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2011-2012 6 th Grade CRCT prep. Included in this PowerPoint presentation is every Ga. Performance Standard for 6 th grade Social Studies (except reading.

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Presentation on theme: "2011-2012 6 th Grade CRCT prep. Included in this PowerPoint presentation is every Ga. Performance Standard for 6 th grade Social Studies (except reading."— Presentation transcript:

1 th Grade CRCT prep

2 Included in this PowerPoint presentation is every Ga. Performance Standard for 6 th grade Social Studies (except reading across curriculum).

3 SS6G1 The student will locate selected features of Latin America and the Caribbean. a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Amazon River, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Ocean, Panama Canal, Andes Mountains, Sierra Madre Mountains, and Atacama Desert. b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela.

4 SIERRA MADRES MTNS.

5 Atacama Desert – Located in Chile La Mano del Desierto (Hand of the Desert)

6 Andes Mountains

7 You Must Know: Mexico Haiti Brazil Bolivia Colombia Venezuela Cuba Panama

8 Question 1 ► The Atacama Desert is in what country?

9 SS6G2 The student will discuss environmental issues in Latin America. a. Explain the major environmental concerns of Latin America regarding the issues of air pollution in Mexico City, Mexico, the destruction of the rain forest in Brazil, and oil- related pollution in Venezuela.

10 First thing to remember…pollution is not a good thing. Once you realize that, it’s not too hard to answer the standard. Mexico City has most of its wind currents blocked by surrounding hills and mountains. Therefore, air pollution sometimes can’t be blown out of the area for days…sometimes weeks! The Brazilian Rainforest is the “lungs” of South America. Since plants take in carbon dioxide and let out oxygen for us to breathe cutting them down is NOT good. …not to mention the destruction of wildlife and habitat for native peoples there. In Venezuela, the discovery of oil brought new wealth to the government. That same government is supposed to regulate oil pollution and clean up. (does that look clean to you?)

11 Question… ► 2. What blocks the wind currents from blowing the air pollution out of Mexico City? ► 3.Why is it a bad idea to cut down the rain forest? ► 4. What environmental problem does Venezuela have?

12 SS6G3 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Latin America and the Caribbean. a.Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of Mexico and Venezuela affect where people live and how they trade. b. Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of Brazil and Cuba affect where people live and how they trade.

13 Teacher Talk: Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of ____________affect where people live and how they trade. Translation: “How does where a place is, what it feels like and what it has, compare to another place?” Now all you have to do is make a simple comparison: Country A Country B Where is it? What's it feel like? What's it got? Are there advantages for one country (or countries) over another (or others)?

14 Where is it? MEXICOVENEZUELA Both nations have large coastlines and populations that rely on the sea for their living. Mexico is part of North America, but Venezuela is part of South America. Climate? Both Mexico and Venezuela have warm to semi-tropical climates in some parts of their countries. Both are influenced by weather patterns brought into their countries by the oceans. Natural Resources? OIL (petroleum) is now the chief natural resource for both countries. Venezuela has done a better job of exploiting that natural resource, but Mexico is working hard to catch up. Summary: Mexico and Venezuela are similar in climate and natural resources.

15 ► 5. How are Mexico and Venezuela alike?

16 CUBA BRAZIL Where is it? Climate? Natural Resources? Cuba is located about 90 miles from the southern tip of Florida. It is an island nation in the Caribbean Sea. Brazil is the largest country in South America, with an extensive coastline touching the Atlantic Ocean where most of its people live. Many larger cities are surrounded by Favelas or large slum areas. Cuba’s climate is generally warm, mild and semi-tropical. It is often affected by ocean storms and hurricanes. Brazil’s climate is tropical and humid in many locations and warm and mild along the coastline. Cuba has limited natural resources. It has nickel, copper and arable land. Brazil has extensive timber resources, as well as gold and petroleum deposits.

17 ► 6. How are Cuba and Brazil alike?

18 SS6G4 The student will describe the cultural characteristics of people who live in Latin America and the Caribbean. a.Describe the results of blending of ethnic groups in Latin America and the Caribbean. b. Explain why Latin America is a region based on the languages of Portuguese and Spanish. c. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

19 People of European, African and Native American heritage make up the 3 main ethnic groups in Latin America and The Caribbean. When European explorers began to land and colonize, they intermarried with many of the local Native American people. Those descendants make up a large percentage of the population in some countries (and are sometimes referred to as Mestizos) The importation of African slaves into The Caribbean and Central and South America introduced another ethnic population into the region. Mixed descendants of Europeans and Africans are sometimes referred to as Mulattoes.

20 Most of the languages spoken in Latin America today are based on Spanish or Portuguese because those 2 European powers did most of the exploring and conquering in Latin America. (Since both Spanish and Portuguese are based on the old Latin language of the Romans…..Latin America) That is also why the Roman Catholic branch of Christianity is the predominant religion there. Both Spain and Portugal were (and are) Catholic nations.

21 A person who is able to read and write is considered literate. Literacy is a major factor in whether a person is able to get a job and be successful in the workplace. The ability to read and write ensures that knowledge can be passed down from one generation to the next. The lower the literacy rate the more than likely the country is very poor. In some cultures it is believed to be more important for boys to have an education than girls. In some countries, the government does not, or cannot, provide free public education. Many times the communities cannot afford to pay for teachers and schools. Workers are stuck in the lowest-paying jobs. People can’t get an education, so they can only get low-paying jobs. Because they can only get low-paying jobs they cannot get enough money to pay for their children’s education.

