 Competitiveness and Environment International Paper’s Five Principles I.P. believes that it should manage its facilities and water and fiber resources by the degree of environmental stewardship required by the society: Continually improve our performance in sustainable forestry and in our manufacturing processes as we strive toward a goal of minimal to no impact on the environment. Share with the public, and the news media, our actions toward those goals by welcoming visitors into our forests, mills, and plants to meet our people, observe our practices, and decide for themselves whether we are good neighbors and worthy of their trust. Establish partnerships with mainstream environmentalists, elected officials, and regulators with whom we share the goal of protecting the environment. Work together as an industry to resolve internal differences and address common issues that are of concern to the public. Participate aggressively in the public policy arena.
57 Corporate Sustainability “Corporate Sustainability is a business approach that creates long-term shareholder value by embracing opportunities and managing risks deriving from economic, environmental and social developments. Corporate sustainability leaders achieve long-term shareholder value by gearing their strategies and management to harness the market's potential for sustainability products and services while at the same time successfully reducing and avoiding sustainability costs and risks.” (DSJI, 2003)
58 Corporate Sustainability Global & Industry Challenges Companies that show leadership in sustainability are very competent in dealing with the following global and industry challenges: Strategy: “Integrating long-term economic, environmental and social aspects in their business strategies while maintaining global competitiveness and brand reputation.” Financial: “Meeting shareholders' demands for sound financial returns, long- term economic growth, open communication and transparent financial accounting.” Customer & Product: “Fostering loyalty by investing in customer relationship management and product and service innovation that focuses on technologies and systems, which use financial, natural and social resources in an efficient, effective and economic manner over the long-term.”
59 Corporate Sustainability Global & Industry Challenges Global and industry challenges (Cont’d): Goverance & Stakeholder: “Setting the highest standards of corporate governance and stakeholder engagement, including corporate codes of conduct and public reporting.” Human: “Managing human resources to maintain workforce capabilities and employee satisfaction through best-in-class organizational learning and knowledge management practices and remuneration and benefit programs.” According to Dow Jones, corporate sustainability is an investable concept.
60 Corporate Sustainability Benefits Today’s instant market reaction related to integrity, ethics or reputation of a company can lead to direct financial consequences. Not managing these issues can lead to reputation damage, share price discounts, loss of sales, higher cost of capital, greater regulatory incidents and fines, and increased cost of compliance. Companies moving toward sustainable development before it is mandatory will be rewarded by shareholders, stakeholders, regulators. (Source: PWC, 2003)
61 Corporate Sustainability Sustainable Investment Two factors drive the investment in companies that sets the industry-wide sustainable best practices: 1.Investing in corporate sustainability is attractive to the investors because it is a concept that strives to increase long-term shareholder’s value. 2.Sustainability leaders are increasingly expected to show superior performance and favorable risk/return profiles
62 Corporate Sustainability Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes DJSI: Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes The DJSI are the first first global indexes tracking the financial performance of the leading sustainability-driven companies worldwide. They were launched in 1999 in response to investor’s needs to quantity corporate sustainability. They provide asset managers with reliable and objective benchmarks to manage sustainability issues. There are currently 51 licenses in 14 countries including a large variety of industries.
65 Corporate Sustainability Assessment Criteria - Social Corporate Citizenship/ Philanthropy Stakeholders Engagement Labor Practice Indicators Human Capital Development Knowledge Management/ Organizational Learning Social Reporting Talent Attraction & Retention Standards for Suppliers Industry Specific Criteria
66 Corporate Sustainability Pulp & Paper Companies & DJSI Only 3 pulp and paper companies are member of the DJSI: UPM-Kymmene; Stora-Enso; Domtar.
67 Corporate Sustainability Domtar Subscription to the DJSI Domtar is the only Canadian Pulp & Paper company to be a member of the DJSI. In 2000, Domtar was the sustainability leader among the paper products companies. Only companies that consider ethical, environmental and social aspects in their decision-making process can be member in the DJSI. Domtar is proud of its inclusion in the index, and intends to continue improving sustainability. Domtar promotes its membership to the DJSI in order to gain a competitive advantage over competitors.
68 Corporate Sustainability Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) The GRI is a long-term, international, multi- stakeholder that has for mission the development and dissemination of globally applicable voluntary Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. It is a response to: Expanding globalization; New forms of global governance; Reform of corporate governance; Global role of emerging economies; Rising visibility of and expectations for organizations; Measurement of progress toward sustainable development. More specifically, the GRI guidelines are a framework for reporting on an organization’s economic, environment, and social performance.
