Presentation on theme: "Thomas Jefferson Revolution of 1800 - Why is this election important? It’s the first peaceful transfer of power in a democratic government since ancient."— Presentation transcript:
Thomas Jefferson Revolution of 1800 - Why is this election important? It’s the first peaceful transfer of power in a democratic government since ancient Greece and Rome! 12 th Amendment –In the election of 1800, Jefferson, Hamilton, and Burr ran for President. #1 = President, #2 = VP. Very awkward because P and VP are from different Parties! –Amendment – electors cast separate ballots for President and Vice President, P and VP can be from same Party… 1801-1809 Republican Virginia
“We hold these truths to be self evident; that all men are created equal…”
The Hamilton- Burr Duel: Why wasn’t Hamilton ever a President?
1791, Burr successfully wins a US Senate seat from Philip Schuyler, Hamilton's father-in-law. 1800: "The Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq., President of the United States.," Also 1800: Republicans Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson tied in balloting for the presidency, Hamilton lobbied Congress to decide the election in Jefferson's favor. New York governor's race of 1804
Met on the dueling grounds at Weehawken, New Jersey on the morning of July 11. Each fired a shot from a.56 caliber dueling pistol. –Burr was unscathed; –Hamilton fell to the ground mortally wounded. He died the next day. Instead of reviving Burr's political career, the duel helped to end it. Burr was charged with two counts of murder. After his term as vice president ended, he would never hold elective office again.
Ok, well, also, drama doesn’t help Burr either… The Burr Conspiracy… –James Wilkinson 1807 Trial –Treason –Executive Privilege? –John Marshall defines Treason VERY narrowly in defense of freedom of speech
Back to Jefferson’s Presidency… Simplifying the Presidency – Jefferson thought a simple government is best –Decreased size of gov’t –Cut costs on everything –Decreased size of army –Stopped expansion of the navy
Louisiana Purchase – 1803 –from Frenchman Napoleon Bonaparte –$15 Million –Adds 200% to size of the US (+2x size of 13 colonies) –Explored by Louis and Clark…
Embargo Act of 1807 passed Dec. 22, 1807 in answer to the British orders in council restricting neutral shipping and to Napoleon's restrictive Continental System. Jefferson wanted to answer both nations with by restricting neutral trade would show the importance of trade with Napoleon. –Nonimportation Act, forbid the importation of specified British goods in order to force GB to relax its rigorous rulings on cargoes and sailors –The act was suspended, but the Embargo Act of 1807 was a bolder statement of the same idea. It forbade all international trade to and from American ports, and Jefferson hoped that Britain and France would be persuaded of the value and the rights of a neutral commerce.
Effects of the “Ograbme”? –Merchants, sea captains, and sailors were shocked to find themselves without income and to see the ships rotting at the wharves. –NOT successful. not enough pressure could be brought so Britain and France stood firm. –Enforcement was difficult, especially in New England, where merchants looked on the scheme as an attempt to defraud them of a livelihood. On Mar. 1, 1809, the embargo was superseded by the Nonintercourse Act. This allowed resumption of all commercial intercourse except with Britain and France. Jefferson reluctantly accepted it.
The Barbary Wars “America’s Forgotten Wars” or “America’s First War on Terror”???
At issue was the pirates' demand of tribute from American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea. American naval power attacked the pirate cities and extracted agreements of fair passage from their rulers. When they proved successful, partisans of the Democratic- Republicans contrasted their administrations' refusal to buy off the pirates with the failure of the preceding federalist administration to live up to the rhetorical flight, "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute"
Revolutionary WarWar of 1812 1 st Barbary War 1801-1805 2 nd Barbary War c.1812-1816 Jefferson 1801-1809 Madison 1809-1817
The Marines Hymn contains a reference to this conflict in the opening line: "From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli..."