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BASIC PRINCIPLES REFORMED WORSHIP. INTRODUCTION God created us to worship him Chief end of man, to glorify God… Above all else, worship serves glory of.

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Presentation on theme: "BASIC PRINCIPLES REFORMED WORSHIP. INTRODUCTION God created us to worship him Chief end of man, to glorify God… Above all else, worship serves glory of."— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRODUCTION God created us to worship him Chief end of man, to glorify God… Above all else, worship serves glory of God No further justification needed for worship

3 INTRODUCTION Reformation, recovery of biblical worship Reformed according to scripture Recover biblical theology and practice of worship

4 INTRODUCTION Distinguishing marks of Reformed worship:  Built on Reformed theology  According to scripture  Work of Holy Spirit  Merit and mediation of Christ  Covenantal

5 THEOLOGY AND LITURGY Theology and liturgy, inseparable, interrelated Mutually formative True doctrine, foundation of true worship Expresses our beliefs, shapes our beliefs

6 THEOLOGY AND LITURGY Lex orandi, lex credendi Rule of prayer; rule of faith Relationship between, dialectical Two-way relationship; mutually formative

7 THEOLOGY AND LITURGY Cannot bifurcate, as two independent branches of ecclesial life Theology founds, establishes worship Worship expresses, influences, shapes theology

8 THEOLOGY AND LITURGY E.g. Reformers rejected the Mass:  Incompatible with justification  Perfection of Christ’s atonement  Lord’s Supper, not sacrificium offered to God  Beneficium received from God

9 SOLA SCRIPTURA Rallying cry of Reformation Scripture, highest, only infallible authority Final arbiter of truth, worship All other authorities, fallible, derivative, subordinate

10 Westminster Confession 1.10 Scripture is “the supreme judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined, and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, are to be examined.”

11 SOLA SCRIPTURA Scripture, primary and absolute normative authority Also sufficient authority Contains all necessary for establishing theory and practice of worship

12 John Calvin “Lord has in his sacred oracles faithfully embraced and clearly expressed … all aspects of the worship of his majesty; therefore, in matters of worship, the Master alone is to be heard.”

13 WCF 1.6 The whole counsel of God con- cerning all things necessary for his own glory, man’s salvation, faith & life, is either expressly set down in Scripture, or by good & necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture: unto which nothing at any time is to be added, whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men.

14 SOLA SCRIPTURA Final authority, sufficiency of scripture, foundational principle Bedrock on which Reformed worship is built

15 SOLA SCRIPTURA For Calvinists, the way scripture regulates worship:  Prescriptive  Not Proscriptive Must positively require a practice, if it is to be suitable for worship

16 SOLA SCRIPTURA Prohibited matters of worship additional to scripture Not just matters contrary to it Mere fact that scripture does not forbid a practice does not justify its use

17 John Calvin “In worship, we are to follow in all simplicity what God has ordained by his Word, without adding anything to it at all.”

18 WCF 21.1 The acceptable way of worshiping the true God is instituted by himself, & so limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be worshiped according to the imaginations & devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation, or any other way not prescribed in the Holy Scripture.

19 SOLA SCRIPTURA Reformed worship, limited to what has clear warrant in scripture Free from human inventions, corrupt pure worship Lawful worship established by God himself

20 SOLA SCRIPTURA God desires us to worship, as he commands, w/o mingling any inventions of our own He alone entitled to prescribe worship Cannot add to or take away

21 Deuteronomy 4.2 You shall not add to the word that I command you, nor take from it, that you may keep the commandments of the LORD your God that I command you.

22 Deuteronomy 12.31-32 You shall not worship the LORD your God in that way, for every abominable thing that the LORD hates they have done for their gods … Everything that I command you, you shall be careful to do. You shall not add to it or take from it.

23 SOLA SCRIPTURA Lawful worship limited to what God prescribes Must be in accordance with scripture Direct command, approved example, good and necessary consequence

24 SOLA SCRIPTURA Reforms recognized importance of God’s law for worship 10 Commandments:  Prescribe true worship  Forbid false worship  Reveal purpose of redemption

25 SOLA SCRIPTURA 1 st Commandment – requires worship of true God; forbids worship of false gods 2 nd Comm. – requires true worship of true God; forbids false worship of true God

26 SOLA SCRIPTURA 3 rd Comm. – requires us to call on God’s name (invocare); forbids any profane use of God’s name 4 th Comm. – requires us to observe the Sabbath; forbids us to profane it

27 ROLE OF HOLY SPIRIT Worship, no mere human work Work of the Holy Spirit:  Animated by Spirit  Empowered by Spirit  Directed by Spirit  Bears the fruit of the Spirit

28 ROLE OF HOLY SPIRIT Rejection of Pelagianism, works-righteousness Entirely dependent on God to do any good work Spirit moves, enables us to worship Purifies worshiper, worship

29 Hughes Oliphant Old “Worship is the work of the Holy Spirit in the body of Christ to the glory of the Father.”

30 Hughes Oliphant Old “When we worship, having our minds enlightened by the Spirit, our lives cleansed by the Spirit, our will moves by the Spirit, and our hearts warmed by the Spirit, then our worship is transformed from being merely a human work into being a divine work.”

31 Ephesians 5.18–20 Do not get drunk with wine … but be filled with the Spirit, addressing one another in psalms & hymns & spiritual songs, singing & making melody to the Lord with your heart, giving thanks always & for everything to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

32 Romans 8.15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the Spirit of adoption as sons, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father!"