69 Corporate Sustainability Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Coilte (Ireland) Crown Van Gelder (Netherlands) Georgia-Pacific (USA) Graham & Brown (UK) International Paper (USA) MeadWestVaco Corporation (USA) Mondi Paper (South Africa) North-West Timber Company (Russia) Österreichische Bundesforste (Austria) Siam Kraft Industry (Thailand) Stora Enso (Sweden) SCA (Sweden) Terranova (Chile) Tetra Pak (Spain) UPM-Kymmene (Finland) Visy Industries (Australia) Weyerhaeuser (USA) 17 Forest & Paper products companies are GRI members:
70 Corporate Sustainability Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Georgia-Pacific Case study Georgia-Pacific recognizers its success is dependent on the community it touches. They have reported their financial, environmental and social performance since years but now sees the benefits it putting all this information together. This way, their progress toward sustainable environment, giving back to the communities where we live and work, operating safely, and promoting an innovative and inclusive work environment can be appreciated.
71 Corporate Sustainability Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Georgia-Pacific Case study They choose internet as the best media for reporting on their corporate citizenship which consists in the following 4 key areas: Community; Environment; People; Safety.
72 Technology Main Characteristic of technology: Technology is an applied knowledge focusing on the “know-how” of an organization. Technology management: "Technology management addresses the effective Identification, selection, acquisition, development, exploitation and protection of technologies (product, process and infrastructural) needed to maintain a market position and business performance in accordance with the company’s objectives“ (European Institute of Technology Management) Technology has important role to play in delivering companies value and competitive advantage.
73 A tool for Strategic Planning: Technology Roadmaps (TRM) Definitions: “ Technology roadmapping is a planning process that gives decision-makers a means to identify, evaluate and select among strategic alternatives for achieving technological objectives.” (Industry Canada, 2004) Schematic technology roadmap, showing how technology can be aligned to product and service developments, business strategy, and market opportunities. (EIRMA, 1997) “Roadmapping is a key technology management tool that enables companies to link their technological capability to product and business plans so that strategy and technology development go hand-in- hand. Technology roadmaps provide a graphical framework for exploring and communicating strategic plans. They comprise a layered, time-based chart, linking market, product and technology information, enabling market opportunities and technology gaps to be identified.” (Cambridge University, 2002)
74 Technology Roadmaps: Main Characteristics Technological innovations are considered as necessary if they can served anticipated future markets (it is not driven by technology push). It is build on the vision of where a company want to go and what technologies are needed to get there. It provides a route for achieving the vision, going from today to tomorrow, by helping companies or organizations identify, select and develop the right technology alternatives needed to create the right products for future markets.
75 Technology Roadmaps: Purposes Product planning: Insertion of technology into manufactured products. Service/capability planning: Focus on the support of organizational capability by technology. Strategic planning: Supports the evaluation of opportunities and threats and focuses on the development of a vision of the future of the organization. Long-range planning: Extends the time horizon and is usually applied on a national level. Knowledge asset planning: Aligning knowledge assets and knowledge management initiatives with business objectives. Program planning: Implementation of strategy, and more directly relates to project planning Process planning: Supports the management of knowledge, focusing on a particular process area Integration planning: Integration and/or evolution of technology, in terms of how different technologies combine within products and systems, or to form new technologies
76 Content in a Technology Roadmap A technology roadmap document presents the industry’s consensus on a number of topics: New types of products (or services)that markets will require in the future; Enabling technologies to create those products; Feasibility of creating the needed technologies; Technological alternatives for achieving the needed technologies; How to address these technology needs through R&D. It addresses the role of an industry’s suppliers in creating the desired future, human resources needs, governmental and non-governmental barriers, and other topics.
77 Mass Integration and Technology
78 An Example of Technology Roadmap AFPA’s Agenda 2020 AGENDA 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry. The Agenda 2020 document presents: Current (1994) state of the industry; Desired state for the future (25 years); The technology-related issues that must be addressed to accomplish the industry's vision of the future. This technology roadmap has long-range planning as purpose. It can be used as inspiration for a specific American pulp and paper mill that wants to establish is own roadmap for strategic planning purposes.
