Paradox Vicious conflicts between ethnic groups - Benefits from immigrants - United States “Melting Pot” - Canada “Mosaic” - Ethnic conflict is not inevitable Do multiethnic groups impede or facilitate the formation of national cultures?
Paradox 7.2 Is there or will there be a clash of civilizations? - Most important classification system is civilizational - Civilization: defined by common objective elements: -Language, history, religions, customs, and institutions - Huntington's 9 Modern Civilizations: -Chinese, Japanese, Hindu, Islamic, Orthodox, Western, Latin American, Buddhist, and African
Paradox 7.2 Ethnicities and Civilizations Overlap - Both emphasize similarities in religion and language - Members of civilizational cultures often have similar physical features - Sub-themes: - World is separated into a Western camp and a Non-Western camp - Nations will be influenced heavily by cultural identities - Most dangerous conflicts involve either: - Nations themselves - Groups within nations that are from different civilizations
Paradox 7.2 Intracivilizational VS. Intercivilizational Conflicts - Most conflicts since the Cold War have been civil wars - EX: Sunnies (85%) & Shiites (15%) - Conflicts among different nations are more threatening than conflicts within civilizations - Ethnicity appears to explain most recent conflicts rather than civilization
Paradox Immigrants from different ethnic groups tend to gravitate towards other nations - Immigration is creating friction in many nations - 31 major Muslim enclaves in western Europe - National groups still exist Can national cultures exist in a multiethnic and borderless world?
Paradox Growing identification of citizens with entities - Example of Ireland - Finding the concept national cultures useful in some situations
Paradox 7.4 Should all cultural practices be equally acceptable? - There is no definite answer to this question today -For it is based on values, culture, and religion that form ones behavior - The US Supreme court still upholds the validity capital punishment - Justices have recently discussed the reasons many Europeans have outlawed it. - Some cultures forbid infanticide, others accept beheading as a valid punishment - Others have outlawed capital punishment all together - These and other culturally based practices represent a major issues for advocates globalization who are seeking harmonize laws across nations
Paradox Agencies whose authority extends beyond the geographical limits of nations - International Court Of Justice - World Trade Organization - May one day help minimize the gap in culture practices and its acceptances - Until then there are many factors that create intense debates across cultures over what is acceptable practices - Multiethnicity - Religion - History - Values
Religion - Religion is a major component, if not the major component of - civilizations - many if not all ethnic groups - There are many perspectives on religion - Emile Durheim- The elementary Forms of the religious life (1916) - Described various religions based on their values and practices - He also related that religion ties back directly to the values that members of each group consider critical - Religion directs, encourages, and restrains behavior and practices so that they are consistent with deeply held values
Paradox 7.5 Must religion be anthropomorphic? - Most major religions are anthropomorphic - They attribute humanlike features to their God/gods - Gives followers a sense of religious comfort and connectivity.
Paradox 7.5 Major religions without anthropomorphism Confucianism - Focuses on current life - Concept of afterlife is less developed Buddhism - Focuses on obtaining nirvana
Paradox 7.5 Advantages of anthropomoprhic concept - Sense of peace dervived from higher power looking out for humanity - Identification with a higher power with humanlike characteristics - Sense of Justice and shared values
Paradox 7.5 Issues with anthropomorphism - Can be used to justify controversial issues through imagery - Unsecular nations mitigate controversial issues through ideological language
Paradox 7.6 Does a religion necessarily require dogmas and creeds? - Almost all religions promote specific dogmas and creeds - Dogma: represents a doctrine or body of doctrines concerning faith or morals that is formally stated and authoritatively proclaimed. - Creed: a fundamental belief or set of fundamental beliefs that a specific religion represents
Paradox Dogmas tend to create separation between religions - Typically create an exclusionary system - Most glaring incompatibility
Paradox 7.6 Other Religions - Baha’i Faith - Founded in 19 th century Persia - Believes in one God who created the universe - All religions play a vital role in mankind - Promotes the unity of all people - Unitarian-Universalism - Protestant-affiliated religion - Deliberately avoids dogmas and creeds - Approximately 250,000 members
Unitarian-Universalism - Seven Inclusive principles 1.The inherent worth and dignity of every person 2.Justice, equity, and compassion in human relations 3.Acceptance of one another and encouragement to spiritual growth in local congregations 4.A free and responsible search for truth and meaning 5.The right of conscience and the use of the democratic process within local congregations and in society at large 6.The goal of world community with peace, liberty, and justice for all 7.Respect for the interdependent web of all existence of which we are a part
Paradox 7.7 Do geographic maps reflect cultural beliefs?
Paradox 7.8 Has the “death of distance” nullified the importance of geography? - The greater the distance the more it costs to transport products - 45% of all trade is intraorganizational - , phone and internet all decrease importance of geography
Paradox 7.8 Culture affects the death of distance - John Friedman believes the world is flat - Countries cultural beliefs affect idea of borderless business and globalization - Problems with outsourcing
Paradox 7.8 United States history of immigrations - Immigrants helped build America - Any race of immigrant was hated - Nativist group tried to restrict immigration
Paradox 7.8 Reason against immigration - Overwhelm areas resources - Takes away jobs for citizens - Minutemen guard certain borders in America to keep them out
Paradox 7.8 European immigration problems - Development of the European union has made it easier for illegal immigrant to cross border easily - Immigration biggest in Australia 24% of the population was born in another country - Work abroad program used by Filipino citizens
Paradox 7.9 Will the issue of immigration derail globalization? - Immigration, positive or negative? - South African Immigration policy. - Between 2 and 4 million immigrants in South Africa - How can South Africa avoid the risk of derailed globalization? - Who threatens South African immigrant goals?
Paradox 7.10 Can restricting immigration facilitate and promote it? - 34 million immigrants in United States - 12 million are illegal - Poorly educated and unskilled - Increase the magnitude of the underclass - Employers hire immigrants and leave native born population of similar skill levels jobless
Paradox 7.10 Negatives of Immigration - Too much immigration leads to problems if/when: - Host country lacks equitable and effective program - Proponents/Opponents begin to take extreme positions - How to lessen the negative effects? - Employers required to follow hiring and employment laws - All such laws be strictly enforced - Find middle ground with proponents and opponents
Paradox 7.10 How this paradox relates to South Africa - South Africa is home to an estimated 5 million illegal immigrants - 3 million are Zimbabweans - Proponent and Opponent clashes have led to dramatic decrease in native-born unskilled jobs - Lack of unskilled job openings has forced mass emigration of the white South African population Johan Langenhoven
Paradox 7.11 Is immigration compatible with an equality-matching culture? - Equality-Matching(egalitarian) cultures are defined as having a low degree of power distance and a high degree of individualism - Canada - Australia - Netherlands - Scandinavian Countries - Some of the most explosive religious encounters have occurred in these countries. Why? - Want an equality-matching culture in an authority-ranking fashion - Ex- Netherlands- Muslim group kills filmmaker for directing a film portraying Islam men being hostile to women - So, is immigration compatible with an equality-matching culture?
Paradox 7.11 Where does South Africa fit in? - Known as the “rainbow nation” because of large number of differing cultures - Different regions of South Africa carry all four generic national cultures - Community Sharing - Authority Ranking - Equality matching - Market pricing - If this is true, what is the problem with the immigration to South Africa? - Opponents are primarily authority-ranking cultures - Don’t want to lose status, power, and wealth