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Lecture -13-  Education is a right, a foundation for development, a tool for human prosperity and poverty alleivation.  It happens throughout life.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture -13-  Education is a right, a foundation for development, a tool for human prosperity and poverty alleivation.  It happens throughout life."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Lecture -13-

3  Education is a right, a foundation for development, a tool for human prosperity and poverty alleivation.  It happens throughout life.  For environmental education, equitable access to citizens as well as open and flexible links between formal and non formal education should be found.

4  Adult learning is very important for life long learning of which LITERACY is the foundation to build on.  Skills and attitudes which promote personal and social well-being and active citizenship which empower its owner to make responsible choices.

5  Pesticide application :  The problem of pesticides residues that accumulate in living tissues is maximized by the ignorance of farmers of  the toxic nature of pesticides.  Periods after application – during which the farmer should not enter the field.  Safety period between last application and harvest and careful cleaning before use.:

6  Types of pesticides suitable for vegetables – in Algezeira area residues of cotton pesticides were detected in vegetables.  Numbers of application, duration between them and suitable doses.

7  The first law which organized pesticides usage was issued in  This was updated in 1994 to be – PESTICIDES AND PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS ACT 1994 implemented by the National Pesticides Coucil NPC which regulated registation, importation and usage of different pesticides.

8  Regulations should protect the consumer from pesticides residues and forbid the use of pesticides for commercial crops and vegetables.  International organizations such as F.A.O & W.H.O have determined maximum daily permissible limits for pesticides residues in food.

9  Max limit= permissible limits * body weight food Examples:  Malathion 0.02 mg/ kg of body weight  Dursban  Parathion

10  Extension of awareness units should make continuous programs to raise farmer’s awareness as well as other family members about storage, handling of pesticides and their containers so as not to use them for food or wash them in canals…etc.

11  August 1987, a large quantity of panned and out of date pesticides was buried in the northern east part of Elhasaheisa- 200 meters away from a residential area and at 1.5 km from the Blue Nile.  Studies showed that 88% of residents did not know and 75% had no idea about the toxicity of pesticides.  Pesticides residues were detected in human blood, soil and water samples.

12  A survey among vegetable farmers revealed: GeziraRahadBlue Nile Identified all pests 6 %014% Depend on their own experience to determine dose 43%10%19%


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