79 An Example of Technology Roadmap AFPA’s Agenda 2020 Current State of Industry In 1994, there were 425 member companies of the AFPA which represents more than 90% of the industry. These companies grow, harvest, and process wood and wood fiber; manufacture pulp, paper, and paperboard products from both virgin and recovered fiber; and produce solid wood products. In 1994, the industry production was more than $200 billion by year and was employing 1.4 million people directly and ranked as one of the top 10 manufacturing industries in 46 out of 50 states.
80 An Example of Technology Roadmap AFPA’s Agenda 2020 Global Competiveness Issues The U.S. forest, wood and paper industry was one of the most competitive in the world in 1994. However to stay competitive, the industry must be more efficient in raw material supply, compete effectively with the threat of new materials, operate in harmony with the environment, and strengthen its image as a good investment with its stakeholders and as a good corporate citizen with the public. Developing countries are more and more low costs producer of forest wood and paper products and lesser developed countries with a lot of resources will join them in the future. Canada and Scandinavian countries are strong competitors to the U.S. and will continue to be. Also these countries have taken the leadership concerning technical issues related to pulp and paper science, processes and equipment manufacture. U.S. industry cash flow was significantly reduced due to capital investment required during the 1980s to build and maintain the industry's global competitiveness and increasingly large environmental expenditures.
81 An Example of Technology Roadmap AFPA’s Agenda 2020 Industry’s Vision for the Future The U. S. forest, wood and paper industry will continue to be the global leader in providing safe and essential products based on forest resources. It must be financially healthy and attractive not only to the investment community but also to the society. It will use its raw materials in a sustainable way and its manufacturing activities will be in harmony with the environment and the communities. Process will be more energy-efficient and so, the industry will be more energy-sufficient. Productivity will be much higher and costs much lower. Highly skilled and motivated employees will operate the industry's automated manufacturing facilities.
82 An Example of Technology Roadmap AFPA’s Agenda 2020 Technology Program The comparison of future expectations with current state of the industry, it is possible to point out several strategic planning issues which drive the following technology program: Become more competitive with developing countries in wood and fiber production; Anticipate and understand public expectations associated with its woodlands and manufacturing operations; Establish a position of increased energy efficiency; Improve capital effectiveness; Enable the collection and use of materials generated by non-traditional sources of recovered fiber; Increase product flexibility and reduce cycle time for new product introduction; Maintain leading-edge, low-cost manufacturing facilities for producing high quality products.
83 An Example of Technology Roadmap AFPA’s Agenda 2020 Research Areas to Fulfill the Vision Sustainable Forest Management Environmental Performance Energy Performance Improved Capital Effectiveness Recycling Sensors and Control
84 MIM & BATs in Bleached Kraft Mills MIM technologies, more specifically those related with bleached kraft pulping area, are developing rapidly. These technologies mainly aims at reducing wastewater discharges through internal recycling. Bleaching has also been improved by oxygen delignification and the use of ECF and TCF processes. Closing of the bleach plant have been fully illustrated using GLFP anf L.-P. case study. There are a lot a technologies that will allow a reduction of environmental impacts. Using the right combination offers the opportunity to the mills to achieve both good environmental and economic performance at the same time. Since pulp and paper mills are usually highly integrated, the most of the opportunities are process-integrated measures. An overview of best available techniques in kraft pulping and their impact on the environment and the mill performance respectively can be found in the following document. Only some consideration will be presented here. IPPC
85 General Measures Staff and operators must be trained, educated and motivated of staff and operators. Improved process control will reduce different pollutants simultaneously and maintain low emissions. Technical units of pulp mills and the associated abatement techniques must be highly efficient. An environmental management system which clearly defines the responsibilities for environmentally relevant aspects in a mill will raise awareness and fix the goals and measures for environmental improvement.
86 Reduction of Water Emissions Dry debarking of wood Modified cooking either in batch or continuous system Highly efficient brown stock washing and closed cycle brown stock screening Oxygen delignification ECF or TCF final bleaching and some, mainly alkaline, process water recycling in the bleach plant Purification and reuse of condensates Effective spill monitoring, containment, and recovery system
87 Reduction of Water Emissions Sufficient black liquor evaporation plant and recovery boiler to cope with the additional liquor and dry solids loads due to collection of spills, bleach plant effluents etc. Collection and reuse of clean cooling waters Provision of sufficiently large buffer tanks for storage of spilled cooking and recovery liquors and dirty condensates to prevent sudden peaks of loading and occasional upsets in the external effluent treatment plant Primary treatment of wastewater External biological wastewater treatment
88 Reduction of Air Emissions Collection and incineration of concentrated malodorous gases from the fibre line, cooking plant, evaporation plant, condensate stripper, and control of the resulting SO 2. The recovery boiler, the lime kiln or a separate NO x can be used to burn the strong gases. The gases emitted by the, which have a high concentration of SO 2 must be scrubbed. Diluted malodorous gases from the fiber line, various sources as tanks, chip bins, smelt dissolver etc. must be collected and incinerated. The weak malodorous gases can be burnt in e.g. the recovery boiler mixed with combustion air or in an auxiliary boiler depending on the volume. Stringent control of the combustion in the recovery boiler and control of excess oxygen using low S-fuel and control of the residual soluble sodium from the lime mud fed in the case of the lime kiln will reduce TRS emissions.
