Presentation on theme: "The Rise and Fall of Rome. Imperial Era City of Rome Map In this map showing the 14 districts of Augustan Rome, the gates in the Aurelian Wall are marked."— Presentation transcript:
The Rise and Fall of Rome
Imperial Era City of Rome Map In this map showing the 14 districts of Augustan Rome, the gates in the Aurelian Wall are marked in red
The Roman Forum, the commercial, cultural, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government.
1000 B.C. Latins enter Italy. 800 B.C. Rome is founded, 753 the walls are built. 509 B.C. Rome becomes a Republic and kicks out the Etruscan kings. (Lucretia) 494 B.C. First Plebeian strike, win rights to laws and Tribunes. 458 B.C. Cincinnatus sets his example. 451 B.C. Twelve Tables are written. 390 B.C. Gauls sack Rome, a harder, paranoid Rome emerges from this. 275 B.C. Rome controls all of Italy B.C. Punic Wars
HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT: Greeks B.C. began entering Italy and established around 50 colonies. Greeks began a large colonization drive b/c: demographic crisis (famine, overcrowding, climate change, etc.) the search for new commercial outlets and ports expulsion form their homeland Influenced the Latins in many areas including: religion, government, law, philosophy. Dominated Southern Italy. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of the boot of Italy Magna Graecia (Latin, “Greater Greece”)
HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT: Latins B.C. enter Italy. Simple farmers, live in tribes mainly in Central Italy. The Romans were one tribe of Latins. They will learn much from the Etruscans, including math and engineering skills as well as written language. VALUE SYSTEM Had a system of values called Gravitas that were similar to the Greek idea of Arete. The Romans stressed strength, loyalty, discipline, and self sacrifice.
HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT: Etruscans B.C. enter Italy. Advanced culture probably migrated to Italy from Asia Minor. Similar alphabet to Greek and Phoenician. (left little written record) While Rome was a small farm village they had major cities built from brick and stone. Advanced artwork Dominated Northern Italy and ruled over many Latin towns including Rome. Had major cultural influence over the Latins, writing, trade, architecture. Etruscans lived in city states similar to Greece. 2:51 - *6:00
Etruscan walled town, Civita di Bagnoregio
Etruscan tombs at Orvieto Orvieto is an ancient Etruscan city in Umbria. Role of Women in Etruscan Society: Etruscan tombs carry funerary inscriptions in the form "X son of (father) and (mother)", indicating the importance of the mother's side of the family.
The Chimera of Arezzo, a prime example of Etruscan art
Lucretia Wife of a Roman noblemen, she was raped by an Etruscan Prince. She was beloved by the people of Rome as an example of the ideal woman. The Prince was jealous of the qualities she possessed and so stands as the prime example of what the Romans didn't like about the Etruscans. This story was told by Romans to explain the rebellion against the Etruscans. We don't know for sure if it is true. From Monarchy to a Republic The people of Rome were farmers and herders. Under the control of their neighbors, the Etruscans. Rome became a rich city, ruled by kings. In 509 BC, the Romans drove out their last king, Tarquin the Proud. Rome then became a republic
Monarchy – Ruled by the Etruscans (for a little while) Horatius at the Bridge No more kings! last king of Rome was overthrown in 510 BCE Republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.
After a 16-year battle with their last king, Tarquin the Proud, the people of Rome vowed never to be ruled by a king again. The people wanted to be ruled by elected leaders. They wanted to vote on any laws suggested. They wanted to vote on who would rule over them each year. In 509 BCE, over 2500 years ago, the citizens of Rome created a new government. They called it THE ROMAN REPUBLIC. But, things did improve under the Republic. About 50 years after the Roman Republic was formed, the leaders of the Republic wrote down many of the old laws, to make sure everyone understood them. History refers to this group of laws as "The Twelve Tables" because the written laws were organized into 12 sections. These laws talked about property, crime, family, theft, marriage and inheritance. It does not really matter what they said, although the laws did try to be fair. What matters is that these laws were written down. They were engraved on tablets of metal and put on display at the Forum in the city of Rome, so that everyone could see them. Each law applied to every Roman citizen, be he rich or poor. That was a huge change for the better!
1. In writing the 12 Tables, the early Romans were developing legal principles that would endure for centuries. On a separate piece of paper, make a list of 10 laws from the tables (most of the tables contain several laws). For each law that you chose, identify the principle(s) you think the Romans were trying to apply. (what type of law was it? – restate it in your own words) For example, in law IX.6 you'll recognize the principle of "innocent until proven guilty." Then, indicate whether that principle would apply in a democratic society, such as the US. (For example, in a democratic society, the principle "innocent until proven guilty" applies in all current criminal cases.) 2. Other than death what are the other types of punishments that the Tables include? 3. How did the praetors judge the 12 Tables? How is this similar/ dissimilar to our legal system today?
