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Presentation on theme: "We would like to thank Melissa Pound and Judy Kinz for all their technical support."— Presentation transcript:

1 We would like to thank Melissa Pound and Judy Kinz for all their technical support

2 BIOMES written by Mrs. Rocco’s 2008 Reading Class

3 Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………pg 5-10 Deserts………………… ……………………………..pg Authors: Jazlyn F, Brianna S, Ahmet B Tundra…………………………………………………pg Authors: Arianne S, CJ H, Amber C Rain Forest ……. …………………………………….pg Authors: Makima L, Marc W, Sam M Forest……..……………………………………………pg Authors: Pedro G, Danielle S, Matthew A Grasslands………………………………… pg Authors: Samantha T, Anthony MS, Olivia S. Glossary……………………………………………….pg 44-45

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5 BIOMES A natural area that has a certain climate, plants, animals and ecosystems. 5

6 Climate The same weather over time What affects climate? Amount of precipitation (snow, rain, sleet and hail) Amount of wind Amount of sunshine Temperature Distance from equator and the distance from north and south poles How close is the mountains How close is the ocean 6

7 Plants are producers because they change the energy from the sun into food. Green plants change the sun’s energy into food through photosynthesis. Adaptation means how plants might change or grow that help them survive in their biome environment. The color, size and shape of leaves, length of roots or how close the plant grows to the ground are all examples of plant adaptations to their biome. 7

8 Animals Animals are consumers because they change plant or animal energy into calories which is used to fuel their bodies. Animals can not make their own food. Decomposers are plants or animals that breakdown dead plants and animals into a form of energy that can be used in the soil to help plants grow called nutrients. Animal adapt to their biome. Some examples of adaptations are hibernation, estivation, and migration. The size of an animals ears are an adaptation to their biome. 8

9 Ecosystem The relationship between plants and animals Producers Consumers Scavengers Decomposers Food webs and food chains Pollination Seed dispersal Habitats/shelter Symbiosis 9

10 Ecosystem at Work Sunproducer Herbivore consumer Carnivore consumer decomposer 10

11 DESERT Deserts are fascinating places. Most people think all deserts are hot. Did you know Antarctica is a desert? This desert is called a Tundra. 11

12 Desert Climate Hot deserts are near the equator in the tropical region. Did you know a year can pass without rain in the deserts? In a year, a desert can get about 50cm ( 16 in.) of rain. Sometimes the dried out desert can be interrupted by sudden flooding rains that bring changes to the landscape, plants and animals in the desert. Surfaces in a hot desert can reach up to 80 degrees Celsius (175 degrees Fahrenheit). The desert has the highest temperature at noon and there is little moisture. 12

13 Ecosystems An example of a desert ecosystem is a food web. Producers make their own food, producers are plants. In a food web the meat eaters are called carnivores. An example of a carnivore is the coyote. The plant eaters are called herbivores a camel is an example of a herbivore. The animals that eat both plants and animals are called omnivores. Scavengers will eat dead animals. A vulture is an example of a scavenger. Decomposers like the Dung Beetle breaks down droppings from other animals and send the nutrients into the ground so a new plant can grow. 13

14 PLANTS IN HOT DESERTS photosynthesis. Deserts don’t have a lot of plants. Some of the kinds of plants are Sturts desert pea, barrel cactus, evening primrose flowers and more. Flowers survive by storing water in their roots when it rains. That causes the plants to use photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is when the plants make their own food. 14

15 Plants give animals shade and protection from the sun. Tall, plants like the barrel cactus gives animals a place to hide from predators and shade to escape the desert heat. Ecosystems 15

16 A lot of the animals in the desert have found a way to stay cool by adapting. For example, the fennec fox has big ears that give off a lot of body heat. Most animals spend their time underground to avoid the blazing desert heat. Some of the animals that live in the desert are the sand lizard, elf owls and the trap door spider. There are deserts in southwest North America. One desert in this area is the Great Basin. 16

17 Seed dispersal is a very important ecosystem. The way that animals spread seeds are when the fur on some animals touch other plants their fur collects the seeds and eventually the seeds fall out and begin a new life. Another way the animals help in seed dispersal is when some animals eat a berry and don’t like it so they spit it out on the ground. The seeds eventually grow into a plant again. 17

18 The tundra is in the northern and southern hemisphere near the north pole and the south pole. The tundra is in the polar region. Summers are short. Summer days are 24 hours long and last about 6 to10 weeks. The permafrost melts and gets soggy. Then the region is covered with lakes, marshes, bogs and streams. The summer temperature reaches 50ْF which is enough to thaw the surface ground. During winter the sun never rises and during summer the sun never sets. Winter temperatures can get to -50ْ F. The tundra gets 4 to20 inches of water in the form of rain or snow (10 to 50 centimeters) per year. 18