89 Reduction of Air Emissions Feeding high dry solids contents liquor to the recovery boiler and/or using a flue gas scrubber will allow the mitigation of SO2 emissions. NO x emissions from the recovery boilers, auxiliary boilers and lime kiln can be reduced by controlling the firing conditions and by ensuring proper mixing and division of air in the boiler, and for new or altered installations also by appropriate design. Using bark, gas and low sulphur oil and coal or using a scrubber will reduce SO2 emissions from auxiliary boilers. Cleaning of the recovery boilers, auxiliary boilers and lime kiln flue gases with efficient electrostatic precipitators to mitigate dust emissions.
90 Solid Wastes Minimization Minimization of solid waste generation and recover, re-cycle and re-use these materials when possible. Collection of waste different fractions must be separated at source and, if necessary residuals/waste must be temporarily stored to make possible an appropriate handling of remaining waste products. All non-hazardous organic material (bark, wood waste, effluent sludge, etc.) can be incinerated in an auxiliary boiler, specially designed for burning of moist, low calorific value fuels (as e.g. fluidised bed boilers). Residuals/waste can be used, when possible, as substitutes in forestry, agriculture or other industries.
91 Energy Reduction The following is a list of measures to reduce the consumption of fresh steam and electric power, and to increase the generation of steam and electric power internally. 1. High heat recovery and a low heat consumption High dry solids content of black liquor and bark High efficiency of steam boilers Effective secondary heating system Well closed-up water system Relatively well closed-up bleaching plant High pulp concentration Pre-drying of lime Use of secondary heat to heat buildings Good process control
92 Energy Reduction Low consumption of electric power As high pulp consistency as possible in screening and cleaning Speed control of various large motors Efficient vacuum pumps Proper sizing of pipes, pumps and fans High generation of electric power High boiler pressure Outlet steam pressure in the back-pressure turbine as low technically feasible Condensing turbine for power production from excess steam High turbine efficiency Preheating of air and fuel charged to boilers
93 BATs for MIM and Strategic Planning For all the previous measures, several technologies a currently available and some better ones will emerge in the future. Choosing with ones to implement and in which order is not obvious. Choices must be justified not only environmentally but also economically. Strategic planning through roadmap can lighten the choice of the technologies to implement and made this choice becoming a competitive advantage for the company in the future. The choice of technologies is important in achieving the company’s vision and must take into consideration the probable state of the entire industry in the future. Unfortunately, nobody can accurately predict what will happen in the future so technology roadmaps must be revisited and updated on a regular basis as the situation evolves.
94 MIM Metrics Be environmentally friendly is one thing, be able to show it to the others is another. In order to take advantage of an environmental action, a company must be able to demonstrate its environmental performance. Weyerhauser MIM metrics, which have been described in tier I, can help in achieving this objective. However, these metrics have to major weaknesses: They are not very understandable for a non initiated public; They are too often limited to the facility’s operations. Product stewardship can enhance the competitive advantage. LCA can be a interesting solution to these problems because of its life cycle impact approach. Go to Tier I
95 Examples of LCA-MIM Metrics Global warming Ozone depletion Smog formation Acidification Eutrophication Ecotoxicity Human toxicity Virgin fiber consumption Water consumption Energy consumption
96 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability Veracel Mill Veracel is a Stora Enso’s mill that will be located in Eunapolis Brazil. Its construction has been announced in May 2003. It will produce 900 000 t/year of Eucalyptus pulp. will be the largest single-line bleached eucalyptus pulp mill in the world. The construction of this mill has raised a lot of concerns due to its use of Rainforest resources. Veracel Mill
97 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability Veracel’s History 1991: The Veracruz plantation project established; first lands acquired. 1992:Planting begins. 1997:Stora acquires a stake in the project. 1998:Merger between Stora and Enso. 1999:Veracruz becomes Veracel. 2000: Aracruz acquires a stake in the project. 2001: First harvests cut in the plantations; barge terminal construction begins. 2002: Barge operations begin; decision made to build the Veracel pulp mill. 2003:Ownership of Veracel finalised with Stora Enso owning 50% and Aracruz owning 50%. Pulp mill construction announced and commenced. 2005: Pulp production due to start.
