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Global Marketing Management: Planning and Organization

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1 Global Marketing Management: Planning and Organization
Chapter 12

2 Learning Objectives LO1 How global marketing management differs from international marketing management LO2 The need for planning to achieve company goals LO3 The important factors for each alternative market entry strategy LO4 The increasing importance of international strategic alliances

3 Global Marketing Management
1970s “standardization vs. adaptation” 1980s “globalization vs. localization” 1990s “global integration vs. local responsiveness”

4 Global Marketing Management
The issue is if the global homogenization of consumer tastes allow for the global standardization of the marketing mix The Internet revolution of the 1990s added a new twist to the old debate Some companies continue to believe that “global” is the way to go For example, executives at Twix Cookie Bars tried out their first global campaign with a new global advertising agency, Grey Worldwide.

5 Global Marketing Management
In many parts of the world, consumers have become pickier, more penny-wise, or a little more nationalistic They are spending more of their money on local drinks whose flavors are not part of the Coca-Cola lineup The trend back toward localization is because of the efficiencies of customization because of the proliferation of the Internet and flexible manufacturing processes Consumer tastes are converging on one hand, but tastes could also be unique as consumers around the world are becoming more savvy.

6 The competition among soft drink bottlers in India is fierce
The competition among soft drink bottlers in India is fierce. Coca-Cola has purchased Thums Up, a prominent local brand—this is a strategy the company is applying around the world. But the red is a substantial competitive advantage both on store shelves and in outdoor advertising of the sort common in India and other developing countries. We’re not sure who borrowed the “monsoon/thunder” slogans from whom. 12-6

7 Global Marketing Management
The debate about standardization versus adaptation is an example of ethnocentrism in the U.S. As global markets homogenize and diversify simultaneously, the best companies will avoid focusing on country as the primary segmentation variable Other segmentation variables are often more important—for example, climate, language group, media habits, age, or income Global markets continue to become homogenous, savvy companies focus on a common set of variables such as climate or language rather than looking at each country market separately. A case in point is the diversity in the Chinese market and the importance of marketing to different regions differently. Hong Kong and Shanghai may be more similar consumer markets (cosmopolitan) than Shanghai and Guangzhou in Southern China.

8 The Nestlé Way: Evolution Not Revolution
The “Nestlé way” is to dominate its markets Its overall strategy can be summarized in four points: Think and plan long term Decentralize Stick to what you know Adapt to local tastes Nestle has been very successful in entering foreign markets with its sound marketing strategies.

9 Benefits of Global Marketing
Economies of scale in production and marketing Transfer of experience and know-how across countries Global diversity in marketing talent leading to new approaches Marketing globally ensures that marketers have access to the toughest customers Spreading the portfolio of markets brings stability of revenues and operations to many global companies Economies of Scale: Black & Decker Manufacturing Company—makers of electrical hand tools, appliances, and other consumer products—realized significant production cost savings when it adopted a pan-European strategy. It was able to reduce not only the number of motor sizes for the European market from 260 to 8 but also 15 different models. Similarly, Ford estimates that by unifying product development, purchasing, and supply activities across several countries, it saves more than $3 billion a year. While Japanese firms initially dominated the mobile phone business in their home market, international competitors now pose growing challenges via better technologies developed through greater global penetration. Transfer of experience and know-how across countries: Unilever successfully introduced two global brands originally developed by two subsidiaries. Its South African subsidiary developed Impulse body spray, and a European branch developed a detergent that cleaned effectively in European hard water. Aluminum Company of America’s (Alcoa) joint venture partner in Japan produced aluminum sheets so perfect thatU.S. workers, when shown samples, accused the company of hand-selecting the samples. Line workers were sent to the Japanese plant to learn the techniques, which were then transferred to the U.S. operations. Access to the toughest customers : For example, in many product and service categories, the Japanese consumer has been the hardest to please; the demanding customers are the reason that the highest-quality products and services often emanate from that country. Competing for Japanese customers provides firms with the best testing ground for high-quality products and services. Stability of revenues: Firms that market globally are able to take advantage of changing financial circumstances. For example, as tax and tariff rates ebb and flow around the world, the most global companies are able to leverage the associated complexity to their advantage.