22 ► 7. List the 3 main ethnic groups in Latin America. ► 8. Why are Spanish and Portuguese the main languages of Latin America? ► 9. Why is the main religion of people in Latin America Roman Catholic? ► 10. How is literacy related to a higher standard of living?

23 SS6G5 The student will locate selected features of Canada. a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the St. Lawrence River, Hudson Bay, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, the Great Lakes, Canadian Shield, and Rocky Mountains.

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25 The Canadian Shield….what is it? The Canadian Shield is a large geographic area in eastern and central Canada composed of bare rock that is between 540 million to 4.5 billion years old. It is also called the Precambrian Shield, or Laurentian Shield. The Canadian Shield is made up of some of the planet's oldest rock. It is not ideally suited for farming, but contains lots of mineral deposits that are valuable. video.htm

26 The Rocky Mountains are the largest mountain chain in North America. The Rockies cross parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Montana, and Washington in the United States and parts of Alberta, British Columbia, the Yukon Territory, and the Northwest Territories in Canada. The length of the system is about 3,300 miles; the width is as much as 400 miles. The Continental Divide runs along the crest of the Rocky Mountains throughout most of their course. Rivers drain east to the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico, west to the Pacific Ocean, or north to the Arctic Ocean.

27 ► 11. Where are many of Canada’s mineral deposits found? ► 12. What is the chain of mountains called that runs from the U.S. into Canada?

28 SS6G6 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Canada. a.Describe how Canada’s location, climate, and natural resources have affected where people live. b. Describe how Canada’s location, climate, and natural resources impact trade.

29 Most of Canada’s people live in the southern part of their country. Climate plays a big role in where Canadians live as they share some of the same latitudes as countries like Norway and Russia. Because of their proximity (closeness) to the United States, the US is Canada’s leading trading partner. Even though Canada has great mineral wealth and many other natural resources, most of those are not located near large cities.

30 ► 13. Why do most Canadians live in the southern part of their country?

31 SS6G7 The student will discuss environmental issues in Canada. a. Explain the major environmental concerns of Canada regarding acid rain and pollution of the Great Lakes, the extraction and use of natural resources on the Canadian Shield, and timber resources.

32 Acid Rain in Canada: Because so much of its population, cities and industry are located in the southern part of Canada, so is most of Canada’s pollution. Gases emitted from factories, cars and even coal burning stoves can mix with water vapor in clouds and cause acid rain. Acid rain can kill plant life, poison waterways and destroy buildings (eats away marble and stone). Over 35 million US and Canadian citizens live along The Great Lakes. The Lakes provide food, employment, transportation and recreation for both countries. Industrial pollution and run-off from cities and large farms risk pushing the Great Lakes to the point where they may not be able to recover. Logging and timber companies are big business in Canada. They provide thousands of jobs for Canadians. However, because past generations of loggers failed to replant and manage their forests…Canada is not growing its woodlands as fast as it should.

33 ► 14. Name 3 environmental problems in Canada.

34 SS6CG1 The student will compare and contrast various forms of government. a.Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary, confederation, and federal. b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic. c. Describe the two predominate forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.

35 Governmental System, not type of government = How is the power moved? = The Central Government (The “ Big Government”) = The States or Provinces Government (The Little Government ) = The People…that’s us (or them, since it’s Canada!) Understanding a governmental system means understanding how these groups interact.

36 There are 3 basic governmental system models to choose from: Unitary, Confederation or Federal UNITARY GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEM In a Unitary System, power flows from the “Top down”. The people have little or no say in how their government operates. Ex: dictatorships and absolute monarchies Benefits: Government policies are enacted quickly. Downside: Little to no way for the people to have much say so in government

37 A CONFEDERATE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT In a Confederate System, the States or Provinces can tell the Central Government what to do. Benefits: Each state has an equal say in how the National Government is run. Downside: It can take a long time to get all of the states to agree on legislation. Government is forced to wait on agreements.

38 FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT Federal System: Much more interaction between the Central Government and the States or Provinces. Power is shared.

39 ► 15. In which type of government system is power divided or shared between the central and local governments?

40 b. ….determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic, etc…… Democracy - a form of government in which governmental power is held by the people. (usually indirectly through a system of representation and regulated by elections) Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power. (ex: Large landowners of European descent in Central and South America ) Theocracy - a form of government in which a religious figure or belief is recognized as the supreme ruler, but the everyday laws are interpreted by religious leaders; a government subject to religious authority (Iran). Autocracy - A system of government in which supreme political power is held by one person (Cuba). BIG QUESTION TO ASK: “How much say so would the people have under each of these forms of government?”

41 ► 16. Which form of government is subject to religious authority or led by a religious leader?