98 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability The Vision Veracel aims to become the leading pulp mill and plantation concept in the world by: Adopting best environmental practices in plantations; Adopting best environmental practices in the pulp mill; Showing strong social commitment; Maintaining active dialogue with stakeholders; Making sure the project has a positive economic impact in the region; Maintaining the competitiveness of operations.
99 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability The Actions: Local Welfare Generations Local employees and suppliers will be prioritized. 5 500 people for the construction of the mill, plus 280 people (45% of whom are women) to operate the mill will be trained.
100 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability The Actions: Employee Welfare Core labor rights in contractors’ and suppliers’ operations as well as internally will be addressed
101 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability The Actions: Support for Education and Health Care A total of USD 8 million will be invested in social infrastructure programs during the period 2003– 2005.
102 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability The Actions: Commitment to Global Models for Plantation Plantations are already ISO 14001 certified and are preparing for other forest certifications (e.g. CERFLOR ). The Atlantic Rainforest Program will be fostered and the active regeneration of natural rainforest accelerated(400 hectares in 2004).
103 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability The Actions: Minimizing Environmental Impact of the Mill Veracel will use the best available technologies in planning and construction. It also has a commitment to certified environmental management system.
104 An Example: Veracel’s Vision of Sustainability Stora Enzo has recognized that, in order to stay competitive, this mill as to be built and operated in harmony with the environment and the local community. They will be regularly audited by an independent firm and they will submit a sustainable report every year.
105 References AMERICAN FOREST AND PAPER ASSOCIATION. 1994. AGENDA 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, 27 pages. AMERICAN FOREST AND PAPER ASSOCIATION. 2004. Agenda 2020. http://www.afandpa.org/Content/ContentGroups/Forestry1/Forest_Research/Agenda_2020/Agenda_2020.ht m page consulted in 2004. http://www.afandpa.org/Content/ContentGroups/Forestry1/Forest_Research/Agenda_2020/Agenda_2020.ht m BURKE, Douglas J. 1997. 2020 Vision – Focus on the Future. Tappi Journal 80(2), p. 37-43. EUROPEAN COMISSION. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) – Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Pulp and Paper Industry. 2001, 475 pages. INDUSTRY CANADA. 2004. Understanding Technology Roadmapping. http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/intrm-crt.nsf/vwGeneratedInterE/rm00057e.html, page consultated in 2004. http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/intrm-crt.nsf/vwGeneratedInterE/rm00057e.html OFFICE QUEBECOIS DE LA LANGUE FRANÇAISE. Grand Dictionnaire Terminologique. 2004. www.granddictionnaire.com, page consulted in 2004. www.granddictionnaire.com PHAAL, Robert, FARRUKH, Clare, PROBERT, David. Technology Roadmapping:Linking Technology Resources to Business Objectives. Centre for Technology Management, University of Cambridge, 27 pages. QUICKMBA. 2004. The Strategic Planning Process. http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/strategic- planning/, page consulted in 2004.http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/strategic- planning/ SPRINGER, Allan M. (ed.). Industrial Environmental Control. 3 rd ed. Tappi Press, Atlanta, 2000, 711 pages WATSON, Steven W., SAPP, Richard W. 1995. Engineering: The Missing Link in Strategic Planning. Tappi Journal, January 1995, p. 73-76.
107 Question 1 Why does GLFP decided to implement the Rapson-Reeve process? a)They were unable to reach the effluent limits with a conventional secondary effluent treatment. b)They wanted to have a competitive advantage over competitors. c)There was no sufficient space to build a aerated lagoon. d)It was less expensive than a lagoon.
108 Question 2 What is one of the major reason for the failure of the Great Lakes process closure? a)Build-up of non-process elements was not considered in the initial design. b)It was to expensive to operate. c)Maintenance was to expensive. d)a, b & c.
109 Question 3 In the L.-P. case study, which of the following was not a benefit of the CC-TCF process implementation? a)Improved pulp quality. b)Reduction in energy consumption. c)Improved color of the effluents. d)Reduction of the chemical consumption.
