Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere - Chapter 52

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere - Chapter 52"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere - Chapter 52
I. Definition: The study of interactions of organisms and their environment “Ecology is no thing” II. Levels of Investigations in Ecology Chpt 52 Chpt 53 Chpt 54 Chpt 55 Organisms Populations Ecosystems Communities Energy and matter as it flows through living and non-living Distribution of organisms Factors that influence growth of populations Interactions of different species

2 Chapter 52: Biomes Which of the pictures below is not part of a Biome?
Your right… all are part of a type of Biome

3 Match the description with the Biome
Biome Definition: Large area of the world containing very similar animals and plants usually named by their most common __________ Vegetation You have all studied biomes in Freshman Biology or Geography class Let’s find out how much you remember!! Biome Quiz Part I: Match the description with the Biome

4 a. Coral Reefs b. Chaparral c. Temperate Grassland d. Pelagic e
a. Coral Reefs b. Chaparral c. Temperate Grassland d. Pelagic e. Abyssal f. Tropical Forest g. Savannah h. Desert i. Rivers j. Lakes k. Estuaries l. Intertidal m. Taiga n. Tundra o. Deciduous Forest __________ 1. Found near the equator, where photoperiod and temperature are constant. Abundant rain fall may vary with location and season. This is the most species rich terrestrial biome. __________ 2. Periodically inundated by seawater. Sessile organisms in the uppermost zones are exposed to air and sun. __________ 3. Arid Biome. Low precipitation and daily temperature extremes. __________ 4. Relatively cool climates with deep rich soils. Periodic fires and drought inhibit the growth of large trees and shrubs. __________ 5. Transition zone between rivers and ocean. Area has large fluctuations of salinity. Tend to be very productive with an abundance of organisms. __________ 6. Organisms are dependent on detritus that “rains’ down from above. Some organism can live around vents and use chemosynthesis as an energy source. _________ Distinct seasons with sufficient moisture that support large trees that drop and grow leaves. __________ 8. Scrublands of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs, usually adapted to fire. Area tends to be on the coast with mild winters and hot dry summers. __________ 9. Stratified vertically in regards to light. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are primary food sources. Can be categorized as oligotrophic, mesotrophic, or eutrophic depending on nutrients. __________ 10. These areas can change dramatically from its source to its final destination. Organisms very dependent on oxygen levels and flow rates. __________ 11. Very small plants with mat like growth. Trees absent due to permafrost. __________ 12. Animal skeletons form complex calcium carbonate structures that that provide food and shelter for other organism. Warm tropical water only. __________ 13. Dense stands of evergreens characterized by long winters and short summers. __________ 14. Upper layers consist of photosynthetic plankton. This biome covers more of the earth’s surface then any other biome. __________ 15. Tropical grassland with scattered trees. Precipitation varies from dry to wet seasons with frequent fires. Large grazing herbivores are common. f l h c k e o b j i n a m d g

5 Biome Quiz Part II: Match the description with the Biome

6 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz

7 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz

8 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Slide 26

9 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz

10 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz

11 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz

12 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz

13 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz

14 Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Slide 27

15 Aquatic Biome Self Quiz

16 Aquatic Biome Self Quiz

17 Aquatic Biome Self Quiz

18 Aquatic Biome Self Quiz

19 Aquatic Biome Self Quiz

20 Aquatic Biome Self Quiz

21 Aquatic Biome Self Quiz

22 Aquatic Biome Self Quiz

23 Tuesday Meet in the Computer Lab

24 III. Ecological questions about Biomes
A. Why are there major areas in the world that are very similar yet these areas are found in different continents? What factors affect the distribution of these organisms? Slide 26

25 Similarity in biomes is due to Similarities of Abiotic Factors
B. Factors that Determine Geographic Distribution of Organisms Species is absent because Area inaccessible or insufficient time Yes Yes Chemical Factors Does Dispersal limit distribution Habitat Selection Predation, parasitism, competition, disease Yes 1. Water Does Behavior limit distribution 2. Oxygen No Do Biotic Factors limit distribution 3. Salinity No Do Abiotic Factors limit distribution 4. pH 5. Soil (living factors, other species) No Non-living factors Physical Factors 1. Temperature 2. Light In the current “Modern” biosphere, which of the above is the most important factor determining species distribution in a Biome? Example: Tropical Rainforest 3. Fire 4. Moisture Similarity in biomes is due to Similarities of Abiotic Factors

26 Artic and Alpine Tundra
IV. Abiotic Factors and Biomes As long as specific climate conditions are met, similar biomes will result. Species may be different but similar organism types will result since they occupy similar niches A. Temperature vs. Precipitation (Climate) Desert Grassland Tropical Forest Illinois Temperate Forest Illinois Where is Illinois on this graph? Coniferous Forest Artic and Alpine Tundra

27 Intensity of solar light dependent on:
B. Light vs. Temperature Intensity of solar light dependent on: Latitude of the Earth Tilt of the earth (resulting in the 4 seasons) C. Light vs. Precipitation Areas that receive more light cause warmer moist air to rise leading to precipitation Why are rainforest found at the equator? Areas that receive less light results in cool dry air descending Why are desert mainly found at 30 N and 30 S?

28 “Consistent” currents carry warm or cool water to influence climate
D. Rotation of the Earth “Consistent” wind patterns carry warm moist / dry cool air to influence climate “Consistent” currents carry warm or cool water to influence climate E. Geographical Effects Bodies of water stabilize temperature (warm or cool) a) air temperature Rain Shadow b) moisture Mountains a) create rain shadows influence biomes due to elevation Moisture Is there evidence of rotational and geographical effects on the earth’s Biomes?

29 F. Microclimates and Ecotones
Local small scale effects that can create a different “mini-biome” within a larger biome Examples: 1. Under a log (microclimate) 2. Oasis in a desert (microclimate / ecotone) 3. Oak Grove, Long Grove, Buffalo Grove Ecotones “Illinois is a Biome Ecotone” Microclimates may cause Biomes to flow one into the other. The boundaries of a Biome may become fuzzy and “arbitrary”

30 Species Transplants: What happens when species of one biome “transplant” into a similar biome
A. The Tens Rule One out every ten new “introduced” species will become established in a new “similar” biome of which one out of every ten established transplants will become pests “Successful” transplant Examples? “Pest” transplants African Honey Bee, Zebra Mussel Purple Loosestrife AND MY FAVORITE

31 The Cane Toad

32 The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt
Slide 28

33 Alewife problem in Lake Michigan
Slide 30


Download ppt "An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere - Chapter 52"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google