42 c. ….the two predominate forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential Parliamentary government – The executive branch of government is nominated to its position by parliament, and is directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament. Presidential - a system of government where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature and is generally elected by the people themselves. Sounds complicated, but it’s not……. Ex: In Canada, the Prime Minister gets his job from the members of Parliament. They can boot him out if they aren’t happy with his performance at any time. Therefore…he has to keep the members of Parliament happy most of the time in order to keep his job. Ex: In Mexico, the President is elected directly by the people. He (or she) doesn’t have to worry about making congressmen and senators happy all the time. His position is stable for 6 years. It is not a “popularity contest” with the legislative branch of government.

43 ► 17. In which form of democracy do people vote for the leader?

44 SS6CG2 The student will explain the structures of national governments in Latin America and the Caribbean. a. Compare the federal-republican systems of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Brazil) and the United Mexican States (Mexico) to the dictatorship of the Republic of Cuba (Cuba), distinguishing the form of leadership and the role of the citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms.

45 Compare Governments Mexico ► Presidential democracy ► Leadership:  President  Elected for 6 year term ► Role of Citizen:  vote for president  Vote for Congress Cuba ► Autocracy (Communist dictatorship) ► Leadership:  President  Appointed by National Assembly of People’s Power (only political party) ► Role of Citizen:  vote for members of National Assembly of People’s Power

46 ► 18. Which country has an autocracy (Communist dictatorship) – Mexico or Cuba?

47 SS6CG3 The student will explain the structure of the national government of Canada. a. Describe the structure of the Canadian government as a constitutional monarchy, a parliamentary democracy, and a federation, distinguishing the role of the citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms.

48 Canada is a constitutional monarchy In 1534 the King of France claimed possession of what is now Canada. Later, Great Britain made Canada part of its Empire, and then granted it independence. The British Monarchy is part of all three branches of government. The Prime Minister reports to the Queen’s representative in Canada (The Governor General); the monarchy is also a part of Parliament, and finally, all decisions made by the courts are given in the Crown's name. CANADA is all three…….. Canada is a parliamentary democracy The people elect members of Parliament to represent them. The executive branch of government is nominated to its position by Parliament, and is directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the Parliament. Canada is a federation Power is divided and shared between the central government and the provinces so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs. The central government, in Ottawa, create policies that directly affect upon both individuals as well as the provinces and territories Canadian citizens are able to exercise their rights through a federal democratic election process that allows them to elect members of Parliament, who represent them in the central government

49 ► 19. True or false: Canada is a constitutional monarchy, a parliamentary democracy, and a federation.

50 SS6E1 The student will analyze different economic systems. a. Compare how traditional, command, and market, economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce. b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure market and pure command. c. Compare and contrast the basic types of economic systems found in Canada, Cuba, and Brazil.

51 A traditional economy - a very underdeveloped economy that often based on agriculture. A traditional economy is sometimes known as a subsistence economy. In some cases, currency may not even be used and barter may take place. Ex: Yanomamo Indians of Brazil A market economy - prices are determined by what the market will bring. Whatever people are willing to pay determines the market value of an item. Ex: Mexico A command economy - prices and supplies are determined by the government. Ex: Cuba

52 Most countries have a mixed economic system. Areas like military defense cannot be allowed to operate as “free market” so the government controls them. Dear Soldier, Our Free Market economy didn’t raise enough money in taxes, so we couldn’t afford bullets. Please tell the enemy not to invade us, Love, Uncle Sam How much the government controls the economy really determines what type of economic system countries have. Ex: Cuba = Communist gov’t. = lots of gov’t. control = Command Canada = Parliamentary democracy = less gov’t. control (except military, education, health care) = Mixed Worse case scenario if a country had a total free market economy

53 ► 20. Which country has a command economy – Mexico, Canada, or Cuba?

54 SS6E2 The student will give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada. a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries. b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargos. c. Explain the functions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). d. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.

55 Specialization – economic term that refers to a country relying on a limited number of sources to generate income. Ex: Venezuela has oil…but not much food. Yes they are rich, but they HAVE to buy groceries from other countries. TRADE BARRIERS: barriers that can limit trade Examples would be: tariff – a tax that can be placed on goods coming into a country from another country. “Yes Japan, you can sell your Toyotas here, but it’ll cost you $ per car.” quota – a limit on the amount of goods that one country will allow another to bring into their country. “Japan will only be allowed to sell 1000 Toyotas in The United States.” embargo – a complete trade restriction on some or all goods being sold between nations. “Japan is not allowed to sell Toyotas in The United States anymore.”

56 NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement 1994 Agreement between The United States, Canada and Mexico designed to promote trade and eliminate trade barriers between the 3 nations.

57 ► 21. Which 3 countries are part of NAFTA? ► 22. Why? ► 23. If you wanted to block trade with another country because they were violating the basic human rights of their citizens, which type of trade barrier would be best?

58 SS6E3 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Latin America. a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP). b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP). c. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy. d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

59 First, Just what is Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? GDP is value of all goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. Ex: The US has many different resources that we can use to make money. We have gold, silver, petroleum, etc… (things of value) For countries that do not have many high valued resources, their GDP is probably very low. So how can they maximize what they DO have???? 1)Educate and train their people = human capital 2)Purchase or build items that will allow you to make more money ex: a tractor or build an airport = capital investment Bottom line: countries with limited natural resources are less likely to be as successful as those with lots of natural resources…not always, but usually.

60 ► 24. How can a country boost its GDP?

