Unicameral legislature where each state had one vote. CouldCould not Make laws- Tax Control military- Enforce laws Organize treaties- Regulate trade Establish national courts - Control money supply Federal system: Power is divided between national and state governments.
Ordinance of 1785 Divided the land into townships and allowed Congress to raise money by selling the land to settlers. Northwest Ordinance Laid the basis for the organization of new territorial governments and set a precedent for the method of admitting new states to the Union. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin
The Articles proved to be too weak for the country. Shay’s rebellion: A group of farmers in Massachusetts were in debt because of heavy state taxes. 1200 rebelled but were defeated.rebellion Showed the founders of our government that a stronger central government was needed.
May 25, 1787 55 delegates from 12 states met in Philadelphia. The purpose of the meeting was to revise the Articles of Confederation. The delegates agreed on four things: 1. Throw out the articles. 2. Each state had one vote regardless of the amount of delegates. 3. Keep it secret for 25 years. 4. George Washington would be in charge.
VirginiaJames Madison 1. Bicameral legislature based on population. 2. Strong Executive Branch 3. National Court System New JerseyWilliam Patterson 1. Unicameral legislature with equal representation. 2. Strong Executive Branch 3. National Court system ConnecticutRoger Sherman 1. Bicameral legislature: Upper house equal and lower house based on population. 2. Strong Executive Branch 3. National Court system
CompromiseDetails Great Compromise Bicameral legislature Upper: Equal (Senate) Lower: Based on population (House of Rep) Three-FifthsOne slave equals three-fifths of a person for the purposes of taxation and representation. Slave trade and commerce Congress can control all aspects of foreign and interstate trade, but they can not stop the slave trade until it is re-addressed in twenty years. ExecutiveThe Executive branch will be lead by one individual called “President” and will be elected every four years by the Electoral College (that is their sole purpose)
Nine out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution. It was signed by the delegates on September 17, 1787. Federalists supported the Constitution. They wrote a series of essays called the Federalist papers that were published in newspapers across the country. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay were the writers defending the Constitution. Anti-federalists were those that opposed the Constitution. They felt that too much power was given to the National government. They wanted a bill of rights. June 21, 1788 New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution. Rhode Island was the 13th state to ratify it in 1790.
Supreme law of the land. Provides the framework for government in the United States. All powers of each branch of government are in the Constitution.
Constitution PreamblePreamble – an introduction that states the goals and purposes of the government. “ We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” 6 Purposes 1. To unite 2. To create equality 3. To maintain peace 4. To provide defense 5. To promote healthy and happy life 6. To guarantee basic rights of all citizens (present and future)
1. Preamble 2. Seven Articles: I. Legislative Branch II. Executive Branch III. Judicial Branch IV. Relations among states V. Amending process VI. National Supremacy VII. Ratification process 3. Twenty-seven amendments
The powers of the government are divided into three branches: (Rock Paper Scissors) Legislative: Congress-Make laws (House of Reps. And Senate) Executive: President. Enforce laws. Judicial: Supreme Court. Interpret laws. The system of checks and balances keeps one branch of government from becoming too powerful.
The Constitution was designed on four basic principles: Popular Sovereignty Limited Government Federalism Separation of powers
The right of the people to rule themselves (vote). Voters elect representatives and through the Electoral College, they elect a president. The president and representatives are there to serve the people.
A danger is that the majority may deny rights to the minority. The Constitution protects the rights of all Americans. The Bill of Rights was added later to secure the rights of the people.Rights
Montesquieu believed that executive, legislative, and judicial powers should be separated. The constitution separates powers and incorporates a system of checks and balances.
National government shares power with the states. This gives Americans freedom to provide for their own needs. The main reason is sectional differences.
Types of Power: Enumerated: Powers given to the national government. Can be expressed or implied (Elastic clause). Reserved: Powers given to the state governments. Concurrent: Powers shared between national and state.
Process to formally change the Constitution. An amendment must be proposed and ratified. An amendment can be proposed by a 2/3 vote from both houses of Congress or by a national convention called by 2/3 of the state legislatures. The national convention has never occurred. An amendment can be ratified by the approval of ¾ of the state legislatures or by special ratifying conventions that pass in ¾ of the states. The ratifying convention has occurred only once.
Loose interpretation: Congress can make any law that the constitution does not specifically forbid Strict interpretation: Congress can only make laws that the constitution gives them direct authority over. The Supreme Court interprets the constitution and can declare laws unconstitutional.
Writing Prompt What was the biggest obstacle the delegates faced when getting the Constitution approved? How did Federalists and Anti-Federalists view the role of the federal government differently, and how did they feel about the Constitution as a result? Please write legibly. There are several detailed questions in the prompt, all must be addressed.
Writing Prompt: In your own words answer the following: What does it mean to say that governments derive their power from the “consent of the governed,” and how did belief in this principle help justify the American Revolution and our independence? Please write legibly. There are several detailed questions in the prompt, all must be addressed.