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Post WWII: The US & the Cold War The indirect conflict between the US and the USSR.

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Presentation on theme: "Post WWII: The US & the Cold War The indirect conflict between the US and the USSR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Post WWII: The US & the Cold War The indirect conflict between the US and the USSR

2 Review: Tension between Wartime Allies Ideological Differences – Capitalism vs. Marxist Socialism – Democracy vs. Communist Dictatorship – Freedom vs. Equality A History of Tension – US aid vs. Bolshevik Revolution – US refusal to recognize USSR – Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact – No 2 nd Front until 1944 – No free elections (Poland, Germany, Korea…) – Armies left in Europe & Asia – US “threatens” use of the bomb

3 Crisis! Communism in Asia Chinese Civil War, 1945-1949 – Nationalist Chiang Kai- shek (Jiang Jieshi) v. Communist Mao Zedong – US sends billions… – “Taiwan” – US tries to balance loss of influence in Asia… Japan – Under Allied occupation – Rapid economic growth encouraged…

4 Crisis! Communism in Europe Soviet army left to control the “Eastern Bloc” USSR “spread” to 15 member countries –Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan “Satellite” Countries Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Yugoslavia Hungary (1947), Czechoslovakia (1948), East Germany (1949) Drawing of the IRON CURTAIN…

5 Response! The Truman Doctrine Response to Soviet influence in Greece, Turkey $400 million to fight communists New US Foreign Policy: CONTAINMENT –US must help those resisting communism –Based on three ideologies: Communism was an ideological threat Communism was indivisible/unified Communist expansion would cause a “DOMINO EFFECT" → Military Containment

6 Response! The Marshall Plan Economic reconstruction of Europe –16 European Nations join –Soviets forbid E. Europe to join Molotov Plan Why? –Strong economies thwart communist movements –Developed Europe won't drain US economy –Market for American Products –Humanitarianism Economic Cooperation Administration 1948 –Billions go to Europe 1948-1951 –By 1951 European Industrial production ↑ 64% → Economic Containment

7 “Stalin regarded the plan's vision of an integrated European market with freedom of movement, goods, services, information, and, inevitably, people, as incompatible with his economic, political, and foreign-policy goals…. Subsequent Soviet propaganda portrayed the plan as an American plot to subjugate Western Europe.” Edwin Marcus. "Can He Block It?" ca. 1947 Library of Congress

8 Crisis! Berlin Blockade W. zones of Germany unified Berlin Blockade, June 1948 – Stalin cut off West Berlin – Hoped US would abandon West Berlin Berlin Airlift – 2.5 million tons of materials sent in just over 10 months – Spring 1949 Stalin lifts blockade → Military Containment

9 View from the west side of graffiti art on the wall's infamous "death strip" Brandenburg Gate between East and West Germany The Berlin Wall was built August 13, 1961. It split the city (yellow). Around the city was “no man’s land”—barbed wire, barren land, guard towers, trip wires/mines, machine guns & shards of glass. In 1989 the East German Government shocked the world and allowed the wall to come down. Crisis! Berlin Wall, 1961

10 Response! NATO etc. Berlin Crisis pulls Europe together… NATO, April 1949 –Armed attack against one was against all 10 –NATO = permanent military in Europe –US single biggest supplier USSR responds with Warsaw Pact, 1955 → Military & Diplomatic Containment

11 Crisis! Tensions Escalate The Arms Race begins… – September 1949, Soviets explode A-bomb – 1952, US explodes 1 st Hydrogen Bomb China falls to communism, 1949 National Security Council Report (NSC-68), 1950 – US can’t rely on other nations – US must be the firm leader of Non-Communist World – Defense budget increases 4X


13 Crisis & Response! The Korean War & the UN April 1945 – 50 nations create UN charter – Security Council: 10 rotating + 5 permanent members US USSR UK FR China 1945 Korea Divided –1949 US troops leave SK 1950 NK attacks SK – US sends troops; no declaration of war – UN command established (troops from US, Scot, Eng, Australia, NZ, Can, Neth) – Surprise attack of NK at Inchon by MacArthur 1951 Chinese communist forces attack – MacArthur fired by Truman = CONTROVERSIAL 1952 Peace talks? POWs? Back to 38 th II 1953 Cease Fire Today’s Question: Who started the Korean War?

14 Response! Stopping Communism at Home Atomic Energy Act, 1946 House Un-American Activities Committee, 1938 –Hearings, 1947 Federal Employee Loyalty Program, 1947 Selective Service System, 1948 National Security Act, 1947 –Department of Defense –National Security Council –CIA → Domestic Containment

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