61 SS6E4 The student will explain personal money management choices in terms of income, spending, credit, saving, and investing

62 Income- Money received in exchange for labor or services, from the sale of goods or property, or as profit from financial investments. Ex: salary Spending- To pay out or expend money. Ex: buy something or pay a bill Credit - An arrangement for deferred payment of a loan or purchase. Ex: Visa or MasterCard credit card Savings- Avoidance of excess expenditure; economy. (2) A reduction in expenditure or cost. (3) Something saved Ex: savings account or a reduction in what is owed Investing- To commit (money or capital) in order to gain a financial return Ex: college education, buying stock

63 SS6H1 The student will describe the impact of European contact on Latin America. a. Describe the encounter and consequences of the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs and Incas and the roles of Cortes, Montezuma, Pizarro, and Atahualpa. b. Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on Latin America and Europe in terms of the decline of the indigenous population, agricultural change, and the introduction of the horse.

64 1502 Montezuma II becomes Aztec emperor 1519 Hernando Cortés arrives in Mexico, is welcomed by Montezuma, and captures him Cortés captures and destroys Aztec city Tenochtítlán which will be renamed by the Spanish as Mexico City. Gold is sent back to Spanish king Pizarro, with 180 men, kidnaps Sapa Inca Atahualpa, kills him, takes Peru and destroys Inca Empire. Gold and silver are sent back to Spanish king. The Spanish Arrive in Latin America….

65 The impact of The Columbian Exchange on Latin America (or after Columbus, then what…?) Exactly what types of things were “exchanged”? FROM EUROPE (or because of it): Gunpowder Slaves Christianity Horses Cattle Pigs Sheep Wheat Oranges Bananas Coffee Rice, Sugar Cane, Grapes Olives Smallpox Influenza Measles Killing thousands who did not have any immunity to these sicknesses To the New World To Europe FROM THE NEW WORLD: Corn Potatoes Tomatoes Peppers Pumpkins Squash Chocolate Sweet Potatoes Turkey Tobacco Helped Spanish conquer and basic mode of transportation for hundreds of years

66 ► 25. Name 1 good thing and 1 bad thing about the Columbian Exchange.

67 SS6H2 The student will explain the development of Latin America and the Caribbean from European colonies to independent nations. a. Describe the influence of African slavery on the development of the Americas. b. Describe the influence of the Spanish and the Portuguese on the language and religions of Latin America. c. Explain the Latin American independence movement; include the importance of Toussaint L’Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, and Miguel Hidalgo.

68 Influence of Slavery on the Americas ► Spanish & Portuguese imported Africans to work as slaves in Latin America (Indians died too easily from disease or ran away).  Result: many Latin Americans today have African ancestors. ► Much wealth was shipped back to Spain & Portugal  Result: Today many Latin American countries are poor

69 Influence of Spanish and Portuguese on Languages and Religions of Latin America ► Portugal colonized Brazil. People in Brazil now speak Portuguese. ► Spain colonized most of the rest of Latin America. Most Latin Americans speak Spanish. ► Spain’s and Portugal’s main religion is Catholic. Most people in Latin America are Catholic today. ► But… indigenous cultures have BLENDED their beliefs with Catholic beliefs (ex.: Day of the Dead celebration in Mexico)

70 ► 26. Why did Europeans import people from Africa to the New World to work as slaves? ► 27. Why are many Latin American countries poor? ► 28. Why do many Latin Americans speak Spanish or Portuguese? ► 29. Why is the religion of much of Latin America Catholic?

71 Toussaint L’Ouverture Haiti Led a slave uprising against the French. British and Spanish forces invaded the French colony. Haitian leader Toussaint L’Ouverture defeated the European generals in battle, then ruled Haiti until Toussaint L’Ouverture’s success inspired others in Latin America to strive for independence from colonial rule.

72 Simon Bolivar Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela the most important man in South American history, Simón Bolívar helped win independence from Spain for Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Revered throughout South America, Bolívar earned the name The Liberator.

73 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Mexico Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Mexican priest and supporter of the poor and native Meso-Americans, became a revolutionary hero when he led an unsuccessful rebellion against Spanish rule in Killed by Spanish soldiers.

74 ► 30. Who was Toussaint L’Ouverture? ► 31. Who was Simon Bolivar? ► 32. Who was Miguel Hidalgo?

75 SS6H3 The student will analyze important 20th century issues in Latin America and the Caribbean. a. Explain the impact of the Cuban Revolution. b. Explain the impact and political outcomes of the Zapatista guerrilla movement in Mexico.

76 In 1959, Cuban rebels (led by Fidel Castro) overthrew the corrupt government of President Fulgencio Batista. Castro turned to communist countries for financial and military aid. Cuba was the first country in the western hemisphere to become communist. Castro actively attempted to spread communism to other nations. Fidel Castro Impact: Threat of Communism in the Western Hemisphere forced the U.S. to stay actively involved in Latin American politics. U.S. started a trade embargo against Cuba. The revolution proved that the poor of Latin America could be open to the idea of communism. The Cuban Revolution

77 The Zapatista Guerrilla Movement in Mexico Based in the Mexican state of Chiapas, they are a revolutionary group that has declared war on the Mexican government. Many of the poor in that area have been attracted to the Zapatistas because they claim that the Mexican government has forgotten them and only cares about making money and big businesses. In 1994 they openly took control of several towns in southern Mexico in response to Mexico signing NAFTA. The Mexican army was forced to go in and put down the rebellion. The Zapatistas still have a lot of support in the poorer areas of Mexico.