10 Planning for Global Markets
Planning is a systematized way of relating to the future It is a commitment of resources to a country market to achieve specific goals It allows for rapid growth of the international function and the challenges of different national markets International corporate planning is essentially long term incorporating generalized goals for the enterprise as a whole Strategic planning deals with products, capital, research, and the long- and short-term goals of the company Tactical planning , or market planning, pertains to specific actions and to the allocation of resources to implement goals

11 Company Objectives and Resources
Foreign market opportunities do not always parallel corporate objectives and resources It may be necessary to change the objectives, alter the scale of international plans, or abandon them One market may offer immediate profit but have a poor long-run outlook, while another may offer the reverse. Only when corporate objectives are clear can such differences be reconciled effectively Defining Corporate Objectives is critical, as well as matching resources to foreign market opportunities or vice versa. For example P&G’s Vicks Vaporub was a strong brand, P&G took advantage of a variety of opportunities and uses for the product. In India, the monsoon season caused an onset of the cold and flu season, P&G learned it could come up with multiple uses for it’s Vicks Vaporub brand (Balm, vaporizer, etc.).

12 International Commitment
Management needs to be prepared to make the level of commitment required for successful international operations Commitment affects the specific international strategies and decisions of the firm A long-term marketing plan should have realistic time goals set for sales growth There is a strong regional preference for multinational companies as they expand their operations Competition and the ease of communications is forcing managers to make commitments to global marketing Management Commitment is commitment in terms of dollars to be invested, personnel for managing the international organization, and determination to stay in the market long enough to realize a return on these investments. Long-term commitment means a company uncertain of its prospects is likely to enter a market timidly, using inefficient marketing methods, channels, or organizational forms, sets itself up for failure. Occasionally, casual market entry is successful, but more often than not, market success requires long-term commitment. Regional preference refers to the preference to deal with companies in the regions that are culturally similar, are in the same time zone and physically close to each other. Most countries and companies trade most with their neighbors. Global Marketing Although there is a strong regional preference, and multinational marketing agreements and trading blocs start out regionally with geographic proximity being a primary determinant, competition and ease of communications is forcing firms to commit to global marketing.

13 Whether a company is marketing in several countries or is entering a foreign market for the first time, planning is essential to success. The first-time foreign marketer must decide what products to develop, in which markets, and with what level of resource commitment. For the company that is already committed, the key decisions involve allocating effort and resources among countries and product(s), deciding on new market segments to develop or old ones to withdraw from, and determining which products to develop or drop. 12-13

14 Phase 1: Preliminary Analysis and Screening
A critical first step in the planning process is deciding in which existing country market to make a market investment A company’s strengths and weaknesses, products, philosophies, modes of operation, and objectives must be matched with a country’s qualities First, countries are analyzed and screened to eliminate those that do not offer sufficient potential for further consideration Second, screening criteria are established against which prospective countries can be evaluated Third, a complete analysis of the environment within which a company plans to operate is made Emerging markets pose a special problem because many have inadequate marketing infrastructures, distribution channels are underdeveloped, and income levels and distribution vary among countries. Screening criteria are ascertained by an analysis of company objectives, resources, and other corporate capabilities and limitations. Once the screening is done, a complete environmental analysis is done which includes a detailed examination of controllable and uncontrollable elements both in the home and host countries. This helps in determining which parts of the marketing mix can be standardized and which parts need to be adapted. The results of Phase 1 provide the marketer with the basic information necessary to evaluate the potential of a proposed country market. Radio Shack’s early attempts at international marketing in western Europe resulted in a series of costly mistakes that could have been avoided had it properly analyzed the uncontrollable elements of the countries targeted. The company staged its first Christmas promotion in anticipation of December 25 in Holland, unaware that the Dutch celebrate St. Nicholas Day and give gifts on December 6.

