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Loss of Biodiversity Photo courtesy of: 1 Ben Hammonds Will Hanlon Matt Hughes Steve Jackson Alex Kevern Ricky Pickett.

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Presentation on theme: "Loss of Biodiversity Photo courtesy of: 1 Ben Hammonds Will Hanlon Matt Hughes Steve Jackson Alex Kevern Ricky Pickett."— Presentation transcript:

1 Loss of Biodiversity Photo courtesy of: 1 Ben Hammonds Will Hanlon Matt Hughes Steve Jackson Alex Kevern Ricky Pickett

2 Rainforest Degradation : A Moral Dilemma Importance of Rainforests –Biodiversity –Carbon sinks –New pharmaceutical drugs and new, disease- resistant crops The Human Element –Family farmers –industrial logging, mining, and agriculture companies as well 2

3 Rainforest Biodiversity Rainforests cover just 2% of the earth’s surface, but are home to approximately 50% of all species of life on the planet. “A single bush in the Amazon may have more species of ants than the entire British Isles.” (Monogabay) Rich diversity creates webs of interdependence. 3

4 History of Conservation Parks and Reserves –Ineffective –Do not provide economic benefits Using this method, 50% of world’s rainforests have been lost –“local people and the government itself must see financial returns to justify the costs of maintaining parks and forgoing revenue from economic activities within the boundaries of the protected area” (Monogabay). 4

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6 Plants of the Rainforest Rainforests have five levels: –Overstory –Canopy –Understory –Shrub Layer –Forest Floor 70-90 percent of rainforest life is in the canopy level. Forest floor has limited life.

7 Plants of the Rainforest Plants are protected by CITES (Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). –This a listing of endangered species. –Attempts to stop trade of listed plant species. Plants are endangered by deforestation from agriculture, logging, and cattle industries. –Elimination of plants, eliminates habitats for animals. 7

8 Plants of the Rainforest Loss of tree canopy inhibits conversion of green house gases. This can also cause climate shifts worldwide. The ultimate loss of rainforest plants is the loss of biodiversity. 8

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10 Rainforests and Medicines Most medicines extracted from rainforests are used by indigenous people Some herbal remedies are beneficial to the physical health of the indigenous people Some of the herbs extracted from the rainforests are ritualistic to indigenous culture 10

11 Medicine Cont. World Health Organization survey –70% to 80% of world population uses non- conventional medicines (herbal sources) for primary health care –Most of the non-conventional used by less developed countries due to lack of “lab drugs” 11

12 Dragons Blood -Latex or sap of Sangre de Drago (dragons blood) -Used for gastrointestinal problems, wound healing, microbial infections -Found in the Amazon river basin -Beginning to be used by more than just indigenous people - Cost effective, two week treatment cost approx. 25 cents, with same effectiveness as conventional methods

13 Dragons Blood cont. Possible cancer treatment – Interferes with malignant cells to keep reproducing –Found to reduce intestinal tumors –Could be an effective weapon against colon cancer 13


15 Rainforest Animal Species 5 times the amount of Bird species 43 species of Ants in one tree, nearly as much as in all of British Isles Manatees, Giant Otters, Amazon turtles, large cats, all in danger of extinction Due to number of insect species, extinctions often go unnoticed 15

16 Causes Fragmentation for Agriculture Logging Over hunting –Increased human populations –Need for food –Modern weapons 16

17 International Conventions The Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) Convention on Biological diversity (CBD) 17

18 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) Entered into force 1975 172 member states restrictions on import, export, re-export, and introduction of specified species –Appendix I is on endangered species –Appendix II specifies restrictions placed on species by varying degrees of necessity 18

19 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) Signed 1983 104 member states parties to the convention must recognize the issue of endangered migratory species and take steps to protect them Parties must also take action to prevent other species from becoming endangered 19

20 Member states 20

21 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) stemmed from the 1992 Rio Convention 190 parties to the treaty Article 8 requires the creation of safe and protected areas for animals in potential risk Article 9 requires parties to provide for the rehabilitation and reintegration of depleted species 2010 Biodiversity Target –strives “to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth” 21