19 Tundra Ecosystem ADAPTATION The tundra is the youngest biome known. Artic animals adapt to the cold tundra. Adapting means the tundra animals are getting used to there biome. Sea mammals such as seals and walruses have blubber to keep warm. Land mammals have thick fur. Lemmings hibernate and are inactive during winter. That’s how the ecosystem works in this Artic tundra. ECOSYSTEM Animals help plants by eating the seeds then dropping seeds in other places. Also animals help plants by spreading pollen around to make the seeds grow. Plants help animals by providing hiding places allowing animals to blend into their environment so they can get away from their predators. 19

20 Arctic Tundra plants Plants that grow on the tundra are lichen, moss, and sedges. Trees don’t grow on all tundra's because the soil is frozen but on some tundra’s they do. There is one plant called the saxifrage that traps light so it can grow. Plants adapt by having short stems to resist winds and be protected. Plants get energy from the sun through photosynthesis. Plants are producers. The tundra occurs in the northern hemisphere north of the taiga belt located near Alaska in North America. 20

21 Arctic Tundra Ecosystem Seed dispersal is a type of ecosystem. An example of seed dispersal is when an animal bites in to some type of food and spits it out the seeds grow. Another example is when a animal climbs a tree and shakes the branches seeds fall. The plants grow in the summer tundra season. Seed germination 21

22 Tundra animals There are many animals in the arctic tundra such as the polar bear, arctic wolf, seals, arctic fox and many more. The arctic hare (which is a rabbit) can blend in during the summer and winter so predators can’t see them. All these animals except for the rabbit are carnivores which are meat eaters. The rabbit is a herbivore which is a plant eater. The largest and most dangerous animal that lives in the tundra is the polar bear. 22

23 Seal Arctic fox Arctic hare Arctic wolf Tundra animals Raven Polar bear 23

24 Ecosystem An ecosystem is a relationship between plants and animals. Here are some ways that animals help plants. First, some animals such as a bees or butterflies go to a flower and get pollen. Then they fly to a different flower and spread the pollen. So then a seed grows. Next, when animals eat something they don’t like they spit it out and then it sinks into the ground and therefore, a plant or flower grows. Lastly, there is another ecosystem which is called a food chain. A food chain is when a rabbit eats a plant then a bigger animal such as a polar bear comes and eats the little animal. 24

25 Tropical Rain Forest Rain forests are found in the tropical region near the equator. 25

26 Rain Forest Climate The temperature is between 79ْ F (26ْ C) and 88 ْ F (31 ْ C) The rain forest gets inches of rain in a year. The fog provides about 7-12 inches of rain per year. The temperature never changes during the day or night. The environment is pretty wet in the tropical rainforest. 26

27 Rainforest Ecosystem An ecosystem is the relationship between plants and animals. It is also how animals use their environment to protect themselves or build habitats. Animal build their homes in trees, under the ground, in nests and dens. Camouflage is one of the ways animals protect themselves. Also bright colored animals warn other animals they are poisonous. A way plants might protect themselves is they have thorns or they taste bad. 27

28 Rain Forest The top of the tall trees in the Rain Forest is called the canopy. The tallest trees can grow to be 300 feet tall. There are 3 other parts of a rain forest. They are the emergent layer, understory and the forest floor. The emergent layer is the part where the birds live. The understory is where the monkey live. The insects live on the forest floor. Many plants of the rain forest are used to make medicines. Some rain forest plants are mosses, orchids, bromeliad, and buttress root. 28

29 Ecosystem Seed dispersal is how the seeds spread and new plants grow in the Rain Forest. Animals climb the trees and walk on forest floor causing seed to fall or move. When animals eat fruits, nuts and seeds this causes seeds to spread. Animal dropping, water and wind help seeds to spread. 29

30 Rain Forest Animals There are 42,000 species of animals in the Rain Forest. Some of the animals are the Sumatran Rhino, snakes, monkeys, the Three Toed Sloth, birds, iguanas and many different insects. The Tamandua is like an ant eater. 30

31 Food WebFood Web Carnivore A Carnivore is an animal Omnivore that only eats meat. Herbivore A Omnivore is a person or animal that eats meat and plants. Herbivores only eat plants and other things that grow on trees or the ground. 31

32 Forest There are forest everywhere in the world. The temperate forest climate typically includes seasons with rain, sun, and snow. A type of forest is called a monsoon forest. A monsoon is a storm with heavy rain and wind. During this time the forest doesn’t grow. Monsoon forest would be found in tropical areas like Indonesia. Forest climate depends on where you live on earth, how close you are to the north and south pole, nearness of oceans, mountains and/or how close you are to the equator. Acid rain damages the leaves of trees. 32

33 One of the ecosystems of a forest are food chains. Plants trap the energy from the sun using the carbon dioxide in the air to make food. Only plants can use sunlight to make food. Animals cannot make their own food. To get energy animals must eat plants or other animals. Animals that eat other animals that eat plants form a food chain. Food chains that link together in a biome make up a food web. Ecosystem 33