78 ► 33. What happened during the Cuban Revolution? ► 34. What do the Zapatistas want?

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80 SS6H4 The student will describe the impact of European contact on Canada. a. Describe the influence of the French and the English on the language and religion of Canada. b. Explain how Canada became an independent nation.

81 The earliest discovery of the New World was made by Norse seafarers known as Vikings. In AD 985 Norse seamen sailing from Iceland to Greenland were blown far westward off their course and sighted the coast of what must have been Labrador off the Canadian coast. In AD 1000 Leif Ericson became the first European to land in North America

82 John Cabot The 2 nd European discovery of Canada was by John Cabot, an explorer who worked for King Henry VII of England. He left Europe in 1497 and sailed west. He hoped to find a shortcut to Asia. Instead, he landed on the east coast of what is now Canada. This was important, because in later years, Great Britain claimed much of the territory located on the east coast of North America as theirs…since Cabot was working for them when the east coast was discovered. In 1524, French King Frances I sent Giovanni da Verrazano to explore the eastern shore of what is now Canada. From those explorations, France would also claim ownership of Canada.

83 Jacques Cartier After Verrazano’s voyage, French King Frances sent another explorer to the New World. In 1534, Jacques Cartier was sent to further explore the new land. France wanted to know what the interior of the territory was like. Over a 2 year period, Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River and explored Canada, discovered the Native Americans (Indians) that lived within the country and discovered what would become the cities of Quebec and Montreal. Because of his efforts, the French government (not England) actually understood what natural resources and potential wealth really lay within the new land. The Royal Flag of France

84 Early French Success French explorer Samuel Champlain established France’s first permanent colony in Canada at Quebec in He made friends with the Huron tribe and helped them fight their traditional enemy the Iroquois Indians. The Iroquois swore to fight the French, from then on. The colony became wealthy by trade in furs, timber and fish Considered a French-Canadian Hero

85 ► 35. Who were the first Europeans in Canada? ► 36. Which 2 European countries made claims on Canada?

86 British and French Rivalry in Canada In general, English settlers and soldiers controlled the eastern coastal areas. France controlled the interior of the country and limited eastern areas. BUT, when the French were able to sail all the way from Canada down the Mississippi River and establish trading posts, it posed a threat to what England had done in America. In essence, they were controlling the “backdoor” of America. In 1689 and again in 1697 the British and French fought each other in Canada. Credit: Image:Claude Bernou Carte de lAmerique septentrionale.jpg

87 America’s Impact on Canada’s Early History The British American colonies were much more populated than the French Canadians. In 1754, the French and Indian War broke out in the northern part of America and into Canada. At almost the same time France and Great Britain opened hostilities in Europe and the 7 Years War broke out there. The British were able to use their superior numbers, better navy and Indian allies to defeat the majority of French forces on the North American continent. By 1763, Great Britain controlled Canada and America.

88 ► 37. What was the French and Indian War about? ► 38. Who won? ► 39. What animal caused Europeans to explore Canada?

89 SS6H5 The student will analyze important contemporary issues in Canada. a. Describe Quebec’s independence movement.

90 Quebec remained mostly French after Great Britain took control of Canada. British efforts to control the region were always met with defiance. Both language (French) and religious (Catholic) differences kept the Quebec area isolated from the rest of the country. Beginning in the 1960s, many people in Quebec wanted to separate it from Canada and establish a French-speaking nation. In 1970 terrorist acts by alleged separatists were climaxed by the kidnapping and murder of Quebec's minister of labor and immigration. The federal government sent in troops and temporarily suspended civil liberties. In 1974 French became the official language of the province. Quebec voters narrowly rejected secession from Canada in a 1995 referendum.

91 ► 40. Why does Quebec want to become independent from the rest of Canada?

92 SS6G8 The student will locate selected features of Europe. a. Locate on a world and regional political- physical map: the Danube River, Rhine River, English Channel, Mediterranean Sea, European Plain, the Alps, Pyrenees, Ural Mountains, Iberian Peninsula, and Scandinavian Peninsula. b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, and United Kingdom.

93 ENGLISH CHANNEL Scandinavian Peninsula Iberian Peninsula

94 Major Mountains of Europe ALPS Pyrenees The Ural Mtns. The Pyrenees separate Spain and France The Alps are shared by Switzerland, Germany, Italy and France The Urals separate the European part of Russia from the Asian part of Russia

95 European countries you must know: Belgium France Germany Italy Poland Russia Spain Ukraine United Kingdom of Great Britain

96 SS6G9 The student will discuss environmental issues in Europe. a. Explain the major concerns of Europeans regarding the issues such as acid rain in Germany, air pollution in the United Kingdom, and the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine.

97 Acid Rain in Germany ► Caused by burning fossil fuels which mix with rain. ► Damages wildlife and buildings ► Solution: Burn less fossil fuels – but polluted air still drifts in from other countries.