15 Phase 2: Defining Target Markets and Adapting the Marketing Mix
A more detailed examination of the components of the marketing mix is the purpose of Phase 2 The primary goal of Phase 2 is to decide on a marketing mix adjusted to the cultural constraints imposed by the uncontrollable elements of the environment that effectively achieves corporate objectives and goals The answers to three major questions are generated in Phase 2: Are there identifiable market segments that allow for common marketing mix tactics across countries? Which cultural/environmental adaptations are necessary for successful acceptance of the marketing mix? Will adaptation costs allow profitable market entry? The process used by the Nestlé Company is an example of the type of analysis done in Phase 2. Each product manager has a country fact book that includes much of the information suggested in Phase 1. The country fact book analyzes in detail a variety of culturally related questions. Frequently, the results of the analysis in Phase 2 indicate that the marketing mix will require such drastic adaptation that a decision not to enter a particular market is made. For example, a product may have to be packaged differently or in smaller sizes to adapt to a country market, but the additional manufacturing cost of doing this may be too high to justify market entry. This is what happened to Haagen Daaz in Japan and they exited the market.

16 Phase 3: Developing the Marketing Plan
A marketing plan is developed for the target market—whether it is a single country or a global market set The marketing plan begins with a situation analysis and culminates in the selection of an entry mode and a specific action program for the market The specific plan establishes what is to be done, by whom, how it is to be done, and when. Included are budgets and sales and profit expectations Just as in Phase 2, if the needs of the market does not match company objectives and resources, a decision may be made not to enter the market.

17 Phase 4: Implementation and Control
The planning process is a dynamic, continuous set of interacting variables with information continuously building among phases An evaluation and control system requires performance-objective action; bringing the plan back on track should standards of performance fall short The system encourages the decision maker to consider all variables that affect the success of a company’s plan It provides the basis for viewing all country markets and their interrelationships as an integrated global unit Basically, this phase provides guidelines to develop timelines and benchmarks for different stages of the planning process. It also allows the firm to take a comprehensive view of all its international markets.

18 Alternative Market-Entry Strategies
A company has four different modes of foreign market entry from which to select: exporting, contractual agreements, strategic alliances, and direct foreign investment The amount of equity required by the company to use different modes affects the risk, return, and control that it will have in each mode

19 Exhibit 12.2 Alternative Market-Entry Strategies
Companies most often begin with modest export involvement. As sales revenues grow, the firms often proceed down through the series of steps listed in Exhibit Exhibit 12.2 Alternative Market-Entry Strategies 12-19

20 Exporting Exporting accounts for some 10 percent of global economic activity. Exporting can be either direct or indirect: With direct exporting , the company sells to a customer in another country With indirect exporting usually means that the company sells to a buyer (importer or distributor) in the home country, which in turn exports the product Direct Exporting This method is the most common approach employed by companies taking their first international step because the risks of financial loss can be minimized Indirect Exporting Indirect exporting can be done through large retailers such as Walmart or Sears, wholesale supply houses, trading companies, and others that buy to supply customers abroad. Early motives for exporting often are to skim the cream from the market or gain business to absorb overhead. Early involvement in exporting may also come from unexpected opportunities that present themselves to firms. An example is a hot sauce manufacturing company in California that received an inquiry from the Middle East and this spurred its exporting business. Exporting is also a common approach for mature international companies with strong marketing and relational capabilities. Some of America’s largest companies engage in exporting as their major market-entry method (Boeing is an example).

21 Exporting The Internet Direct Sales
The Internet is becoming increasingly important as a foreign market entry method Should not be overlooked as an alternative market entry strategy by the small or large company Direct Sales A direct sales force may be required particularly for high-technology and big ticket industrial products It may mean establishing an office with local and/or expatriate managers and staff, depending of course on the size of the market and potential sales revenues.

