Presentation on theme: "Coates, Ch. 4: Resistance and Adaptation 1. Cite one example of an indigenous people that fought the newcomers. 2. Cite one example of an indigenous people."— Presentation transcript:
Coates, Ch. 4: Resistance and Adaptation 1. Cite one example of an indigenous people that fought the newcomers. 2. Cite one example of an indigenous people that co-existed with nonviolent occupiers 3. How did natives adapt to the outsiders? 4. Why is it so hard to understand that indigenous people adapted and changed?
Reasons for creation? Examples of empires? Logic of Empire? How do Empires influence cultures? Internal vs. External Maintenance of an empire: day to day function
After Yuan dynasty collapsed, Ming dyn. (1368-1644) restored native rule Hongwu, founder of Ming, drove Mongols out of China, centralized state 1421 capital from Nanjing south to Beijing, closer watch on Mongols Great Wall immense Project: started 221-210 BCE Later emperors expanded the long defensive wall along northern border Entire wall with all of its branches measures 21,196 km (13,171 mi)
Great Wall took one thousand years to build at a huge cost to human life and the treasury. Led to bankruptcy and failed to keep out northern “barbarians”anyway What alternatives to this project might there have been? Jigsaw exercise to determine a viable alternative to the wall; attendance
Assign four roles Emperor: blue Military: orange Peasant/worker: green Merchant: yellow
Meet with fellow roles by number What was your role in building the wall? How did the wall influence your group? Create Great Wall Imperial Evaluation Teams One Person from each of four groups (One color in each group) Assignment: Given ultimate failure of the wall in keeping out the Mongols (Chingis Khan beginning of 13th century; Manchurians) What alternatives might China have implemented? Write a paragraph with the solution devised by your team. Put names on your paper. (Attendance) One paper per group
Ming emperors extravagant lives in Forbidden City, ignored government Ming first turned inward, away from overseas commerce, forbid travel abroad Emperor Yongle organized vast encyclopedia Late Ming: 7 massive maritime expeditions (1405-1433) Spread of Chinese culture through Asia
What happens when state denies native pop.? Mongolia: dominant population based in a mobile, pastoral lifestyle: Indigenous? The Miao People of southwest China See next slide for details
Miao People of Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan, Sichuan, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region SW China Mountainous, villages. Pop. 8,940,116 Paddy rice, maize, potatoes, sorghum, beans tobacco, sugar cane Large-scale migrations: wide dispertions Miao language: 3 main dialects Linen jackets colorful designs Small, monogamous familes arranged marriages Miao Sister Festival
1640s Manchu invaders plus rebels, Ming Empire collapsed SG: Why do empires collapse?
Qing Empire Manchus poured into China, new dynasty: Quing (pure) 1644-1911 Manchurian chief Nurhaci (1616-1626) united tribes By 1680s consolidated dynasty throughout China Preserved cultural, ethnic identity, depreciated Chinese people 2 effective emperors: Kangxi (1661-1722) and Quianlong (1736-1795)
Kangxi, Intellectual prodigy, warrior, interested science Quianlong: learned man. Long, stable and prosperous reign, $ grew Tightly centralized state, same structure as Ming Success of Qing in conquest and trade, caused admiration in Europe
Ming and Qing succeeded restore traditional ways: hierarchy, patriarchy Conservative social structure Patrilineal descent and grouped in clans, patriarchal society Spanish American crops: corn, sweet pot, peanuts: boosted population 100 million in 1500 to 160 mill in 1600, 225 mill by 1750 Early Qing dyn. global trade: tremendous prosperity Silk, porcelain, lacquerware, tea: tight government regulation Chinese Society highly stratified Scholar bureaucrats, commoners, military forces and mean people