98 Air Pollution in U.K. ► Caused by burning fossil fuels. ► Dirty air + fog = SMOG (Great Smog of 1952 killed thousands) ► Hurts lungs, can kill people ► Solution – cleaner factories, burn less coal, use public transportation

99 Chernobyl - the Dead City On April 25th -26th, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power accident occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (now Ukraine). A chain reaction in the reactor went out of control creating explosions and a fireball which blew off the reactor's heavy steel and concrete lid. The Chernobyl accident killed more than 30 people immediately, and as a result of the high radiation levels in the surrounding 20-mile radius, 135,000 people had to be evacuated….forever. The abandoned city. Note the reactor in the background

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101 ► 41. Name 3 pollution problems in Europe and possible solutions.

102 SS6G10 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, natural resources, and population distribution on Europe. a. Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of the United Kingdom and Russia affect where people live and how they trade. b. Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of Germany and Italy affect where people live and how they trade

103 Russia vs. UK ► Russia: Largest country. Most people live in cities near Europe. Most of Russia is extremely cold and resources are hard to get. Ports are frozen most of the year. ► U.K.: small island warmed by Gulf Stream. Ports open all year. Lots of resources – using up many of them.

104 Germany vs. Italy ► Germany: most people live in cities near rivers. Rivers provide transportation. Has border on ocean. Mountains in south. Lots of minerals. ► Italy: peninsula in Mediterranean Sea. Lots of seaports. Lots of fishing. Warm & dry in summer – grow lots of grapes for wine.

105 ► 42. How does Russia compare with the U.K.? ► 43. How does Germany compare with Italy?

106 SS6G11 The student will describe the cultural characteristics of Europe. a. Explain the diversity of European languages as seen in a comparison of German, English, Russian, French, and Italian. b. Describe the major religions in Europe; include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. c. Explain how the literacy rate affects the standard of living in Europe.

107 Explain the diversity of European languages as seen in a comparison of German, English, Russian, French, and Italian. ► Europe’s many languages make it hard for people to communicate, so schools teach 2 languages and the EU has many official languages. ► 3 language groups:  Germanic (largest): English & German ► English “good morning” ► German “guten morgen”  Romance: Italian & French ► Italian: “buon giorno” ► French: “bon jour”  Slavic: Russian (uses Cyrillic alphabet) ► Russian: “доброе утро”

108 Major European Religions ► Christianity – largest; founder is Jesus; holy book is Bible ► Islam – fastest growing; founder is Muhammad; holy book is Quran ► Judaism – founder is Abraham; holy book is Torah ► All are monotheistic (1 God) ► All trace back to Abraham

109 Literacy and Standard of Living ► Most European countries have a high literacy rate. ► Most European countries have a high standard of living. ► Usually, High Literacy = High Standard of Living (less in Russia and not in Cuba) (Why??)

110 ► 44. What are 3 major language groups in Europe? ► 45. How do Europeans solve their communication problems? ► 46. How are the 3 major religions of Europe similar?

111 SS6CG4 The student will compare and contrast various forms of government. a. Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary, confederation, and federal. b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic. c. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.

112 Unitary, Confederation, Federal ► U.K. is unitary – power is held by central government. ► European Union is confederation – 27 countries VOLUNTARILY join to solve economic issues – all power at local levels (in individual countries) ► Federal: Russia & Germany are federal – power is shared/divided between central & local governments

113 Oligarchic, Autocratic, Democratic ► Oligarchy: rule by the few (Europe in the Middle Ages) – citizens have little/no power. ► Autocracy: rule by one (kings and queens, dictators) (Russia under czar Nicholas II; Germany under Hitler) – citizens have little/no power. ► Democracy (U.K., Germany, Russia today) – rule by the people – citizens VOTE

114 Parliamentary and Presidential Democracies ► Parliamentary: citizens vote for members of Parliament. Leader of winning political party in Parliament becomes leader. Ex: U.K. and Germany ► Presidential: citizens vote for members of legislature. Citizens vote for leader (president). Ex: Russia

115 SS6CG5 The student will explain the structure of modern European governments. a. Compare the parliamentary system of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), the federal system of the Federal Republic of Germany (Germany), and the federation of the Russian Federation (Russia), distinguishing the form of leadership and the role of the citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms. b. Describe the purpose of the European Union and the relationship between member nations.

116 Compare Governments U.K. ► unitary, parliamentary democracy, and constitutional monarchy (queen’s power is limited by constitution)  chief executive: prime minister  head of state: queen  people vote for members of parliament Germany ► federal, parliamentary democracy, and welfare state  chief executive: chancellor  head of state: president  people vote for members of parliament ► federal, presidential democracy  chief executive: president  Vice president: premier  people vote for president; he picks premier  People vote for legislature Russia

117 European Union ► Confederation (VOLUNTARY!) of 27 countries in Europe. ► Purpose: economic strength  Free trade among EU countries  Free travel among EU countries  EU countries keep their own leaders and their own militaries.

118 ► 47. Compare the governments of U.K., Germany, and Russia. ► 48. True or False: The EU is a confederation. ► 49. What is the purpose of the EU?

119 SS6E5 The student will analyze different economic systems. a. Compare how traditional, command, and market, economies answer the economic questions of 1 -what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce. b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure and market and pure command. c. Compare the basic types of economic systems found in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Russia.