110 Question 4 To which of the following mill will you most recommend to implement closed-cycle bleach process? a)A modern mill in a place where water cost a lot near a sensible water habitat. b)A old mill in a place where water cost a lot near a sensible water habitat. c)A modern mill located near a very polluted river. d)A old mill located near a very polluted river.
111 Question 5 To which of the following mill will you most recommend to implement closed-cycle bleach process? a)A modern mill in a place where water cost a lot near a sensible water habitat. b)A old mill in a place where water cost a lot near a sensible water habitat. c)A modern mill located near a very polluted river. d)A old mill located near a very polluted river.
112 Question 6 Which of the following can be considered as a strategic planning action? a)Scheduling of a paper machine for the next week. b)Production planning for a year. c)Considering close-up of water system in the future because of the competitive advantage. d)a & c
113 Question 7 If you build a technology roadmap to supports the evaluation of opportunities and threats and focuses on the development of a vision of the future of the organization, which purpose do you want to achieve? a)Strategic planning. b)Process planning. c)Product planning. d)Long-range planning.
114 Question 8 What is Agenda 2020? a)The CO2 reduction objectives accroding to the Kyoto protocol. b)Weyerhauser’s environmental objectives for the year 2020. c)American Forest & Paper Products Assocation technology roadmap. d)Canadian Forest & Paper Products Assocation technology roadmap.
115 Question 9 Which one is not a general measure to reduce environmental according to the BATs? a)Trained and motivated staff and operators. b)Improved process control. c)Efficient technical units. d)An annual environmental report.
116 Question 10 What does LCA can bring to the MIM metrics? a)More data. b)A life cycle approach. c)A impact approach. d)b & c.
117 Achievement Global authority on pulp and paper chemistry Birthdate September 15, 1912 Birthplace Toronto, Ontario Date of Death March 16, 1997 Place of Death Toronto, Ontario Who Was Howard Rapson? Rapson was educated at the University of Toronto (BASc, 1934; MASc, 1935; PhD, 1941). He became an expert in pulp and paper chemistry which involves the manufacture and purification of wood pulp and cellulose for making paper. His particular specialty was in the use of chlorite ion (ClO2) pulping and bleaching which he developed during World War II when the usual pulping agent, sulfuric acid, was in short supply. He holds 33 patents in 45 countries and has received numerous awards. Sources: Canadian Who’s Who 1993, personal communication; photo from Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada. Return to history
118 Kamyr Digester This cooking process is characterized by low initial alkali concentration and low final lignin concentration. This cooking process also ensure good pulp strength properties. Return to description
119 Mission and Objectives The mission describes the organization’s business vision including: Unchanging values; Purpose of the organization; Visionary goals. From an organization’s point of view, it can be seen as the answer to the following questions: Who are we? What is our business? What needs can we satisfy? What is our desired image? Measurable financial (e.g. sales target, earning growth) and strategic (e.g. business position, market share, reputation) objectives will be defined based on the mission.
120 Environmental Scanning The followings components are included in the environmental scanning: Internal firm analysis: Identification of the firm’s strengths and weaknesses. Analysis of the firm industry: Revelation of opportunities and threats. External macro-environment: Environment in which the firm operates that can be described by political, economic, social and technological factors.
121 Strategy Formulation The firm matches its strengths with the identified opportunities while addressing its weaknesses and external threats. In order to maximize profitability, the strategy formulation aims at developing a competitive advantage (cost or differentiation) over competitors.
122 Strategy Implementation The implementation is done by: Means of program; Bugdet; Procedures. Resources are organized and staff is motivated to reach the objectives. Communication is a very important factor in the success of the implementation.
123 Evaluation & Control Monitoring and adjusting the strategy are very important for its success. The steps in evaluation and control are: 1.Definition of parameters to be measured; 2.Targeting; 3.Measure of the parameters; 4.Comparison of results with pre-defined standards; 5.Implementation of necessary changes.
124 CERFLOR CERFLOR is a forest certification scheme within the national standardization system under the National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality’s resposibility. Back to Veracel
125 The Atlantic Rainforest Program The Atlantic Rainforest Program, launched in 1999, seeks to develop a number of far- reaching initiatives at the national level. Activities include monitoring the elaboration, implementation and assessment of public policies, of specific legislation and programs for the preservation and sustainable use of the Atlantic Rainforest’s resources. Back to Veracel