Presentation on theme: "Latin America Climate – Environmental Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1Latin America Climate – Environmental Geography GCU 122 – World Regional GeographyJason DonoghueChandler-Gilbert Community College
2Controls of Climate Latin America The different climatic regions of Latin America are influenced by the following factors:Global atmospheric circulationPositions of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the sub-tropical high pressure zones.Location of major global wind beltsGeological configurationsHighlands of the Andes mountainsAltitudinal Zonation
3Global Atmospheric Circulation Rising air at the equator allows for an abundance of precipitation year round.The sub-tropical high is were you will find some of the drier savannah and desert regions.
4Effects of Pressure Zones Sub-Tropical HighsEquatorial Low
5Global Wind BeltsWind patterns coupled with the physical landscape have a significant impact on climate.Two prime examplesAtacama DesertGulf coast of “Middle America”
6Orographic Effect Atacama Desert Prevailing winds from the east are forced up by the Andes Mountains, and descends on the leeward side.Creates a dry high pressure zone.
7Orographic Effect Caribbean Coast – Middle America Prevailing winds from the east, again and are forced up by the highlands, creating areas of low pressureThis leads to precipitation, and the lush rain forests located here.
8Vertical Climate Zones Middle and South America also experience areas where you may find several different climates in one area.This is because of the highland regions, and the fact that as you rise in altitude the temperature cools.For every 1000 feet up you lose 5.5º
9Middle & South America’s Vertical Climate Zones Altitudinal ZonationMiddle & South America’s Vertical Climate Zones
10Altitudinal Zonation TIERRA CALIENTE (Hot Land) Middle & South America’s Vertical Climate ZonesTIERRA CALIENTE(Hot Land)Bananas, Cocoa, Sugar, Rice2500’750 mSeaLevelSeaLevel
13Altitudinal Zonation TIERRA HELADA (Frost Land) 12,000’ 3,600 m 6,000’ 2000’600 mSeaLevelSeaLevel
14Climate Zones Tropical Rainforest Tropical or subtropical desert Tropical Savanna and Grasslands.Mid-latitude GrasslandsMediterranean ClimateMarine West Coast ClimateHighland Climates
15Tropical Rain ForestThe equatorial zones of high temperatures, and rainfall provide conditions for the rapid growth of vegetation in the form of rain forests of the Amazon and Middle America.The Amazon basin ranges from 60 to 80 inches of rain per year.
16Tropical or Subtropical Desert Warm and dry all year long.Partially due to the subtropical high pressure zones located in these regions.Air becomes warmer and drier over the tropics and sinks.For the Atacama Desert it lies in the rainshadow of the Andes MountainsAdditionally the cold ocean currents that flow north along the west coast of South America do not allow the winds to absorb much moisture.
17Tropical Savanna and Grasslands These areas are typically warm and have some sort of seasonal precipitation.The seasonal precipitation depends on shifts in global wind patterns and pressure belts that shift to the north in the June-August season and to the south in the November-February period.Brasilia, Brazil – Wet Season – Nov. to Feb.Moto Grasso PlateauCaracas, Venezuela – Wet Season – Jun. to Oct.LlanosCaracas, VenezuelaLlanos
18Mid-Latitude Grasslands This climate zone is characterized by cooler temperatures, and low or seasonal amounts of precipitation.Buenos Aries, ArgentinaPatagonia and the Pampas in Argentina
19Mediterranean Moderate temperatures with dry summers and wet winters. Confined to a small section of southern Chile.This is due in part to the ocean currents, wind patterns and the location of the Andes Mountains.Wind patterns shifting north in June results in a distinct wet season here, and a distinct dry season in winter.
20Marine West Coast Cooler and wet all year long. Much like the Mediterranean Climate this zone is found in a small area of southern Chile, and is controlled by the same factors.The westerlies bring heavy rains to the coast here, partially due to the orographic effect caused by the Andes Mountains.
21HighlandTypically cooler temperatures, but this is where altitudinal zonation comes into play.Many different climate types can actually be contained within this zone.
22Natural Hazards and Environmental Concerns Tectonic ActivityVolcanoes and EarthquakesCaribbean Wind PatternsAbundance of HurricanesEl NinoChanges in Wind/Water flow that has global implicationsDeforestation of the AmazonDestruction of the “lungs” of the planet
26Mexico City - 1985 In 1985 a major earthquake struck Mexico City. Killed as many as 10,000 peopleDevastated downtown buildingsCity sits on an old lake bed with sediments that act similar to liquids during an earthquake
27Caribbean Wind Patterns Tradewinds out of the east in this part of the world cause the eastern coasts of Mexico, and countries in Middle America vulnerable to hurricanes.
28HondurasHurricane Mitch slammed in to Honduras and surrounding nations in late October of 1998.Dumped a year’s worth of rain in 48 hours.Flash floods and mudslides deforested slopesLeft nearly 10,000 dead, and almost 20,000 missing.Devastated the Honduran capital of Tegucigalpa.
29El NinoNormal CycleEl Nino is a significant reason why climate in Latin America is usually variable.During an El Nino cycle typically cool waters off the coast of Peru begin to warm.This is because there is a shift in the weather patterns that characterize the south Pacific.Usually we see wind patterns that force the warmer water towards Indonesia and during an El Nino year, this wind slackens, or shifts entirely, allowing the warm waters to flow back across the Pacific ultimately off the coast of Peru.El Nino Cycle
30Effects of El NinoBrings warmer and wetter winds to the coasts of Peru and Ecuador.With this we see flooding and mudslides.Global Effects:Droughts in northeast BrazilFloods in southern Brazil and northern MexicoFewer hurricanes due to wind pattern changes.Droughts and fires in Indonesia, South Africa, and Australia
31Deforestation of the Amazon In the 1970’s the Brazilian government began to focus on the development of the Amazon.Along with this came the beginning of large scale deforestation of the rain forest.Networks of roads were built.Thousands of fires are set each year to clear large sections of forestThe rate of deforestation vary region by region based on how they are being cleared, and used.General agreement is that 15 percent of the Amazon basin has been cleared and the current rate is 50,000 sq miles a year.