120 Compare Economic Systems U.K. ► Mixed ► 75% on economic continuum (100% = pure market) Germany ► Mixed ► 73% on economic continuum (100% = pure market) ► Mixed ► 51% on economic continuum (100% = pure market) Russia

121 ► 50. Which is more market economy: U.K. or Russia?

122 SS6E6 The student will analyze the benefits of and barriers to voluntary trade in Europe. a. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers such as tariffs, quotas, and embargos. b. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.

123 Why International Trade Requires a System for Exchanging Currencies ► Each country has its own type of money. ► The value in comparison to ours changes daily. ► In order to trade, or do business with people in other countries, we have to change our $ to theirs. ► Companies that do this charge a fee.

124 ► Most of Europe uses the Euro. ► U.K. uses the pound. ► Russia uses the ruble. ► Mexico uses the peso. ► Brazil uses the real. ► Canada uses the Canadian dollar. ► Australia uses the Australian dollar.

125 ► 51. Why does international trade require a system for currency exchange?

126 SS6E7 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Europe. a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP). b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP). c. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy. d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

127 GDP and Human Capital ► In a market or mixed economy, investing in training, education, and health care for people (human capital) increases the GDP.

128 GDP and Physical Capital ► In a market or mixed economy, investing in technology, equipment, machinery, and factories (physical capital) increases the GDP.

129 Natural Resources and the Economy ► Countries that have more natural resources and know how to use them have better economies. ► They either sell the natural resources to make money or ► They use the natural resources to make things they sell to other countries.

130 Entrepreneurs and the Economy ► Entrepreneurs help the economy and the GDP because they start businesses. ► They hire workers. ► They make goods to sell. ► They pay taxes.

131 ► 52. Investing in human capital and physical capital (increases/decreases) the GDP. ► 53. True or False: countries that have better resources and know how to use them usually have better economies.

132 SS6H6 The student will analyze the impact of European exploration and colonization on various world regions. a. Identify the causes of European exploration and colonization; include religion, natural resources, a market for goods, and the contributions of Prince Henry the Navigator. b. Trace the empires of Portugal, Spain, England, and France in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. c. Trace the colonization of Australia by the United Kingdom. d. Explain the impact of European empire building in Africa and Asia on the outbreak of WWI.

133 European Colonization… Why? ► The Crusades started it all.  People began to travel.  They made new maps.  They got new ideas.  They wanted more money.  Italy grew rich because of its location in the Mediterranean Sea.

134 ► Other European countries wanted to find another way to Asia and $$$. ► They started exploring. ► The Portuguese explored the coast of Africa and India. ► The Spanish found the New World. ► The British and French came and got the northern part of the New World. ► These countries also grabbed lands in the rest of Asia and Africa.

135 WHY? ► For natural resources (wealth) ► To gain more land ► To convert people to Christianity ► To keep each other from getting the land (remember Scramble for Africa)

136 ► 54. How did the Crusades lead to exploration?

137 Great Britain got Australia ► After our Revolutionary War with Great Britain, Georgia told the English to take their prisoners somewhere else. So they did… ► They grabbed Australia, killed many Aborigines, and sent their prisoners there. ► It was a great place to trade from, dock boats, and it kept the French from getting Australia.

138 ► 55. Why did Great Britain want Australia?

139 Leading to WWI – The War to End all Wars ► Countries wanted each others’ resources and lands. ► People in each country became willing to die for their countries. ► There was more money for bigger militaries. ► Countries developed alliances. ► Then Austria declared war on Serbia--- and it was on! WWI!!!

140 ► 56. What led to the first World War?

141 SS6H7 The student will explain conflict and change in Europe to the 21st century. a. Describe major developments following World War I: the Russian Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, worldwide depression, and the rise of Nazism. b. Explain the impact of WWII in terms of the Holocaust, the origins of the Cold War, and the rise of Superpowers. c. Explain how the collapse of the Soviet Union led to the end of the Cold War and German reunification.

142 Russian Revolution ► 1917 – Russian soldiers were dying in the fight against Germany. Russian people were hungry and mad. They had a revolution and got rid of their czar (king). They became communist under Lenin. They quit the war and lost good land to Germany.

143 ► 57. Why did Russia have a revolution? ► 58. What were the results of Russia’s revolution?

144 Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles ► After Germany lost WWI, the winners (especially France) wanted to keep Germany from ever fighting another world war. ► Germany was forced to..  Pay a huge amount of $$ to the winners  Lose many lands it had gained in war  Cut back its military  Hand over its leader to be tried for war crimes.

145 Great Depression ► After WWI, many people were so happy to be alive that they partied hard. It was called the Roaring Twenties. ► The stock market crashed in Most people lost everything they owned. Some killed themselves. Some starved to death. Many were hungry and homeless. It didn’t end until WWII in 1939.

146 Rise of Nazism ► Germans were also starving. ► The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were too harsh. ► Hitler promised to make life better for Germans. ► He promised they would regain their former glory. ► They voted for him. ► Then he changed laws and became dictator.

147 ► 59. What events led to WWII?

