Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere - Chapter 52"— Presentation transcript:
1An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere - Chapter 52 I. Definition:The study of interactions of organisms and their environment“Ecology is nothing”II. Levels of Investigations in EcologyChpt 52Chpt 53Chpt 54Chpt 55OrganismsPopulationsEcosystemsCommunitiesEnergy and matter as it flows through living and non-livingDistribution of organismsFactors that influence growth of populationsInteractions of different species
2Chapter 52: Biomes Which of the pictures below is not part of a Biome? Your right… all are part of a type of Biome
3Match the description with the Biome Biome Definition:Large area of the world containing very similar animals and plantsusually named by their most common __________VegetationYou have all studied biomes in Freshman Biology or Geography class Let’s find out how much you remember!!Biome Quiz Part I:Match the description with the Biome
4a. Coral Reefs b. Chaparral c. Temperate Grassland d. Pelagic e a. Coral Reefs b. Chaparral c. Temperate Grassland d. Pelagic e. Abyssalf. Tropical Forest g. Savannah h. Desert i. Rivers j. Lakesk. Estuaries l. Intertidal m. Taiga n. Tundra o. Deciduous Forest__________ 1. Found near the equator, where photoperiod and temperature are constant. Abundant rainfall may vary with location and season. This is the most species rich terrestrial biome.__________ 2. Periodically inundated by seawater. Sessile organisms in the uppermost zones areexposed to air and sun.__________ 3. Arid Biome. Low precipitation and daily temperature extremes.__________ 4. Relatively cool climates with deep rich soils. Periodic fires and drought inhibit thegrowth of large trees and shrubs.__________ 5. Transition zone between rivers and ocean. Area has large fluctuations of salinity.Tend to be very productive with an abundance of organisms.__________ 6. Organisms are dependent on detritus that “rains’ down from above. Some organismcan live around vents and use chemosynthesis as an energy source._________ Distinct seasons with sufficient moisture that support large trees that drop and growleaves.__________ 8. Scrublands of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs, usually adapted to fire. Area tends to be onthe coast with mild winters and hot dry summers.__________ 9. Stratified vertically in regards to light. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are primary foodsources. Can be categorized as oligotrophic, mesotrophic, or eutrophic depending onnutrients.__________ 10. These areas can change dramatically from its source to its final destination. Organismsvery dependent on oxygen levels and flow rates.__________ 11. Very small plants with mat like growth. Trees absent due to permafrost.__________ 12. Animal skeletons form complex calcium carbonate structures that that provide foodand shelter for other organism. Warm tropical water only.__________ 13. Dense stands of evergreens characterized by long winters and short summers.__________ 14. Upper layers consist of photosynthetic plankton. This biome covers more of theearth’s surface then any other biome.__________ 15. Tropical grassland with scattered trees. Precipitation varies from dry to wet seasons withfrequent fires. Large grazing herbivores are common.flhckeobjinamdg
5Biome Quiz Part II:Match the description with the Biome
24III. Ecological questions about Biomes A. Why are there major areas in the world that are very similar yet these areas are found in different continents?What factors affect the distribution of these organisms?Slide 26
25Similarity in biomes is due to Similarities of Abiotic Factors B. Factors that Determine Geographic Distribution of OrganismsSpecies is absent becauseArea inaccessible or insufficient timeYesYesChemical FactorsDoes Dispersal limit distributionHabitat SelectionPredation, parasitism, competition, diseaseYes1. WaterDoes Behavior limit distribution2. OxygenNoDo Biotic Factors limit distribution3. SalinityNoDo Abiotic Factors limit distribution4. pH5. Soil(living factors, other species)NoNon-living factorsPhysical Factors1. Temperature2. LightIn the current “Modern” biosphere, which of the above is the most important factor determining species distribution in a Biome? Example: Tropical Rainforest3. Fire4. MoistureSimilarity in biomes is due to Similarities of Abiotic Factors
26Artic and Alpine Tundra IV. Abiotic Factors and BiomesAs long as specific climate conditions are met, similar biomes will result. Species may be different but similar organism types will result since they occupy similar nichesA. Temperature vs. Precipitation (Climate)DesertGrasslandTropical ForestIllinoisTemperate ForestIllinoisWhere is Illinois on this graph?Coniferous ForestArtic and Alpine Tundra
27Intensity of solar light dependent on: B. Light vs. TemperatureIntensity of solar light dependent on:Latitude of the EarthTilt of the earth (resulting in the 4 seasons)C. Light vs. PrecipitationAreas that receive more light cause warmer moist air to rise leading to precipitationWhy are rainforest found at the equator?Areas that receive less light results in cool dry air descendingWhy are desert mainly found at 30 N and 30 S?
28“Consistent” currents carry warm or cool water to influence climate D. Rotation of the Earth“Consistent” wind patterns carry warm moist / dry cool air to influence climate“Consistent” currents carry warm or cool water to influence climateE. Geographical EffectsBodies of water stabilize temperature (warm or cool)a) air temperatureRain Shadowb) moistureMountainsa) create rain shadowsinfluence biomesdue to elevationMoistureIs there evidence of rotational and geographical effects on the earth’s Biomes?
29F. Microclimates and Ecotones Local small scale effects that can create a different “mini-biome” within a larger biomeExamples:1. Under a log (microclimate)2. Oasis in a desert (microclimate / ecotone)3. Oak Grove, Long Grove, Buffalo GroveEcotones“Illinois is a Biome Ecotone”Microclimates may cause Biomes to flow one into the other. The boundaries of a Biome may become fuzzy and “arbitrary”
30Species Transplants: What happens when species of one biome “transplant” into a similar biome A. The Tens RuleOne out every ten new “introduced” species will become established in a new “similar” biome of which one out of every ten established transplants will become pests“Successful” transplantExamples?“Pest” transplantsAfrican Honey Bee,Zebra MusselPurple LoosestrifeAND MY FAVORITE