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Slides prepared by Cyndi Chie and Sarah Frye1 Freedom of Speech.

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Presentation on theme: "Slides prepared by Cyndi Chie and Sarah Frye1 Freedom of Speech."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slides prepared by Cyndi Chie and Sarah Frye1 Freedom of Speech

2 2 Changing Communications Paradigms Regulatory Paradigms Internet, BBSs, commercial online services, and the WWW: Not exactly print media. Not exactly broadcast media. Not exactly common carrier.

3 3 Changing Communications Paradigms The First Amendment –Protects Citizens From Government Prohibits restriction of speech, press, peaceful assembly, and religion. –Subsequent Interpretations Address: Offensive (tidak sopan) and/or controversial speech and ideas, Spoken and written words, Pictures, art, and other forms of expression and opinion, and Commercial speech (e.g. advertising).

4 4 Offensive Speech and Censorship in Cyberspace Speech Might Include: Political or religious speech. Pornography. Sexual or racial slurs. Nazi materials. Libelous (pencemaran nama baik) statements. Abortion information. Alcohol ads.

5 5 Offensive Speech and Censorship in Cyberspace –Material is considered obscene (cabul) if all three parts are met: 1. It depicts sexual acts whose depiction (penggambaran) is specifically prohibited by state law, and 2. It depicts these acts in a patently offensive (tidak sopan, menjijikkan) manner, appealing to the prurient (birahi) interest as judged by a reasonable person using community standards, and 3. It has no serious literary, artistic, social, political, or scientific value.

6 6 Not Obscene (tidak Cabul) ??

7 7 Obscene (Cabul)

8 8 Material Inappropriate for Children –Technology Changes the Context On the Web, children have access to the same ‘adult’ text, images, videos, etc. as adults. Online proprietors don’t know the customer is not an adult. –Protecting Children Regardless of the medium: It is illegal to create, possess or distribute child pornography. It is illegal to lure children into sexual activity.

9 9 Limiting Internet Access in Libraries and Schools –Filtering Software Benefit: prevent access to inappropriate material on the Internet by screening words or phrases, blocking sites according to rating system, or disallowing access to specific sites in a list. Problems: can be ineffective—kids get around the filters; the words, phrases, rating systems, etc. are subjective; “banned” keywords can be overly restrictive for adult users and for legitimate use by minors.

10 10 Anonymity Common Sense and the Internet Early publications by some of our Founding Fathers were published under pseudonyms. Today, there are publications on the Net that are posted anonymously.

11 11 Is Anonymity Protected? –Conflicts between political freedom of speech and campaign regulations: Anonymity protects against retaliation (balas dendam) and embarrassment. Anonymity violates rules established by the Federal Elections Commission (FEC)

12 12 Anonymity vs. Community –Supporters of anonymity: Say it is necessary to protect privacy and free speech. –Opponents of anonymity: Believe it is anti-social and allows criminals to hide from law enforcement.

13 13 Spam What Is the Problem? –Unsolicited, mass is cheap to senders but may impose costs on the recipient’s time and/or the recipient’s online account. may contain objectionable content (political, commercial ads, solicitations for funds, pornography, etc.). may contain a disguised (penyembunyian) return address. may pass through filters. invades privacy. creates a financial and managerial burden (beban) on ISPs.

14 14

15 15 Solutions Technology: filters that screen out spam. Market Pressure: services that list spammers. Business Policy: at the discretion (kebijaksanaan, keleluasaan) of the recipient, all would be charged a microfee. Law: create restrictions that are consistent with the First Amendment. Vigilantism (sukarelawan?): punish spammers by hacking into their phone or computer systems.

16 16 How To Make A :Pipe BombHow To Make A :Pipe Bomb - [ Terjemahkan laman ini ] Highly controversial retailers and service providers of the internet. Adult, recreational drugs, international pharmacy sites, secret banking, documents, k - Tembolok - Halaman sejenisTerjemahkan laman iniTembolok Halaman sejenis I Am a Gay Bomb Maker! - VideoI Am a Gay Bomb Maker! - Video 4 menit 43 detik - 27 Agu 2008 u could prolly make a actually little sparkler bomb outa that if u knew wat u were..... Why you teach us to make "bomb"?!!!! I made one and it...

17 17 How to make a bomb in 3 easy steps!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!How to make a bomb in 3 easy steps!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! - [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]Terjemahkan laman ini How to make a bomb in three easy steps. Although these places didnt technicaly sponser thew site, feel free to send them nasty for even appearing k - Tembolok - Halaman sejenisTembolokHalaman sejenis Web video teaches terrorists to make bomb vest - Nightly News with...Web video teaches terrorists to make bomb vest - Nightly News with... - [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]Terjemahkan laman ini 22 Dec NBC News has obtained a video, posted in an obscure Islamic chat room, that offers detailed instructions on how to make a sophisticated k - Tembolok - Halaman sejenisTembolokHalaman sejenis How To Make A Bomb EASY! - Truveo Video SearchHow To Make A Bomb EASY! - Truveo Video Search - [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]Terjemahkan laman ini How To Make a Bomb with any Cell phone. VERY INTERESTING educational purposes only. COME LEARN HOW TO MAKE A BOMB WITH YOUR CELLPHONE just like in WAR and k - Tembolok - Halaman sejenis TembolokHalaman sejenis

18 18 How to Be a Terrorist - TIMEHow to Be a Terrorist - TIME - [ Terjemahkan laman ini ] [OPEN_P]It reads like a cross between a driver's manual and a guide for revolutionary Boy Scouts. Among other things, it contains admonitions to drive Halaman sejenisTerjemahkan laman iniHalaman sejenis Keepers of Lists - Top 90 Signs You May Be A TerroristKeepers of Lists - Top 90 Signs You May Be A Terrorist - [ Terjemahkan laman ini ] Our humble order of monks, keeps the net's funniest list of lists k - Tembolok - Halaman sejenisTerjemahkan laman iniTembolokHalaman sejenis The Terrorist's HandbookThe Terrorist's Handbook - [ Terjemahkan laman ini ] Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies, a division of Chaos Industries (CHAOS), is proud to present this first edition of The Terrorist's Handbook k - Tembolok - Halaman sejenisTerjemahkan laman iniTembolokHalaman sejenis Hasil video untuk how to be a terroristHasil video untuk how to be a terrorist YouTube - how to be a NINJA in one minute 1 menit 15 detik YouTube - how to be a NINJA in one minute 9/11 How To Save A Life -- The Fray FIRST EVER... 2 menit 41 detik 9/11 How To Save A Life -- The Fray FIRST EVER... If You Were a Terrorist, How Would You Attack? - Freakonomics Blog...If You Were a Terrorist, How Would You Attack? - Freakonomics Blog... - [ Terjemahkan laman ini ]Terjemahkan laman ini Hearing about these rules got me thinking about what I would do to maximize terror if I were a terrorist with limited resources.... freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/08/08/if-you-were-a-terrorist-how-would- you-attack/ - 77k - Tembolok - Halaman sejenisTembolokHalaman sejenis

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