2What is a Biome?Biome—a large region of the earth that has characteristic kinds of organisms.Identified by their dominant plant life and distinctive groups of animals.Biomes are determined by climate—average yearly rainfall and temperature.
3Land Biomes and their Climates Biome Ave. Yearly Rainfall Ave. Yearly Temp.Tundra less than 25 cm oC to 4oCConiferousforest cm oC to 14oCDeciduousforest cm oC to 28oCRainforest cm 25oC to 28oCGrasslands cm oC to 25oCDeserts less than 25 cm 24oc to 40oC
5The Tundra Tundra—treeless biome near the North Pole. Characteristics Cold temperaturesLittle rainfallLong, cold winters with little or no daylightShort, cool summers with 24 hours of daylightOne meter of soil thaws in summer. The rest stays frozen--permafrost
6Plants of the TundraExtreme cold, a short growing season, and shallow soil allow very few plants to grow in the tundra.Most common are grasses, mosses, and lichens.No trees!!!
7Animals of the Tundra Most common: caribou, reindeer, and musk oxen. Small mammals include the Arctic fox, Arctic hare, wolves, and snow shoe rabbits.Ducks and geese nest there in the summer.Lots of black flies and mosquitoes
8Coniferous ForestConiferous Forest —broad region south of the tundra made up of cone-bearing trees (Conifers)Characteristics:Long, cold wintersShort summers
9Plants of the Coniferous Forest Conifers have needle-shaped leaves with a waxy coat to protect them from freezing and water loss.Examples: spruce, fir, and pine trees.
10Animals of the Coniferous Forest Many large and small animals including: moose, black bear, deer, squirrels, lynx, chipmunks, eagles and migratory birds.
11Coniferous Forests of N. America Ecologists recognize three areas of coniferous forests in North America:Taiga—northern Canada and AlaskaSpruce-moose belt —south of the taiga, covering most of Canada and Northern U.S.Southern Pine Forest —covers most of southeastern U.S.
12Deciduous ForestDeciduous Forest —located south of taiga, it is the dominant biome of the eastern U.S. and Europe.Characteristics:Cold wintersWarm summersTrees that lose their leaves
13Plants of the Deciduous Forest Many kinds of broad-leafed trees that lose their leaves seasonally (deciduous).Loosing leaves prevents water loss during winter.Examples: maples, oaks, chestnuts and elms.
14Animals of the Deciduous Forest A deciduous forest supports a large number of different kinds of animals.Examples: deer, foxes, raccoons, skunks, rabbits, bears, reptiles, amphibians, many insects and birds.Many of these will migrate to warmer climates during the winter.
15Tropical RainforestTropical Rainforest —located near the equator. Support more than ½ of all plant and animal species on Earth.Characteristics:Warm all year with at least 200 cm of rain/yearTrees do not lose their leaves, creating a dense canopy that supports much of the animal life
16Plants of the Rainforest Rainforest plants require several adaptations to survive in the hot, humid and wet conditions of the rainforest:Thin, smooth bark limits growth of other plants on the trees.Climbing vines can be rooted in the ground and draped over tall trees to reach sunlight.Leaves with drip tips to allow excess water to fall off; preventing fungus growth.Buttresses and stilt roots give tall trees stability in shallow, wet soil.Epiphytes (plants that grow on trees to get more sunlight)Bromeliads (flowers that trap water)
18Animals of the Rainforest Rainforests are home to 50% of the world’s animals. The different rainforests of the world support different populations of animals. Since the climate is the same year round, the animals that live there cannot tolerate changes in temperature, light, or rain.
19GrasslandsGrasslands--do not receive enough rainfall (25-75cm/ yr.) to support trees.Characteristics:Hot, dry summersCold, snowy wintersFertile soil ideal for farmingDominant biome of centralU.S. (bread-basket)
20Plants of the Grasslands Many crops are grown in the grasslands including:WheatOatsBarleyCorn
21Animals of the Grassland Many grazing animals live in the grasslands including: bison, antelope, cattle, and sheep. Also, coyotes, jackrabbits and rattlesnakes are common.
22Deserts Desert—rainfall is less than 25 cm/ yr. Characteristics: Defining characteristic of all deserts is that they are dry.The temperature of a desert is determined by its geographic location. Many are hot during the day and cool at night (Sahara in Africa). Others are actually cold all the time (Gobi in Mongolia).All deserts have great temperature changes from day to night (days are much warmer than nights).
23Plants of the Desert Some deserts have no plants. Others have sparse plants life including:Cactus and yuccaTumble weed(Russian thistle)Desert flowersJoshua tree (largestof the yucca)
24Animals of the DesertMost are small and have evolved adaptations to solve the heat and water problems, such as: nocturnal activity, estivation, dissipating heat, retaining water and getting water from plants. Examples:Road runnerJack rabbitsKangaroo ratPrairie dogsDesert iguana
25Water Biomes Water covers 75% of the earth’s surface. Two main types of water biomes:Marine biomesFreshwater biomes
26Marine BiomesMarine biome —saltwater biome. It is the largest biome on earth.Three areas of the marine biome:OceanIntertidal zoneEstuary
27OceanOcean —part of the marine biome that is constantly underwater. Upper level receives the most light and is home to the most organisms including plankton (microscopic organisms) and many fish, squid and turtles.
28Intertidal ZoneIntertidal zone —part of the marine biome that is underwater at high tide and exposed at low tide. Organisms here are adapted to being exposed to the air during part of the day. They also must protect themselves from being hit by waves. They include: clams, oysters, mussels and crabs
29EstuaryEstuary —part of the marine biome where a freshwater river flows into the ocean. They are rich in nutrients and support many kinds of organisms.Saltwater/freshwater line visible
30Freshwater Biomes Two types of freshwater biomes exist: Still-water biomes consisting of lakes and ponds.Running-water biomes consisting of streams and rivers.
31Still-water Biomes Lakes and ponds make-up the still-water biomes. Algae and plankton are abundant and support the other animal life.
32Running-water BiomesThe amount of dissolved oxygen in the water determines what kinds of organisms are found in rivers and streams.Fast-moving streams or rivers are usually cool and therefore have a lot of dissolved oxygen. Little plankton is available so dead leaves and insect larva are important sources of food. Fish such as trout are common.
33Running Water BiomesIn slow-moving streams or rivers, plankton is the base of the food-chain. Catfish and bass are common.