22 Contractual Agreements
Contractual agreements are long-term, non equity associations between a company and another in a foreign market. Contractual agreements generally involve the transfer of technology, processes, trademarks, and/or human skills. In short, they serve as a means of transfer of knowledge rather than equity.

23 Contractual Agreements
Contractual agreements are long-term, non equity associations between a company and another in a foreign market Contractual agreements involve the transfer of technology, processes, trademarks, and/or human skills. They serve as a means of transfer of knowledge rather than equity

24 Contractual Agreements: Licensing
Licensing is a means of establishing in foreign markets without large capital outlays Includes patent rights, trademark rights, and the rights to use technological processes It is a favorite strategy for small and medium sized companies. Common examples of industries that use licensing arrangements in foreign markets are television programming and pharmaceuticals.

25 Contractual Agreements: Licensing
Advantages capital is scarce import restrictions forbid other means of entry a country is sensitive to foreign ownership or patents and trademarks must be protected against cancellation for nonuse. Risks choosing the wrong partner quality and other production problems payment problems contract enforcement and loss of marketing control 12-25

26 Contractual Agreements: Franchising
Franchising is a rapidly growing form of licensing The franchiser provides a standard package of products, systems, and management services, and the franchisee provides market knowledge, capital, and personal involvement in management The combination of skills permits flexibility in dealing with local market conditions and yet provides the parent firm with a reasonable degree of control. The franchiser can follow through on marketing of the products to the point of final sale It is an important form of vertical market integration

27 Contractual Agreements: Franchising
The franchise system provides an effective blending of skill centralization and operational decentralization In spite of the economic downturn, franchising is still expected to be the fastest growing market-entry strategy Franchises were often among the first types of foreign retail business to open in the emerging market economies of eastern Europe, the former republics of Russia, and China The franchising system combines the knowledge of the franchiser with the local knowledge and entrepreneurial spirit of the franchisee McDonald’s is an excellent example of how it entered difficult to enter markets like Russia when it was part of the former USSR and more recently the Indian market. Foreign laws and regulations are friendly toward franchising because it tends to foster local ownership, operations, and employment. In spite of the advantages associated with franchising, there are cost associated with it that the firm must be cognizant of.

28 Strategic International Alliances (SIAs)
A strategic international alliance (SIA) is a business relationship established by two or more companies to cooperate out of mutual need and to share risk in achieving a common objective Strategic international alliances are sought as a way to shore up weaknesses and increase competitive strengths; complementarity is key. Firms enter into SIAs for several reasons: opportunities for rapid expansion into new markets access to new technology more efficient production and innovation reduced marketing costs strategic competitive moves and access to additional sources of products and capital. SIAs often contribute to profits. Among some of the more prominent SIAs are Nokia (Finland)/ATT, Alibaba (China)/Microsoft, Tata (India)/Starbucks, and Renault (France)/Nissan (Japan). But perhaps the most visible SIAs are now in the airline industry, the more recent being United and Continental and Delta and Northwest/KLM, where they become partners in and alliance like the Star Alliance or Skyteam, which integrate schedules and mileage programs. The success of the airline alliances is in the fact that the two airlines usually although in the same business have dominance in different world markets, they have complementary strengths. Many companies also are entering SIAs to be in a strategic position to be competitive and to benefit from the expected growth in the single European market.

29 As international strategic alliances have grown in importance, more emphasis has been placed on a systematic approach to forming them. The steps outlined in Exhibit 12.3 will lead to successful and high-performance strategic alliances. 12-29

30 Strategic International Alliances: International Joint Ventures (IJVs)
A joint venture is different from other types of strategic alliances or collaborative relationships in that a joint venture is a partnership of two or more participating companies that have joined forces to create a separate legal entity. Four characteristics define joint ventures: JVs are established, separate, legal entities they acknowledge intent by the partners to share in the management of the JV they are partnerships between legally incorporated entities and not between individuals and equity positions are held by each of the partners The reason IJVs are popular is to partner with a local company to get around the rules, regulations and tariffs that foreign companies may be subject to. This is the most common reason for foreign companies to IJVs in countries like China and South Korea.