Consuls - Two men elected annually by the senate. They propose new laws, Serve as head of the court system and the military, and serve as chief priests of Rome. Dictator - Elected in times of emergency and only held power for six months. The Dictator held absolute power over all decisions in Rome during his time in office. A man named Cincinnatus was the role model for how the process should work. Why was this office necessary for the safety of Rome? Senate then changed to 300 senators chosen for life. Set foreign and domestic policy. Elected and advised the consuls. Tribunes - 10 Patricians elected annually to protect the rights of the plebians. They could block or veto the decisions or laws that were harmful to plebians.
Cincinnatus When Rome comes under attack the senate turns to a respected farmer to lead the Roman army & Rome as a dictator Cincinnatus defeats the enemy and gives up his power… Voluntarily. This story was told to act as an example of how the office should work. Cincinnatus turns over the fasces “With one hand he returns the fasces, a symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. His other hand holds the plow, as he resumes the life of a citizen and farmer."
How did Romans limit the power of the Consuls? Or how did they ensure a system of checks and balances? They were only allowed to serve for one year and they had to approve each others decisions. Meaning they each had a veto vote over the proposals of the other. There were also many different branches of government each with different responsibilities
SOCIAL STRUCTURE Particians - The patricians were the upper class, the nobility and wealthy land owners. (small group) Plebeians - The plebeians were the lower class. Nicknamed "plebs" Included everyone else in ancient Rome (except for the nobility, the patricians) from well-to-do tradesmen all the way down to the very poor. Fun Fact: The word plebs is said to be derived from plere, 'to fill up'. Plebeians were, therefore, people who were considered to be an addition to the 'real' Roman population. Citizenship: The citizens of Rome were adult freemen from both classes - plebs and patricians. Women, children, and slaves were not citizens. People from all classes considered themselves Romans.
FAMILY STRUCTURE Children Slaves FAMILY STRUCTURE Adult Males: Pater familias – oldest male Women
Plebeians believed that was unfair. When a poor plebeian had to borrow money from the rich to survive, he became his servant. He was treated almost like a slave, and, without getting paid, he could never get the money he needed to buy his freedom. The government did nothing to end this cruel practice. By 494 B.C., the plebeians had suffered long enough. They formed their own assembly, known as the Council of Plebeians. They also elected their own leaders, called tribunes to protect their rights. Now the plebeians could vote against any bad law passed by the Senate. Next, the plebeians demanded that the laws be changed. Since Rome’s laws had never been written down, judges often ruled unfairly against plebeians. The plebeians demanded that the laws passed by their assembly apply to all citizens, and in 287 B.C.the patricians agreed. Plebeians and patricians were finally equal under roman laws. – Rome Becomes more democratic
The government was ruled by two consuls, and one of those consuls had to be a plebeian. The consuls were like kings, but they could serve only one year, and each consul could veto the other's decisions. Our word veto is from the Latin word "I forbid". So, one consul could forbid the decision of the other !
275 B.C. Rome controls all of Italy B.C. Punic Wars 133 B.C. Tiberius Gracchus is elected Tribune. 123 B.C. Gaius Gracchus is elected Tribune. B.C. Marius is elected Consul and reforms the army. 88 B.C. Sulla enters Rome. 60 B.C. 1st Triumvirate is formed. 44. B.C. Caesar is killed. 27 B.C. The Republic is dead.
1ST PUNIC WAR Fought over who would control the rich grain producing area of Sicily. Early in the war Rome finds a Carthaginian warship washed up on their shore. They copy it and build a fleet of ships. They defeat Carthage and win control of Sicily. Cheap grain begins to pour into Rome. Photo of the remains of the naval base of the city of Carthage. Before the war, Carthage had the most powerful navy in the western Mediterranean
2ND PUNIC WAR Carthage seeks revenge on Rome. Hannibal builds an army in Spain and launches an attack through the Alps to surprise Rome. For 15 years he defeats every Roman army sent against him and ravages the Roman country side and any Roman allies who won't join him. He is unable to capture Rome and in the end is defeated while defending Carthage. Rome wins Spain, Sardinia and Corsica. Part of the treaty states that Carthage cannot fight any wars without Roman approval. Hannibal counting the signet rings of the Roman knights killed during the battle
3RD PUNIC WAR CARTHAGE MODERN TUNIS Rome wants to destroy Carthage once and for all. They lay siege to the city and eventually break in. They slaughter thousands of people, enslave the rest and tear down the city.
Thousands of Roman soldiers return from the second war to find their farms destroyed or taken over by others. So, many lose their farms and homes. Cheap or free grain pours into Rome and sinks the price of grain. Grain farmers can't sell their food and can't pay taxes. Thousands of slaves are shipped into Rome and take jobs from out of work farmers. Great wealth pours into Rome from the conquest of Carthage and its holdings. This creates a new class of extremely wealthy Romans. The wealthy use the money to buy land or latifundia and begin to raise cattle. Instead of hiring Romans to work the latifundia they buy slaves. A huge class of poor out of work Romans is created while a new very wealthy class is also created. The values of old Rome are deteriorating. In their place decadence and extravagance are taking hold.