When do we really start to innovate? By Ina Brouwer, Author, Public Affairs, Politician
Aan geen gehuurde borst werd ooit een kind gevoed Ina Brouwer
Work, motherhood, childcare in the past and how do we go on from here? Historical roots of work and motherhood in the Netherlands and Sweden.
The Netherlands 1. A centuries-old tradition of motherhood No tradition of wetnurses, like in France The Dutch poet Jacob Cats warns in the 17th century against this French tradition, saying: The little child will get the character of the woman who feeds him with her milk. and He who drinks the milk of a goat as a baby will get the character of a goat! :
2. The Netherlands escaped from dramatic events in history No great War ( 1914-1918) like England ( 1,5 million women were mobilized) and France No mass poverty, nor mass immigration in the 19th century like in Ireland and Sweden The Netherlands then is already overpopulated
3. Culture of Private life; women should be at home with their children 1784 Society for the wellbeing of all people was raised in an attempt to develop the 2nd Golden Century in the Netherlands. Only men could become a member In the 19th century women of the middle and higher classes were not allowed to have paid work. They were allowed to make music, embroider sheets and handkerchiefs, paint or do charity.
International developments influence the Netherlands 1893 in Chicago en 1895 in Kopenhagen World-exhibitions of the new industrial world, including the modern position of women’s labour. The Netherlands do not have much to deliver and that inspires the debate among women 1898 National Exhibition of women’s work in The Hague Opened by the young queen of that time,Wilhelmina.
Sweden 19th century: mass-emigration, poverty, low birthrate; a dying people? 19th centruy: because of poverty and bad harvests 1 out of 5 young Swedes emigrates to the United States of America 1934: the social democrats Alva en Gunnar Myrdal write: Kris i Befolkningsfragan Only a modern position for the family and for women can save Sweden
The Netherlands versus Sweden Sweden: 1939 Law against resignation of women because of marriage The Nederlands: 1904-1940 12 times a proposal in- and outside parliament to forbid the work of married women. Great majority, including liberals
Sweden: from 1950 on starts the building of a modern welfare state, including childcare Crèches, long parental leave, also for men, equal pay Result in 2014 80% of the Swedish women work, mostly vrouwen fulltime 75% is economic independent, including their own pension Only 48% of the Dutch women is economic independent, Even a lower percentage have their own pension
Differences within the EU: parttime labour and childcare The Netherlands- 74% of women work parttime Top in the EU 2nd place: Germany with 45% The Netherlands have the highest prices for childcare in the EU Germany- since 2013 every parent has the right to childcare at reasonable prices.
What does this mean for changes of growth and a career for women in the Netherlands and Sweden? Future developments: More parttime work in Sweden? More private life and less collectiv childcare? Or The Swedish model in the Netherlands? What model encourages personal growth and careers for women? What is best for children? Or does it not make any difference?
At no hired brest ever a child was fed Ina Brouwer