31 Strategic International Alliances: Consortia
Consortia are similar to joint ventures and except for two unique characteristics: they typically involve a large number of participants they frequently operate in a country or market in which none of the participants is currently active Consortia are developed to pool financial and managerial resources and to lessen risks One firm usually acts as the lead firm, or the newly formed corporation may exist independently of its originators Huge construction projects are often built under a consortium arrangement in which major contractors with different specialties form a separate company specifically to negotiate for and produce one job. All strategic international alliances are susceptible to problems of coordination, the failure of AUTOLINA a strategic alliance/IJV between BMW and Ford to operate in the Latin American market is a classic example.

32 Direct Foreign Investment
Direct foreign investment is direct investment within a foreign country Companies may invest locally to: capitalize on low cost labor avoid high import taxes reduce the high costs of transportation to market gain access to raw materials and technology or as a means of gaining market entry Firms may either invest in or buy local companies or establish new operations facilities

33 Direct Foreign Investment
Several factors have been found to influence the structure and performance of direct investments: timing—first movers have advantages but are more risky the growing complexity and contingencies of contracts transaction cost structures technology and knowledge transfer degree of product differentiation the previous experiences and cultural diversity of acquired firms advertising and reputation barriers In spite of the many barriers such as tariffs in entering foreign markets, many large multinationals are now preferring to enter a market directly, even though they have to deal with the bureaucracies in the foreign country. The growth of free trade areas has helped helps with direct investment strategies for companies as they now have to operate in multiple countries in the region. Nestlé's strategy is often buying out popular local brands and direct foreign market entry provided by such acquisitions.

34 Organizing for Global Competition
Companies are usually structured around one of three alternatives global product divisions responsible for product sales throughout the world geographical divisions responsible for all products and functions within a given geographical area a matrix organization consisting of either of these arrangements with centralized sales and marketing run by a centralized functional staff, or a combination of area operations and global product management Global product division structures are usually used by companies experiencing rapid growth and have broad, diverse product lines. General Electric, NBC Universal. Geographic structures work best when a close relationship with national and local governments is important Matrix form is the most extensive of the three organizational structures. It is popular with companies as they reorganize for global competition. A matrix structure permits management to respond to the conflicts that arise among functional activity, product, and geography. It is designed to encourage sharing of experience, resources, expertise, technology, and information among global business units.

35 12-35

36 Locus of Decision Relates to where decisions will be made, by whom, and by which method Management policy must be explicit about which decisions are to be made at which level Most companies limit the amount of money to be spent at each level Decision levels for determination of policy, strategy, and tactical decisions must be established Tactical decisions are usually made at the lowest possible level It is important to specify which decisions will be made at headquarters and which will be made at regional or local levels.

37 Centralized versus Decentralized Organizations
Organizational patterns for the headquarters’ activities of multinational firms usually fit into one of three categories: Centralized Regionalized Decentralized The advantages of centralization are: the availability of experts at one location the ability to exercise a high degree of control on both the planning and implementation phases the centralization of all records and information There are advantages and disadvantages of the various types of organizational structures.

38 Centralized vs. Decentralized Organizations
Some companies implement extreme decentralization by giving selecting competent local managers full responsibility for national or regional operations Even though product decisions may be highly centralized, subsidiaries may have a substantial amount of local influence in pricing, advertising, and distribution decisions If a product is culturally sensitive, the decisions are more likely to be decentralized Even though the formal organizational structure may be centralized or decentralized, the informal decision making structure may dictate how a firm operates globally.

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