Presentation on theme: "The Sections of The Constitution"— Presentation transcript:
0The Structure of Our Constitution Objective: I can explain how the U.S. Constitution incorporates basic principles which help define the government of the United States as a federal republic including its structure, powers, and relationship with the governed.The Structure of Our Constitution
1The Sections of The Constitution Framework of gov’tHighest authority in the nationBasic law of USPowers of branches come from itSymbol-represents our system of gov’t and our basic ideals, such as liberty and freedom
2The Sections of the Constitution 3 Main Parts of the Constitution1) Preamble-intro that states the goals and purposes of the gov’t2) Seven articles that describe structure of gov’t3) 27 Amendments or additions and changes to the Constitution
3The Preamble Single sentence… “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
4The PreambleCarefully chosen words make clear that the power of gov’t comes from the peopleThe gov’t depends on the people for its power and exists to serve them
5The PreambleMiddle part of Preamble states six purposes of gov’t:1) To form a more perfect Union--to unite the states so they can operate as a single nation, for the good of all
6The Preamble2) To establish Justice--to make certain that all citizens are treated equally3) To insure domestic Tranquility--to maintain peace and order, keeping citizens and their property safe from harm
7The Preamble4) To provide for the common defense--to ready militarily to protect the country and its citizens from attack5) To promote the general Welfare--to help people live healthy, happy, and prosperous lives
8The Preamble6) To secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity--to guarantee the basic rights of all Americans, including future generations (posterity)
9Partner Questions 1) What is the Preamble? 2) Are the six purposes of gov’t listed in the Preamble enough? Should their be less or more purposes listed in the Preamble? Explain why!!!
10The ArticlesThe first three articles describe the powers and responsibilities of each branch of gov’t.Article I=Legislative BranchArticle II=Executive BranchArticle III=Judicial Branch
11The ArticlesArticle I outlines the lawmaking powers of the legislative branch, or Congress.States that Congress, made up of two houses--Senate and House of Representatives--will have all lawmaking authorityDescribes how members of each house will be chosen and what rules they must follow in making laws (Ch. 6)
12The ArticlesArticle II provides for an executive branch, or law-enforcing branch of gov’t headed by a president and vice president.Explains how these leaders are to be elected and how they can be removed from office.List the president’s powers, including the power to command the armed forces and to make treaties with other nations. (Ch. 7)
13The ArticlesArticle III calls for “one Supreme Court” and such lower courts as Congress deems appropriate.The Judicial branch is the part of government that interprets the laws and sees that they are fairly applied.Lists the powers of the federal courts and describes what kinds of cases they may hear. (Ch. 8)
14The ArticlesArticles IV explains the relationship between the states and the national gov’t.Article V specifies under what conditions the Constitution can be changed.Article VI contains a key statement declaring the Constitution the “supreme Law of the Land.”Article VII states the Constitution would take effect when nine states ratified it.
17Current Event Presentations Pass Current Event Handout forwardPlease be respectful (Quiet/Paying Attention) during the presentationsHand your rubric to Mr. Dial
18The Structure of Our Constitution Objective: I can explain how the U.S. Constitution incorporates basic principles which help define the government of the United States as a federal republic including its structure, powers, and relationship with the governed.The Structure of Our Constitution
19Amending the Constitution Any change in the Constitution is called an amendment.Thousands of amendments have been considered over the years, but only 27 have become lawFramers deliberately made the amendment process difficult
20Why did the framers make the amendment process so difficult? Partner QuestionWhy did the framers make the amendment process so difficult?
21Amending the Constitution The ability to amend the Constitution is necessaryConstitutional amendments safeguard many of our freedomsFor example, the abolition of slavery and the right of women to vote were added as amendments
22Process outlined in Article V Two Steps Proposal Ratification Amendment ProcessProcess outlined in Article VTwo StepsProposalRatification
23Amendment ProcessAn amendment may be proposed in either of two waysThe first method--used for all amendments so far--is by congressional actionVote of ⅔ of members of both houses of Congress is required
24Amendment ProcessThe second method is by a national convention requested by ⅔ of the state legislatures (Has not been used up to this point in time)
25What are the two methods to propose a Constitutional amendment? Partner QuestionWhat are the two methods to propose a Constitutional amendment?
26Ratifying an Amendment Once a national amendment has been proposed, ¾ of the states must ratify itThe states have two ways to ratify-by a vote of either the state legislature or by a special state conventionOnly one amendment, the 21st, has been ratified by means of state conventions
27Partner QuestionExplain what happens next after a Constitutional amendment has been proposed.Who has to ratify and by how much?What are the methods to ratify?
30Interpreting the Constitution Framers knew world would change in ways they could not predictFor this reason, they attempted to keep the document as general as possibleSome matters they went into great detail, while other matters they left open to interpretation
31The Necessary & Proper Clause Article I list the powers of Congress“to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper” to carry out its dutiesThis clause allows Congress to exercise powers not specifically listed in the ConstitutionThese powers are known as “implied powers”
32The Necessary and Proper Clause Not everyone agrees which laws are “necessary and proper” and which laws are notLoose interpretation-Congress should be allowed to make any laws the Constitution does not specifically forbidStrict interpretation-Congress should make only the kinds of laws mentioned by the Constitution
33Court Decisionsfinal authority to interpret Constitution rests with Supreme CourtOver the years, the Supreme Court has interpreted the Constitution in different ways-sometimes, strictly, sometimes loosely.With each new interpretation, our gov’t changes
34Legislative and Presidential Actions Actions of Congress and executive branch have also caused new interpretations of ConstitutionHouse of Representatives (prosecutors) are allowed to impeach, or accuse, federal officials, while the Senate (jury) determines the person’s guilt or innocence.
35Legislative and Presidential Actions Nowhere in the Constitution does it state that the president should propose bills or budgets to CongressYet since the presidency of Woodrow Wilson ( ), each year the president proposes hundreds of bills to Congress
36Legislative and Presidential Actions Presidents interpret the Constitution in other ways, too.Not only does the president make agreements with other countries without congressional approval, the president also requests legislation from CongressThe Constitution does not direct the president to take these actions
37Interpretation Through Custom Interpretation of the Constitution has changed through customs that have developedExample-the Constitution does not mention political parties, yet they are an important part of today’s political systemThese days, parties help organize the gov’t and conduct elections
38Interpretation Through Custom Constitution present day is quite different from the document written in 1787No doubt it will go through more changes into the futureHowever, the basic structure and principles-a delicate balance among three branches-will remain
39Partner QuestionsWrite a paragraph about the Constitution in which you use these terms: Preamble, legislative branch, executive branch, judicial branch, amendmentWhy has the Constitution been called a blueprint for governing the United States?How are the states involved in the process of ratifying an amendment?
40Partner Questions4. Why have only 27 amendments been added to the Constitution?5. Review the chart “Comparing Governments” from a last week. How does the power to tax differ under both forms of government?
41Partner Questions Part Detail Preamble Articles Amendments Complete the chart below by listing important details of each part of the Constitution.PartDetailPreambleArticlesAmendments