2 A. National Citizenship Founders let states decide who was a citizenNaturalization – Legal process by which a person is granted the rights and privileges of a citizen
3 B. Dred Scott V. Sandford Dred Scott – Was a slave from Missouri His slaveholder took Scott to Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory(present-day Minnesota), which was a free state1846 – Scott sued for his freedom claiming his residence in a free state made him free
4 “Once Free, Always Free” – Legal precedent that did not allow slave owners to bring their slaves with them to a free territory1857 – Supreme Court hears Scott’s caseCourt rules 7-2 against ScottAll 9 justices wrote opinions
9 Doctrine of Interstate Comity – Laws in one state are accepted by other states Can you think of examples today where states might have an issue with interstate comity?
10 C. Court’s RulingAfrican Americans were not citizens when the Constitution was writtenHad no claim to citizenshipCongress was also not allowed to forbid slavery in any United States territory – Overturned the Missouri Compromise
11 Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it violated the 5th Amendment “No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law”
14 D. Civil War AmendmentsMost important constitutional issue in American history was decided by the Civil WarHow much authority should be granted to states and how much should be granted to the federal government?
15 13th Amendment (1865) – Outlawed slavery 14th Amendment (1868) – People of all races born in the United States are citizensOverturned the Dred Scott decision15th Amendment (1870) – Men of all race are allowed to vote
16 E. Citizenship by BirthJus Soli – “Law of the soil,” all people born in the United StatesJus Sanguinis – “Law of blood,” all people born in another country to American parentsOne parent must have legal residence
19 Which of these 2008 presidential candidates was not born on U.S. soil?
20 F. Citizenship by Naturalization Naturalized citizens have most of the rights of native-born citizensQualifications1) Entered the U.S. legally2) Good moral character3)Support the U.S. government4) Prove that they can read, write, and speak English5) Have basic knowledge of U.S. history and government
21 G. Steps to Citizenship Must fill a petition requesting citizenship Be at least 18Must be legal resident of U.S.Pass the citizenship testTwo witnesses must testify on person’s character and integrityFinal Hearing – Take the oath of citizenship and become official citizens
23 H. Losing CitizenshipOnly the federal government can take away citizenshipExpatriation – Giving up one’s citizenship by becoming a citizen in another countryPeople may lose citizenship because they commit federal crimes or lie during naturalization process