Presentation on theme: "Forest Biome. One of the largest most ecologically complex systems Biological communities dominated by trees and woody vegetation Classified according."— Presentation transcript:
One of the largest most ecologically complex systems Biological communities dominated by trees and woody vegetation Classified according to numerous characteristics seasonality being the most widely used. Three Distinct Groups: 1. Tropical 2. Temperate 3. Boreal forests (tiaga) vary depending on zones climate Requires abundance of soil & water Found in moist climates Temperatures require at least a warm season; if not warm year round Today our forest biomes are being cut down, and at an alarming rate. Everyday, hundreds of species of plants and animals are disappearing from our planet.
Low-latitude rainforest Geographic Location: Found in the equatorial and tropical zone. Climate: Warm/moist, subjective to mE/mT air masses Area has high annual rainfall (over 80in) Areas of equitorial location gives this area high avg. insolation/very little seasonal variation Thunderstorms duration tends to be over small areas, intense and short lived
Low-latitude continued… Vegetation: Due to streams flowing abundantly throughout the year river channels are lined with dense forest vegetation A thick soil layer is formed by the decay and decomposition of rock to great depths, abundant rainfall and warm soil temperatures. Products of this rainforest have economic value, containing important classes of foods such as: Root Crops Fruits Animals: Contain a wide variety of animal species Largest diversity of species of any life zone Estimated ½ of the worlds animal species live in these rainforests 25% of medicine derives from plants contained in the rainforests of this area
Human Impact in Low-latitude Mostly affected by Human Influence in regards to: Farming Logging Result = diminishing amount of forestland Increase of endangered animals
Geographical Location: South East Asia and Australia At elevations below 1000 meters In Areas that experience monsoon climate Climate: Seasonal pattern of rainfall Area contains a distinct dry season, which is when many trees lose their leaves Area also contains a season of rain, averaging at about 100 inches per year, this is when major growth occurs Vegetation : Contains smaller trees than those found in the rainforest, and have a more open canopy resulting in a closed forest at the floor, creating a “tropical jungle” beneath. Deciduous Trees and Broadleaf Evergreen trees are some of the trees in this forest A diversity of plants are located here Well drained soils with dense and rich undergrowth Monsoon Forest
Monsoon Forest Continued… Animals: Elephants Spotted deer Leopards Tigers Variety of Squirrels Insects are not the majority in this forest Human Influence: Monsoon forests like other forests are being continuously stressed by human activities. Much of this deforestation results in the washing away of soil during monsoon season due to the trees no longer binding the soils, and often ending in mud slides. The lack of vegetation resulting from deforestation also diminishes the amounts of animals living in this area and eventually become infertile again depleting the amounts of animals in this area.
Subtropical Evergreen Forest Location SE Asia Central America 20-30 degrees North latitude Climate 25” precipitation inland and 100” precipitation in the coastal regions. 80-90 degrees F Plants Coniferous Trees Pine & Eucalyptus Giant Sequoia Animals Opossum Bats Affect by humans Deforestation for agriculture and urbanization.
Midlatitude Deciduous Forest Location Eastern portion of North America Europe Asia (esp. in Japan, East China, SW Russia) S.Chile and Coastal Areas of Paraguay Primarily btwn. 0-50 degress N lat. Climate Moderate Annual temp. 50 degrees F Annual Rainfall 30-60” rain 4-6 Mo. Summer Experience all four seasons
Deciduous Forest Biome 5 different zones 1. Tree Stratum zone 1. Oak maple walnut, etc 2. 60-100’ high 2. Small tree and sapling Zone 1. Young short trees 3. Shrub Zone 1. Rhododendrons and mt. laurel 4. Herb Zone 5. Ground Zone 1. Lichens and mosses Plants: Tall trees such as oak, walnut and maple Wildflowers such as oxlip and bluebells Impact by Humans Deforestation due to agricultural and urbanization growth Hunting and poaching of the animal life
Needleleaf forest ~ Boreal Geographic Location Sub-arctic: North America, Europe, and Siberia. Mountain ranges and high plateaus. Span from East-West lat. 45*N to 75*N. Climate Very cold long winters w/continuous snow cover. Short cool summers provide most of the precipitation However total precipitation generally low. Greatest annual temperature range of all climates.
Needleleaf Forest ~Boreal Vegetation Few species mostly evergreen conifers N.A., Europe, and west Siberia- spruce and fir North/central and eastern Siberia dominated by larch. Animals deer, wolf, bear, moose. Human influence Logging, clearing for settlement and grazing, fire prevention.
Needleleaf Forest ~ Coastal Location Pacific Northwest from northern California to Alaska. Heavy precipitation from orographic lifting, causing densest conifer growth. Vegetation Cedar, spruce, Douglas fir and giant redwoods, the world’s largest trees.
Sclerophyll Forest Location Mainly on west coasts between 30* and 45* N/S. Baja California, Mediterranean, Chile, South Africa, and Australia. Climate Annual precipitation varies widely per location Winter – Most rainfall/moderate Summer – time of drought/ hot
Sclerophyll Forest Vegetation Sclerophylls shrubs Trees with small leathery leaves Thick bark that are evergreen such as oak, pine and olive. Animals Rodents, jackals, coyotes, goats. Human influence Many Sclerophyll Forests have been destroyed completely or reduced to woodlands.
Terrestrial Biome & Human Impact In this map, human impact is rated on a scale of 0 (minimum) to 100 (maximum) for each terrestrial biome.
Works Cited "Forest Biomes." World Biomes. 22 Jan 2002. 17 Nov 2008. "Map of the Human Footprint." Earth Observatory. 03 Mar 2003. NASA. 16 Nov 2008. "Rainforest Animals." The Animal Spot. 2008. The Animal Network. 17 Nov 2008. Strahler, Alan, and Arhtur Strahler. Introducing Physical geography. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006. ISBN 0-471- 67950-X. "The Forest Biome." University of California Museum of Paleontology. Berkely. 17 Nov 2008.