22 Member States 22

23 Effectiveness Brazil has made steps to reach the 2010 target of the CBD –protected wildlife areas –reintegrating manatees and rock cavies 23

24 Challenges to effectiveness enforcement is always in question –up to member states to implement these regulations Development and poverty –In extremely poor areas, animal meat is necessity to survive, regardless of the source Corruption of low level government officials remoteness and size of rainforest 24


26 World Population World population has been increasing exponentially. By the middle of this very century, the world population is expected to reach roughly nine billion people, assuming it continues to grow at an annual rate of 90 million people. Problem at hand: humans rapidly overtaxing natural resources in rainforests, and are “consuming a disproportionate amount of the Earth’s primary production, and transforming native environments into human-dominated landscapes. Two problems concerned with this include that the forests are being degraded at an apparently ever- increasing rate, while human welfare in forested areas is remaining at a constant level – at best – and are more often deteriorating. 26

27 Problems that affect humans Problems of forest degradation include “over harvesting of industrial wood and fuelwood, overgrazing, fire, insect pests and disease, storms, and air pollution” Also, With fewer trees to soak up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the risk of global warming is increased 27

28 Who it effects? forest dwellers: who may be dependent on the forest for his daily faire; settlers in a nearby village, who may need forest-dependent environmental services; consumers in the rainforests’ national capitals that may suffer if wood prices rise due to deforestation; farmers in a distant country who may depend on the forest for the rains that water his crops or for a stable climate 28

29 What must be done? Sustainable development, therefore, must be the answer to how the human well-being can be preserved. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, defined sustainable development as such: “sustainable forest management aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Pierce and Byron 6). 29

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31 The Policy Cycle Identification of the Problem Agenda Setting –Doing Something to correct the problem Formation of Public Policy Implementation Evaluation 31

32 Policy on Rainforest Conservation International Tropical Timbers Agreement- 1994 International Tropical Timbers Association’s Guidelines on the Conservation of Biological Diversity in Tropical Production Forests Tropical Forest Conservation Act of 1998 32

33 International Tropical Timbers Agreement 1994 Drafted by the International Tropical Timbers Organization Regulate Timber use in Modern Industry 14 objectives Use Timber from sustainable regions Rehabilitation of damaged forests 33

34 International Tropical Timbers Agreement 1994 Set forth the Bali Fund –“A Fund for sustainable management of tropical timber producing forests hereby established to assist producing members to make the investments necessary to achieve the objective of article 1 (d) of this Agreement.” Established 4 Committees –Economic Information and Market Intelligence –Reforestation and Forest Management –Forest Industry –Finance and Administration 34

35 Guidelines on the Conservation of Biological Diversity in Tropical Production Forests Set forth by the ITTO 20 different recommended actions for conservation of Biodiversity Recommended Action 1: Provide a national agency, or reform and strengthen existing institutions to include biodiversity conservation in their mandate. Recommended Action 2: Provide this agency with sufficient human and financial resources to effectively achieve integrated biodiversity conservation involving both the TPA and production forest systems. Recommended Action 8: Particular care should be taken in applying silvicultural treatments to ensure that adequate populations of species which are important in food chains or in providing ecological functions (keystone species) are retained. 35

36 Tropical Forest Conservation Act 1998 Offers eligible developing countries options to relieve U.S. debt while generating funds to support forest conservation Six countries have agreements –Bangladesh, Belize, El Salvador, Panama, Peru, and the Philippines –Generated over $60 Million for Tropical Forest Conservation 36

37 Tropical Forest Conservation Act 1998 Eligibility Must have a tropical forest of global or regional significance and meet certain political and economic criteria established in the law Must have Democratically Elected Governments Cooperate on International Narcotics Control measures Have a sustainable economic reform program in place Must not support international terrorism or violate human rights 37

38 Tropical Forest Conservation Act 1998 Reauthorized in both 2004 and 2007 In 2007 received a makeover now including Coral Reef protection On October 15, 2007 it was extended through 2010 38

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