33 Romans 8.26–27 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words. And he who searches hearts knows what is the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God.

34 Directory for Public Worship “In an assembly of public worship, the triune God is not only the One to whom worship is directed, but also the One who is active in the worship of the church. Through his public ordinances, the covenant God actively works to engage his people in communion with himself.

35 In public worship, God communes with his people, and they with him, in a manner which expresses the close relationships of the Father and his redeemed children, of the Son and his beloved bride, and of the Holy Spirit and the living temple in which he dwells.”

36 MERIT & MEDIATION OF CHRIST Inseparable relationship between worship and sacrifice Communion with God, only possible through atonement Holiness of God, sinfulness and defilement of man

37 MERIT & MEDIATION OF CHRIST Necessity of atoning sacrifice for worship E.g. Abraham: built altar, called on name of Lord E.g. daily morning/evening sacrifices Temple Repetition, inadequacy

38 MERIT & MEDIATION OF CHRIST Worship only possible through blood of Christ His blood cleansed us once and for all from sin’s defilement Boldly draw near to God through merit & mediation of Christ He sanctifies worshiper, worship

39 Hebrews 9.24–26 For Christ did not enter a holy place made with hands, a mere copy of the true one, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us [on our behalf].

40 Nor was it to offer himself repeatedly, as the high priest enters the holy place every year with blood that is not his own…. But now he has been revealed once for all at the consummation of the ages, to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.

41 Hebrews 10.19–22 Therefore, brothers, since we have boldness to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the veil, that is, his flesh,

42 and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.

43 Hebrews 13.15 Through him, therefore, let us continually offer up a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name.

44 COVENANTAL COMMUNION Reformers highlighted Covenantal nature of worship Worship service, meeting between God and his covenant people Covenant renewal, covenant communion

45 COVENANTAL COMMUNION Worship not evangelistic meeting Not entertainment But a covenant ceremony Communion between God and his people through public ordinances

46 Directory for Public Worship “An assembly of public worship is not merely a gathering of God's children with each other, but is, before all else, a meeting of the triune God with his covenant people. In the covenant, God promises his chosen ones that he will dwell among them as their God and they will be his people.”

47 DPW “Public worship is covenantal communion between God and his people in his public ordinances.”

48 DPW “Only those people whose hearts have been made new through God's grace by the work of the Holy Spirit can worship God.”

49 DPW “Public worship is for the praise and glory of God and the building up of the saints, not for the entertainment of the congregation nor the praise of man…”

50 COVENANTAL COMMUNION Two parties in covenant Two parts to the service Dialogical principle God speaks to us We respond to him E.g. Exodus 24

51 Exodus 24.1–11 Then he said to Moses, "Come up to the LORD, you and … seventy of the elders of Israel, and worship from afar. Moses alone shall come near to the LORD, but the others shall not come near, and the people shall not come up with him."

52 Moses rose early in the morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. And he sent young men of the people of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the LORD.

53 And Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood he threw against the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it in the hearing of the people. And they said, "All that the LORD has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient."

54 And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people and said, "Behold the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words."

55 Then Moses … and the elders of Israel went up, and they saw the God of Israel. There was under his feet as it were a pavement of sapphire stone, like the very heaven for clearness. And he did not lay his hand on the chief men of the people of Israel; they beheld God, and ate and drank.

56 COVENANTAL COMMUNION Assembly at Sinai, covenant- making ceremony God became their God; they, his people Also a service of worship, prototype of worship

57 COVENANTAL COMMUNION Elements of worship:  God calls them to worship (v 1)  Sacrifices offered (vv 4-5)  Covenant proclaimed (vv 4, 7)  Covenant vow (v 7)  Covenant sealed with visible signs: blood (8) and meal (9-11)

58 COVENANTAL COMMUNION Two main parts of service:  Those performed on behalf of God  Those performed by congregation  On their own  Or through representative voice

59 COVENANTAL COMMUNION Role of minister:  Not to worship before or on behalf of congregation  But to lead saints in worship No one a mere spectator  All worship & enjoy communion with God by his Spirit

60 DPW “By his Spirit working through the ministry of the Word, God addresses his people in the call to worship, in the salutation and benediction, in the reading and preaching of the Word, and in the sacraments.”

61 DPW “His people, enabled by the Holy Spirit, address God in prayer, in song, in offerings, in hearing the Word, in confession, and in receiving and partaking of the sacraments.”

62 COVENANTAL COMMUNION Exodus 24, prototype of worship Defines meaning of word church (qahal, ecclesia) Defines nature of church and ministry, cf. Heb. 12

63 Hebrews 12.18–29 For you have not come to a mountain that can be touched, & a blazing fire, & darkness, & gloom, & a tempest, & the sound of a trumpet, & a voice whose words made the hearers beg that not another word be spoken to them …

64 But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, & to innumerable angels in festal gathering, & to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven,

65 and to God, the judge of all, & to spirits of the righteous made perfect, & to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood… Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken,

66 let us have grace by which we may worship God acceptably with reverence and awe, for our God is a consuming fire.

67 SUMMARY 1. Theology is the foundation of worship 2. Worship must be in accordance with scripture 3. Worship is a work of Holy Spirit

68 SUMMARY 4. Worship is through merit and mediation of Christ 5. Worship is covenantal communion with triune God

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