34 Forest Plants Forest are made up of layers. The layer that receives sun and the forest floor. Plants of the forest include shrubs and saplings, which are young trees. Broadleaf forests have trees with flat wide leaves with veins, saplings and leaf litter. In winter the leaves fall off the trees and are called dormant. Mix forest have both conifers and broadleaf trees. Trees know as Conifers have woody cone and needles. Most forest floors are made up of ferns and mosses. 34

35 Forest are important to all animal life Trees make great habitats and provide food for animals. Some of the shelters are burrows, nests, dens, hollow trees, underground and on the forest floor. Trees and plants make nuts and seeds for animals to eat. Forest plants and trees use carbon dioxide in photosynthesis to change the sun’s energy to food. Trees and plants then release oxygen into the air which animals need to live. 35

36 Many animals make their home (habitat ) in the forest. There are animals like lynx, deer, eagles, insects and frogs. The forest offers protection and plenty of food and water to all the living things. Many mammals such as the bear and moose live in the forest. Mammals are animals that are warm blooded, feed babies milk, are born live not in eggs, have teeth and hair or fur. 36

37 One of the ecosystems in a forest is seed dispersal. Animals carry seeds when they rub up against a tree. Seeds could then drop into the water while the animal is drinking. The seeds could also fall off the trees and start a new plant. Plants rely on animals to help spread seeds. Another adaptation is hibernation. This is when an animal eats or stores food up for the winter. The animal then finds a sleeping spot to sleep through the winter. During hibernation, the animal’s breathing and heart rate slows down. In spring the animal wakes up. 37

38 Grassland Climate Climate on the temperate grasslands is hot in the summer and cold in the winter. Temperatures in the summer can get up to 100 degrees. Temperatures in the winter can get up to 20 to 30 degrees. Rain in the temperate grasslands usually occurs in the late spring and early summer. Grasslands get some rain but not often. Fire does not often occur on the temperate grasslands but if there is a fire it is usually set by lightning or human activity. Grasslands are located in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. In North America grasslands are found in the mid-west and in the state of Washington. 38

39 Food Web Of The Grassland symbiosis An example of a grassland food web is that the sun makes grass grow. Then a termite eats the grass. A frog eats the termite. A snake eats the frog. A oxpecker (bird) eats the snake. Oxpeckers eats the insects on the rhino and in return the rhino is a form of protection for the bird from other predetors. This is called symbiosis. After the oxpecker dies it is decomposed by bacteria, fungi, and earth worms. termite 39

40 Grassland plants There are many species of grasses that live in this biome. Grass plants include: purple needle grass, wild oats, foxtail, rye grass and buffalo grass. In the dry season the grass stops growing and turns brown. At the end of the dry season rain comes with thunder and lightning storms turning the grass green. During the wet season the grass sprouts and the scattered trees grow leaves. 40

41 EcosystemsEcosystems One ecosystems is seed dispersal. Dispersing seeds is caused by movement. Animals move plant seeds. Another way to see an adaptation at work is through camouflage. Some animals have fur the color of the grasses to blend in. Other have stripes and patterns so they blend into the herd because big animals don’t hide well and it is safer in the herd. 41

42 Grassland Animals All grasslands share a lack in shelter from predators and lots of grass for food; therefore grassland animal populations are similar throughout the world. Some animals that inhabit temperate grasslands in North America are bison, antelope, birds, gophers, prairie dogs, coyotes, and insects. Hot African Savannah grassland animals are lions, zebra, impalas, giraffe, baboon, vultures and jackals. 42

43 Grassland Shelters Some animals dig burrows such as prairie dogs and gophers. Other animals such as lions sleep on plains or grass. Some animals have the ability to blend in with their environment this is called camouflage. 43

44 Glossary Adaptation- Changing to fit a new environment or changing due to different conditions in the environment. Biome- A define area with a certain climate, plants and animals. Camouflage- the ability to blend in with environmental surroundings. Carnivore- An animal that eats other animals. Climate- Typical weather in a region. Consumer- Must eat plants or animals as a food source. Decomposer- Plants and animals that breakdown dead or decaying matter to be used again as nutrients in the soil. Dormant- temporarily inactive or not actively growing. 44

45 Glossary Ecosystem - How plants and animals interact in their environment. Estivate - To be inactive in the summer or in extremely hot conditions Herbivore - An animal that eats only plants. Hibernate - To be inactive in the winter or in extremely cold conditions. Mammals - Animals that bare live young, have hair or fur, warm blooded and feed young milk. Omnivore - An animal that eats plants and animals. Photosynthesis - The process in which green plants turn the sun’s energy, carbon dioxide and water into food for growth. Producer - Has the ability to make own food source (PLANTS ONLY) Symbiosis - a mutually beneficial relationship. 45

46 The desert and tundra authors

47 The Rain Forest, Temperate Forest and grasslands authors

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