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Tropical Rainforest Ecology Rainforest Animal Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Tropical Rainforest Ecology Rainforest Animal Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tropical Rainforest Ecology Rainforest Animal Life

2 Rainforest Mammals: Monkeys  Capuchin – most commonly seen monkey; medium size brown to black body; pale face surrounded by whitish fur; move in troops; eat fruits, leaves, arthropods, & sometimes small mammals

3 Rainforest Mammals: Monkeys  Spider – large size but very slender brown to black body; pale face surrounded by whitish fur; long prehensile tail; move in troops; eat fruits & leaves; brachiation

4 Rainforest Mammals: Monkeys  Mantled howler – large robust size; black body w/tan on sides and back; bearded face; prehensile tail; loud voice @ dusk & dawn; primarily eat leaves; prefers canopy

5 Rainforest Mammals: Monkeys  Geoffrey’s tamarin – small and squirrel-like; long tail not prehensile; like forest gaps; eat insects & fruits; red nape & highly patterned body; often have twins

6 Rainforest Mammals: Monkeys  C.A. Squirrel – endangered species; smaller size w/extremely long black-tipped tail; white mask and ears; very active fruit eater  Night monkeys – entirely nocturnal; tail not prehensile

7 Rainforest Mammals: Rodents  Agouti – diurnal; large & guinea pig- like; tailless; sit upright to eat seeds

8 Rainforest Mammals: Rodents  Paca – nocturnal; near water; like large agouti w/white stripes

9 Rainforest Mammals: Rodents  Capybara – diurnal; largest rodent in the world; aquatic; feeds on aquatic vegetation  Spiny rat – nocturnal; spines in fur; on forest floor  variegated squirrel – arboreal arboreal

10 Rainforest Mammals: Peccaries  Collared – smaller size and herds; pig-like; collar of hair at shoulder; roots for food  White-lipped – larger size and herd; white hair around mouth; eats larger hardened fruits (e.g. palm fruits)

11 Rainforest Mammals  Baird’s tapir – odd-toed ungulate; almost hairless; long proboscis; eat only vegetable matter; most active at night

12 Rainforest Mammals  Anteaters – sharp curved claws; long sticky tongue; long snout Northern tamandua – prehensile tail Northern tamandua – prehensile tail Giant anteater - large size; bushy tail Giant anteater - large size; bushy tail

13 Rainforest Mammals  Three-toed sloth  two-toed sloth

14 Rainforest Mammals: Raccoons & Relatives  Northern raccoon – longer pelage; lighter feet and legs  Crab-eating raccoon – shorter pelage; darker feet and legs  White-nosed Coati – highly pointed nose; holds faintly ringed tail straight up; omnivorous

15 Rainforest Mammals: Raccoons Relatives  Kinkajou – already discussed  Olingo – faintly ringed tail, not prehensile

16 Rainforest Mammals: Weasel Relatives  Tayra – black bushy tail  Grison – black face w/white stripe across forehead and ears; carnivore

17 Rainforest Mammals: Cats  Jaguar & Ocelot  Margay – small nocturnal spotted cat; climber; carnivorous  Jaguarundi – diurnal & common; not a climber; not spotted

18 Rainforest Mammals: Opposums  descent diversity exists in this group of marsupials due to adaptive radiation  Virginia, woolly, mouse, four-eyed, short bare-tailed, & water opposums

19 Rainforest Reptiles: Pitvipers  All are poisonous  Tend to be secretive and nocturnal  Not frequently encountered  Pits for detecting warm-blooded prey  Retractable fangs to deliver venom  Slit pupils  Many non-poisonous snakes in the neotropics will mimic pitvipers, so always err on the side of caution

20 Rainforest Reptiles: Pitvipers  Fer-de-lance – large (4-8 ft.); arrowhead-shaped head; tan w/dark brown diamond pattern; tend to hunt @ night; extremely poisonous

21 Rainforest Reptiles: Pitvipers  Eyelash palm-pitviper – eye scales; highly variable in color; arboreal; prehensile tail; feeds on tree frogs, anoles & hummingbirds

22 Rainforest Reptiles: Pitvipers  Jumping pitviper – short & thick; alleged to hurl itself when threatened; venom not as potent as most

23 Rainforest Reptiles: Pitvipers  Bushmaster – largest pitviper in the world, 6.5- 14 ft.; often coil at bases of large trees; typically nocturnal

24 Rainforest Reptiles: Coral Snakes  Poisonous  Brightly colored red, yellow, & black bands  Small fangs to chew in venom  Neurotoxic venom  Round pupils  Active both day & night

25 Rainforest Reptiles: Boas  Non-poisonous  Constrictors  Elongated heads  Boa constrictor – larger (5-6 ft.)  Rainbow boa – smaller (3 ft.)

26 Rainforest Reptiles: Other Non-poisonous Snakes  Vine snakes – very thin; feed on lizards  Indigo snake – up to 10 ft. long; gloss black

27 Rainforest Reptiles: Other Non-poisonous Snakes  Chunk-headed snake – extremely thin w/big head & eyes; arboreal

28 Rainforest Reptiles: Lizards  Iguanas – large & common (already discussed)  Anoles – small; sharply pointed nose  Basilisk (JC lizard) – common; run fast up on hind legs

29 Rainforest Reptiles: Lizards  Tegus – some of largest lizards in neotropics; eat small animals (chickens) - common, northern, & red species - common, northern, & red species

30 Rainforest Reptiles: Lizards  Geckos – small, suction cup toes; extremely common, arthropod eaters

31 Rainforest Amphibians: Frogs  Tree frogs – small; arboreal; have suction cup toes; some camouflaged, some brightly colored - Gaudy leaf frog – one of most well known species - Gaudy leaf frog – one of most well known species

32 Rainforest Amphibians: Frogs  Poison dart tree frogs

33 Rainforest Amphibians: Frogs  Glass tree frog  Giant cane toad  Smokey frog

34 Rainforest Invertebrates: Insects  Termites – social; form massive colonies on trees; mutualism with protozoa  Army ants – already discussed

35 Rainforest Invertebrates: Insects  Giant tropical ant (bullet ant) – tend to be solitary; both terrestrial & arboreal; extremely potent sting

36 Rainforest Invertebrates: Insects  Giant tropical cockroach – very large; nocturnal; common near bat guano

37 Rainforest Invertebrates: Insects  Harlequin beetle – very large w/long antennae; wood borer

38 Rainforest Invertebrates: Insects  Rhinoceros beetle – very large; males w/long horn; wood-feeding grub

39 Rainforest Invertebrates: Insects  Lantern fly – very large; plant sap feeder; multiple defense mechanisms

40 Rainforest Invertebrates: Insects  Owl butterfly  Black witch moth

41 Rainforest Invertebrates: Insects  Blue morpho  Butterfly congregations at liquids

42 Rainforest Invertebrates: Other Arthropods  Forest floor millipede – non-poisonous; herbivore; repugnatorial glands  Peripatus – “velvet worms”; non-poisonous; capture prey w/glue

43 Rainforest Vertebrates: Birds  Oilbirds – nocturnal; cave dweller  Tinamou

44 Rainforest Vertebrates: Birds  Chachalaca –  Guan –  Curassow -

45 Rainforest Vertebrates: Birds  Toucan –

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