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January 2002 Wetland Types, Functions, and DCMs GIS Wetland Data North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Coastal Management.

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Presentation on theme: "January 2002 Wetland Types, Functions, and DCMs GIS Wetland Data North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Coastal Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 January 2002 Wetland Types, Functions, and DCMs GIS Wetland Data North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Coastal Management

2 January 2002 DCM GIS Wetland Data: Wetland Type Data Wetland Functional Significance Data Potential Wetland Restoration and Enhancement Site Data Wetland Restoration Site Functional Significance Data (in progress)

3 January 2002 Wetlands Wetlands Wetland Functions Wetland Functions Wetland Types Wetland Types GIS Wetland Data GIS Wetland Data NC-CREWS Data NC-CREWS Data Getting DCMs Data Getting DCMs Data Topics

4 January 2002 Wetlands Wetlands are areas that are periodically or permanently inundated by surface or ground water and support vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas.

5 January 2002 What do wetlands do? Wetland Functions Habitat nesting, spawning, rearing and resting sites for aquatic and land species, food chain production Hydrology protection of other areas from wave action and erosion, storage areas for storm water and flood water, ground and surface water aquifer recharge Water water quality protection, water filtration and Quality purification, treatment of nonpoint source runoff

6 January 2002 maintain biodiversity maintain biodiversity provide habitat for animals provide habitat for animals maintain water quality maintain water quality support commercial fishing, forestry support commercial fishing, forestry reduce flood damage reduce flood damage hiking, fishing, hunting, hiking, fishing, hunting, bird watching, boating bird watching, boating aesthetic value aesthetic value Why are wetlands important? Wetland Values Did you know? Nationwide, an estimated 50 million people spend approximately $10 billion annually observing and photographing wetland-dependent birds.

7 January 2002 There are many different kinds of wetlands. People place different values on them based on the functions they perform.

8 January 2002 Where are wetlands located? Wetlands are located throughout NC Wetlands are located throughout NC There are two kinds of maps in NC that show the locations and types of wetlands: There are two kinds of maps in NC that show the locations and types of wetlands: 1. National Wetland Inventory (NWI) Maps 2. DCM Wetland Type Maps

9 January 2002 Example of National Wetland Inventory (NWI) Map NWI maps show many different wetland types

10 January 2002 P F O 4 What? The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Services National Wetland Inventory (NWI) uses what is called the Cowardin Classification to classify wetlands. This classification system is used by scientists and resource managers nationwide. This complex system can be difficult for the average user to interpret.

11 January 2002 DCMs wetland maps are easy to understand because wetlands are grouped into well-known categories.

12 January 2002 Example: DCM Wetland Type Map DCMs maps show 13 wetland types

13 January 2002 DCMs GIS Wetland Type Data Show the location, type, and amount of wetlands in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

14 January 2002 DCMs GIS Wetland Type Data uses these primary GIS layers National Wetland Inventory (NWI) Maps NRCS Digital Soils Maps Satellite Imagery , 1994 Hydrography

15 January 2002

16 DCM Wetland Classification DCM Wetland Types: Swamp Forest Bottomland Hardwood Pocosin Pine Flat Hardwood Flat Managed Pine Freshwater Marsh Salt/Brackish Marsh Estuarine Scrub Shrub Estuarine Forest Maritime Forest Headwater Swamp Human Impacted Modifiers: l Partially Drained/ Ditched l Cut-over l Cleared

17 January 2002 DCM Wetland Classification Hydrogeomorphic Classification (HGM): This classification describes the hydrology and the geomorphic setting of a wetland Riverine Flat or non-riverine Tidal

18 January 2002 The following slides show photos of wetland types typically found in Coastal North Carolina.

19 January 2002 Riverine Swamp Forest

20 January 2002 Headwater Swamp

21 January 2002 Swamp Forest

22 January 2002 Pocosin Wetland

23 January 2002 Hard Wood FlatWet Pine Flat

24 January 2002 Tidal Salt Marsh

25 January 2002 Are DCMs GIS Wetland Maps Accurate?

26 January 2002 Accuracy Assessment Accuracy was calculated to be 89% for wetlands and 71% for uplands. Over 600 field sites visited That means most of the sites we map as wetlands are indeed wetlands. Most of the sites we map as uplands are non-wetlands.

27 January 2002 Maps are the starting point DCMs wetland maps show the location and types of wetlands What is the ecological significance of these wetlands? How important are they?

28 January 2002 North Carolina Coastal Region Evaluation of Wetland Significance (NC-CREWS) A model that rates the functional significance of wetlands

29 January 2002 NC-CREWS Ratings DCM staff developed a model that produces ratings for each wetland polygon in our GIS: –Beneficial Functional Significance –Substantial Functional Significance –Exceptional Functional Significance Wetlands can be evaluated on the basis of an overall rating or in terms of individual functions.

30 January 2002 NC-CREWS Primary Wetland Functions and Subfunctions Water Quality –Nonpoint Source Removal –Floodwater Cleansing Wildlife Habitat –Terrestrial Wildlife –Aquatic Life Hydrology –Surface Runoff Storage –Floodwater Storage –Shoreline Stabilization Potential Risk –Wetland Extent and Rarity –Replacement Difficulty –Land Use Characteristics

31 January 2002 Example: Water Quality Function

32 January 2002 Example: DCM GIS Wetland Type Map DCM wetland maps show wetland location and type.

33 January 2002 Example: NC-CREWS Map NC-CREWS rates a wetlands ecological functional significance

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35 Web-Based Viewing at Click on Wetlands Click on Wetlands Data Scroll down and click on Go to the Wetlands Data This application will allow you to view DCMs wetland data online. You can begin by clicking or selecting a county or town. The wetland data will draw when you have zoomed in far enough. The map also includes major roads and water for reference. The following slides show an example of our online data.

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39 How to get DCM GIS Wetland Data: From DCM on a CD as Arc/Info Export or Shapefile Wetland type, NC-CREWS, Restoration/Enhancement type data From CGIA - Wetland type and Restoration/Enhancement type data Transfer via FTP site Wetland Type data is in CGIAs BasinPro


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