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Wetland Types, Functions, and DCM’s GIS Wetland Data

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Presentation on theme: "Wetland Types, Functions, and DCM’s GIS Wetland Data"— Presentation transcript:

1 Wetland Types, Functions, and DCM’s GIS Wetland Data
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Coastal Management January 2002

2 DCM GIS Wetland Data: Wetland Type Data
Wetland Functional Significance Data Potential Wetland Restoration and Enhancement Site Data Wetland Restoration Site Functional Significance Data (in progress) January 2002

3 Topics Wetlands Wetland Functions Wetland Types GIS Wetland Data
NC-CREWS Data Getting DCM’s Data January 2002

4 Wetlands Wetlands are areas that are periodically or permanently inundated by surface or ground water and support vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas. January 2002

5 What do wetlands do? Wetland Functions
Habitat nesting, spawning, rearing and resting sites for aquatic and land species, food chain production Hydrology protection of other areas from wave action and erosion, storage areas for storm water and flood water, ground and surface water aquifer recharge Water water quality protection, water filtration and Quality purification, treatment of nonpoint source runoff January 2002

6 Why are wetlands important?
Wetland Values maintain biodiversity provide habitat for animals maintain water quality support commercial fishing, forestry reduce flood damage hiking, fishing, hunting, bird watching, boating aesthetic value Did you know? Nationwide, an estimated 50 million people spend approximately $10 billion annually observing and photographing wetland-dependent birds. January 2002

7 There are many different kinds of wetlands.
People place different values on them based on the functions they perform. January 2002

8 Where are wetlands located?
Wetlands are located throughout NC There are two kinds of maps in NC that show the locations and types of wetlands: National Wetland Inventory (NWI) Maps DCM Wetland Type Maps January 2002

9 Example of National Wetland Inventory (NWI) Map
NWI maps show many different wetland types January 2002

10 P F O 4 What? The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service’s National Wetland Inventory (NWI) uses what is called the Cowardin Classification to classify wetlands. This classification system is used by scientists and resource managers nationwide. This complex system can be difficult for the average user to interpret. January 2002

11 DCM’s wetland maps are easy to understand because wetlands are grouped into well-known categories.
January 2002

12 Example: DCM Wetland Type Map
DCM’s maps show 13 wetland types Example: DCM Wetland Type Map January 2002

13 DCM’s GIS Wetland Type Data
Show the location, type, and amount of wetlands in the North Carolina Coastal Plain January 2002

14 DCM’s GIS Wetland Type Data uses these primary GIS layers
National Wetland Inventory (NWI) Maps NRCS Digital Soils Maps Satellite Imagery , 1994 Hydrography January 2002

15 January 2002

16 DCM Wetland Classification
DCM Wetland Types: Swamp Forest Bottomland Hardwood Pocosin Pine Flat Hardwood Flat Managed Pine Freshwater Marsh Salt/Brackish Marsh Estuarine Scrub Shrub Estuarine Forest Maritime Forest Headwater Swamp Human Impacted Modifiers: Partially Drained/ Ditched Cut-over Cleared January 2002

17 DCM Wetland Classification
Hydrogeomorphic Classification (HGM): This classification describes the hydrology and the geomorphic setting of a wetland Riverine Flat or non-riverine Tidal January 2002

18 The following slides show photos of wetland types typically found in Coastal North Carolina.
January 2002

19 Riverine Swamp Forest January 2002

20 Headwater Swamp January 2002

21 Swamp Forest January 2002

22 Pocosin Wetland January 2002

23 Wet Pine Flat Hard Wood Flat January 2002

24 Tidal Salt Marsh January 2002

25 Are DCM’s GIS Wetland Maps Accurate?
January 2002

26 Accuracy Assessment Over 600 field sites visited Accuracy was calculated to be 89% for wetlands and 71% for uplands. That means most of the sites we map as wetlands are indeed wetlands. Most of the sites we map as uplands are non-wetlands. January 2002

27 Maps are the starting point
DCM’s wetland maps show the location and types of wetlands What is the ecological significance of these wetlands? How important are they? January 2002

28 A model that rates the functional significance of wetlands
North Carolina Coastal Region Evaluation of Wetland Significance (NC-CREWS) A model that rates the functional significance of wetlands January 2002

29 NC-CREWS Ratings DCM staff developed a model that produces ratings for each wetland polygon in our GIS: Beneficial Functional Significance Substantial Functional Significance Exceptional Functional Significance Wetlands can be evaluated on the basis of an overall rating or in terms of individual functions. January 2002

30 NC-CREWS Primary Wetland Functions and Subfunctions
Water Quality Nonpoint Source Removal Floodwater Cleansing Wildlife Habitat Terrestrial Wildlife Aquatic Life Hydrology Surface Runoff Storage Floodwater Storage Shoreline Stabilization Potential Risk Wetland Extent and Rarity Replacement Difficulty Land Use Characteristics January 2002

31 Example: Water Quality Function
January 2002

32 Example: DCM GIS Wetland Type Map
DCM wetland maps show wetland location and type. January 2002

33 Example: NC-CREWS Map NC-CREWS rates a wetland’s ecological functional significance January 2002

34 January 2002

35 The following slides show an example of our online data.
Web-Based Viewing at Click on Wetlands Click on Wetlands Data Scroll down and click on Go to the Wetlands Data This application will allow you to view DCM’s wetland data online. You can begin by clicking or selecting a county or town. The wetland data will draw when you have zoomed in far enough. The map also includes major roads and water for reference. The following slides show an example of our online data. January 2002

36 January 2002

37 January 2002

38 January 2002

39 How to get DCM GIS Wetland Data:
From DCM on a CD as Arc/Info Export or Shapefile Wetland type, NC-CREWS, Restoration/Enhancement type data From CGIA- Wetland type and Restoration/Enhancement type data Transfer via FTP site Wetland Type data is in CGIA’s BasinPro January 2002

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