Saladin After the disastrous second Crusade the Muslim leader Saladin launches an offensive against the Christian occupiers
Saladin He was a just and noble leader who was admired by many He united the Muslim empires into a strong and formidable force to rival the Christian Crusaders
Upon capturing Jerusalem (1187) he forbid his soldiers to kill, harm, or steal from the defeated Crusaders.
Saladin was now in firm control of the Holy Land This angered European Kings who began to plot yet another Crusade to reclaim the Holy Land once again This is the beginning of the 3 rd Crusade A.K.A. The Kings Crusade
The 3 rd Crusade A.K.A. The Kings Crusade Jerusalem falls to Saladin in 1187 Spurred by religious zeal, Richard The Lion-Hearted of England, Philip II of France, and Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire lead a new Crusade
Frederick Barbarossa Barbarossa led a massive army across Anatolia (Eastern Turkey), but died from drowning before reaching the Holy Land. Many of his discouraged troops left to go home.
Philip II of France Greatly expanded his own royal power Held an uneasy alliance with Richard the Lionhearted The two Kings will successfully siege and capture Acre in 1191 The two Kings will successfully siege and capture Acre in 1191 After this Philip returns home After this Philip returns home
Richard The Lion-Hearted Richard was a tall, handsome, and brilliant military commander He is ambitious and sees the crusades as a perfect way to expand his power
Richard The Lion-Hearted He and Philip II capture Acre, but Richard stays around after Philip flees and battles Saladin for control of the holy land
Richard The Lion-Hearted Don’t Write! At one point in the battle for Acre, while sick from scurvy, Richard is said to have picked off guards on the walls with a crossbow, while being carried on a stretcher.
Richard and Philip Don’t Write: While in control of Acre, the Christians massacred 2000 Muslim soldiers who they had captured. Saladin had agreed to pay a ransom for them but somehow there was a breakdown in the process of payment and Richard ordered their execution.
Don’t write The March to Jerusalem was hard on the Richard’s soldiers. At night when the Crusaders tried to rest, they were plagued by tarantulas. Their bites were poisonous and very painful. By 1192 even Richard the Lionhearted was suffering from a fever Saladin sends him fresh water and fruit to heal faster
Richard vs. Saladin Realizing that Richard had no hope of holding Jerusalem even if he took it, he ordered a retreat. There then commenced a period of minor skirmishes with Saladin's forces while Richard and Saladin negotiated a settlement to the conflict, as both realized that their respective positions were growing unsustainable. Richard knew that both Philip and his own brother John were starting to plot against him. However, Saladin insisted on the destruction of Ascalon ( a newly rebuilt Christian fort) and a few other points.
Richard vs. Saladin Richard made one last attempt to strengthen his bargaining position by attempting to invade Egypt — Saladin's chief supply-base — but failed. In the end, time ran out for Richard. He realized that his return could be postponed no longer, since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence. He and Saladin finally came to a settlement on September 2, 1192 — this included the provisions demanding the destruction of Ascalon's wall as well as an agreement allowing Christian access to and presence in Jerusalem. It also included a three-year truce. He and Saladin finally came to a settlement on September 2, 1192 — this included the provisions demanding the destruction of Ascalon's wall as well as an agreement allowing Christian access to and presence in Jerusalem. It also included a three-year truce.
However, for Richard the adventure was not over. On his journey back to England, his ship got wrecked in a storm. He found that he had to travel through Austria. This country was owned by a sworn enemy of Richard - Duke Leopold of Austria. Leopold had originally been a leading member of the Third Crusade but he had been ridiculed by Richard who did nothing to stop his men making fun out of Leopold. They called him "the sponge" because he drank so much and was drunk too often! Leopold had lost a lot of prestige and now he had a chance to avenge himself. Richard was betrayed to Leopold who held him captive for two years until a ransom was paid for him. Richard arrived home in 1194. Richard was known as the "Lionheart" by his people. Even the Muslims praised him. The Muslim writer Baha wrote about Richard while the Third Crusade was going on: "......a very powerful man of great courage........a king of wisdom, courage and energy.....brave and clever."
With each crusade, relations between the Byzantines and the Western forces became more tenuous
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) “Crusade for Constantinople” Pope Innocent III launched the Fourth Crusade was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem through an invasion through Egypt.
Instead, in April 1204, the Crusaders invaded and conquered the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
This is seen as one of the final acts in the Great Schism between the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church.
It has often been described as one of the most profitable and disgraceful sacks of a city in history
Acre – The last Christian stronghold – falls in 1291
The Church of the Holy Sepulcher - where the New Testament says that Jesus was crucified, and is said to also contain the place where Jesus was buriedNew TestamentJesus crucified
The shrine is built where Jesus was crucified. On this hilltop the Roman Catholics celebrate the tenth to the thirteenth Stations of the Cross. The church is split in two parts. The left section belongs to the Greek Orthodox and the right to the Roman Catholics. The tenth station is commemorated at the top of the stairs leading to Calvary where Jesus was stripped of his garments. The eleventh station is at the silver altar where Jesus was nailed to the cross. The twelfth station is on the Greek Orthodox altar, where Jesus died upon the cross. The limestone rock underneath shows where the Cross of Jesus stood as well as the crosses of the two thieves crucified with him. The thirteenth station is on the Roman Catholic side where Jesus was taken down from the cross. This is commemorated at the altar of Our Lady of Sorrows.Stations of the Cross
Legacy of religious hatred Legacy of religious hatred Increased trade Increased trade Increased Learning Increased Learning Split between Church widened Split between Church widened Feudalism weakened Feudalism weakened Money economy emerges Money economy emerges
The Big Idea The Crusades: –W–Were driven by Christians’ desire to force the Muslims from Palestine as well as to gain wealth and power –R–Resulted in increased European trade with the Muslim world –T–Temporarily increased the power of the church and monarchs –I–Introduced Europeans to the advances of Byzantine and Muslim civilizations