148 Holocaust ► Hitler believed Jews had caused WWI and all the troubles of the world-wide depression. ► Anti-Semitism is hatred of the Jews. Many people agreed with Hitler. ► He created a plan to kill all the Jews in the world. ► He put them in concentration camps and worked them to death or killed them outright. ► He killed 6 million before he was stopped.

149 WWII ► Germany, Japan, and Italy were the Central Powers. ► UK, France, and the U.S. and … Soviet Union (at first it was on Germany’s side till Hitler double- crossed it) were the Allied Powers. ► We entered the war because Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.

150 ► 60. What was the Holocaust? ► 61. Who was responsible for the Holocaust (name as many as you can)?

151 Superpowers ► The Allies won. We divided Europe with the Soviets. They got ½ of Germany and all east of it. ► This was called the Iron Curtain – the split between east and west Europe. The Berlin Wall was built in Berlin, Germany to split it. ► The U.S. and the Soviet Union were the 2 Superpowers.

152 Cold War ► The U.S. and Soviets were pretty evenly matched. Both had spies, nuclear weapons, big armies, and power in the United Nations. Both sides distrusted each other. ► We wanted to win the world for democracy. The Soviets wanted to win the world for communism. ► It was a tense 50 years. ► It finally ended in the early 90s. The Soviet Union had an economic collapse. The Berlin Wall was torn down. Eastern Europe was free again. ► Russia was reformed.

153 ► 62. What was the Cold War all about?

154

155 SS6G12 The student will be able to locate selected features of Australia. a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea, Ayers Rock, and Great Victoria Desert.

156 Bass Strait

157 SS6G13 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Australia. a. Describe how Australia’s location, climate, and natural resources have affected where people live. b. Describe how Australia’s location, climate, and natural resources impact trade.

158 Things to think about: 1)Notice that the names look “English”. That’s a good hint as to who colonized them. 2) Ask,”why are most of the cities located on the East Coast of Australia”? 3) Why haven’t they developed the interior of the country?

159 ► Australia has many types of climate. The nicest climate (temperate) is on the southeast coast, so most people live there. ► It is hot and dry in the center of Australia. There are lots of minerals, but it is hard to live there. ► In the north there is a rainforest. ► Australia is near China and Japan. It trades with them as well as us. ► It trades minerals, wheat, wool, and cattle. ► Tourism is important. Most tourists come from New Zealand (nearby)

160 6 states and 2 territories; -Australian Capital Territory -New South Wales -Northern Territory Queensland -South Australia -Tasmania -Victoria -Western Australia

161 SS6G14 The student will describe the cultural characteristics of people who live in Australia. a. Explain the impact of English colonization on the language and religion of Australia. b. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

162 ► Since the British colonized Australia, the people there speak English. ► Because the prisoners were Catholic and their jailors were Anglican (both Christian), most people’s religion is either Catholic or Anglican. ► The British treated the Aborigines badly. They killed them with small pox and guns, then treated the remaining people as servants.

163 ► Australia has a high literacy rate. ► Australia has a high standard of living… ► …except for the Aborigines, who are only just beginning to be treated better.

164 ► 63. Why do australians speak English nowadays? ► 64. Why are the main religions in Australia Catholic and Anglican?

165 SS6CG6 The student will compare and contrast various forms of government. a. Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary, confederation, and federal. b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic. c. Describe the two predominate forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.

166 Australia’s government ► Federal ► Parliamentary democracy ► Part of British commonwealth (confederation) ► Chief executive is prime minister ► Head of state is Queen of England – represented by governor general ► Legislature is Parliament – people Must Vote! For members of Parliament.

167 ► 65. Compare the governments of U.K., Australia, and Canada.

168 SS6CG7 The student will explain the structure of the national government of Australia. a. Describe the federal parliamentary democracy of Australia, distinguishing form of leadership, type of legislature, and the role of the citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms.

169 SS6E8 The student will analyze different economic systems. a. Compare how traditional, command, and market, economies answer the economic questions of 1 -what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce. b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure and market and pure command. c. Describe the economic system used in Australia.

170 Australia’s Economy ► Mixed ► 83 % on continuum (100% = pure democracy) ► Very easy to start a business ► High literacy and investment in capital means good workers and money for businesses.

171 ► 66. Why is Australia a good place to start a new business?

172 SS6E9 The student will give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Australia. a. Explain how specialization makes trade possible between countries. b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas and embargos. c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currency between nations.

173 SS6E10 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Australia. a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP). b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital goods (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP). c. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy. d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

174 SS6H8 The student will describe the culture and development of Australia prior to contact with Europeans. a. Describe the origins and culture of the Aborigines

175 Aborigines ► Indigenous people of Australia ► Probably arrived years ago from southeast Asia ► Adapted to Australia’s environment ► Organized into tribes by languages, and hordes (family groups) ► Traditional economy ► Still survive today despite British invasion (smallpox and guns).

176 ► 67. Where did the Aborigines come from? ► 68. Why did the British treat them so badly?

177 Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James Cook took possession in the name of Great Britain. Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

178

179

180 SS6H9 The student will explain the impact European exploration and colonization had on Australia. a. Explain the reasons for British colonization of Australia; include the use of prisoners as colonists. b. Explain the impact of European colonization of Australia in terms of diseases and weapons on the indigenous peoples of Australia


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