Presentation on theme: "The study of interactions of organisms and their environment “Ecology is nothing” I. Definition : OrganismsPopulations Communities Ecosystems II. Levels."— Presentation transcript:
The study of interactions of organisms and their environment “Ecology is nothing” I. Definition : OrganismsPopulations Communities Ecosystems II. Levels of Investigations in Ecology Chpt 52Chpt 53Chpt 54Chpt 55 Distribution of organisms Factors that influence growth of populations Interactions of different species Energy and matter as it flows through living and non-living An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere - Chapter 52
Chapter 52: Biomes Which of the pictures below is not part of a Biome? Your right… all are part of a type of Biome
Biome Definition: Large area of the world containing very similar animals and plants usually named by their most common __________ Vegetation You have all studied biomes in Freshman Biology or Geography class Let’s find out how much you remember!! Biome Quiz Part I: Match the description with the Biome
a. Coral Reefs b. Chaparral c. Temperate Grassland d. Pelagic e. Abyssal f. Tropical Forest g. Savannah h. Desert i. Rivers j. Lakes k. Estuaries l. Intertidal m. Taiga n. Tundra o. Deciduous Forest __________ 1. Found near the equator, where photoperiod and temperature are constant. Abundant rain fall may vary with location and season. This is the most species rich terrestrial biome. __________ 2. Periodically inundated by seawater. Sessile organisms in the uppermost zones are exposed to air and sun. __________ 3. Arid Biome. Low precipitation and daily temperature extremes. __________ 4. Relatively cool climates with deep rich soils. Periodic fires and drought inhibit the growth of large trees and shrubs. __________ 5. Transition zone between rivers and ocean. Area has large fluctuations of salinity. Tend to be very productive with an abundance of organisms. __________ 6. Organisms are dependent on detritus that “rains’ down from above. Some organism can live around vents and use chemosynthesis as an energy source. _________ 7. Distinct seasons with sufficient moisture that support large trees that drop and grow leaves. __________ 8. Scrublands of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs, usually adapted to fire. Area tends to be on the coast with mild winters and hot dry summers. __________ 9. Stratified vertically in regards to light. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are primary food sources. Can be categorized as oligotrophic, mesotrophic, or eutrophic depending on nutrients. __________ 10. These areas can change dramatically from its source to its final destination. Organisms very dependent on oxygen levels and flow rates. __________ 11. Very small plants with mat like growth. Trees absent due to permafrost. __________ 12. Animal skeletons form complex calcium carbonate structures that that provide food and shelter for other organism. Warm tropical water only. __________ 13. Dense stands of evergreens characterized by long winters and short summers. __________ 14. Upper layers consist of photosynthetic plankton. This biome covers more of the earth’s surface then any other biome. __________ 15. Tropical grassland with scattered trees. Precipitation varies from dry to wet seasons with frequent fires. Large grazing herbivores are common. f l h c k e o b j i n a m d g
Biome Quiz Part II: Match the description with the Biome
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
A. Why are there major areas in the world that are very similar yet these areas are found in different continents? III. Ecological questions about Biomes What factors affect the distribution of these organisms? Slide 26
B. Factors that Determine Geographic Distribution of Organisms Does Dispersal limit distribution Does Behavior limit distribution Do Biotic Factors limit distribution Do Abiotic Factors limit distribution Species is absent because Yes No Area inaccessible or insufficient time Yes No Habitat Selection Predation, parasitism, competition, disease (living factors, other species) Non-living factors Chemical Factors Physical Factors In the current “Modern” biosphere, which of the above is the most important factor determining species distribution in a Biome? Example: Tropical RainforestTropical Rainforest 5. Soil Similarity in biomes is due to Similarities of Abiotic Factors 1. Water 2. Oxygen 3. Salinity 4. pH 1. Temperature 2. Light 3. Fire 4. Moisture
IV. Abiotic Factors and Biomes A. Temperature vs. Precipitation (Climate) Illinois As long as specific climate conditions are met, similar biomes will result. Species may be different but similar organism types will result since they occupy similar niches DesertGrasslandTropical Forest Temperate Forest Coniferous Forest Artic and Alpine Tundra Illinois Where is Illinois on this graph?
B. Light vs. Temperature Intensity of solar light dependent on: Latitude of the EarthTilt of the earth (resulting in the 4 seasons) 1.Areas that receive more light cause warmer moist air to rise leading to precipitation C. Light vs. Precipitation 2.Areas that receive less light results in cool dry air descending Why are rainforest found at the equator?equator Why are desert mainly found at 30 N and 30 S?30 N and 30 S
E. Geographical Effects 1.Bodies of water stabilize temperature (warm or cool) D. Rotation of the Earth 1.“Consistent” wind patterns carry warm moist / dry cool air to influence climate 2.“Consistent” currents carry warm or cool water to influence climateConsistent 2.Mountains Moisture Rain Shadow a) air temperature b) moisture b)influence biomes due to elevation a) create rain shadows Is there evidence of rotational and geographical effects on the earth’s Biomes?Biomes
F. Microclimates and Ecotones 1.Local small scale effects that can create a different “mini-biome” within a larger biome Examples: 1. Under a log (microclimate) 2. Oasis in a desert (microclimate / ecotone) 3. Oak Grove, Long Grove, Buffalo Grove 2.Microclimates may cause Biomes to flow one into the other. The boundaries of a Biome may become fuzzy and “arbitrary” “Illinois is a Biome Ecotone” Ecotones
V.Species Transplants: What happens when species of one biome “transplant” into a similar biome A. The Tens Rule 1.One out every ten new “introduced” species will become established in a new “similar” biome of which one out of every ten established transplants will become pests B.“Successful” transplant C.“Pest” transplants“Pest” transplants African Honey Bee,Zebra Mussel Purple Loosestrife Examples?