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 Objectives  Identify the causes of WWI  Describe the course and character of the war  Explain why the US entered the conflict on the side of the.

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Presentation on theme: " Objectives  Identify the causes of WWI  Describe the course and character of the war  Explain why the US entered the conflict on the side of the."— Presentation transcript:


2  Objectives  Identify the causes of WWI  Describe the course and character of the war  Explain why the US entered the conflict on the side of the Allies

3  Nationalism and Imperialism  Europe-belief that nations should have one ethnic group ▪ France-wanted to regain Alsace-Lorraine from Germany ▪ Serbia wanted area of Austria-Hungary where Serbs lived ▪ Economic goals

4  Militarism  Glorification of the military  Arms race-Germany building HUGE army and weapons. Britain-largest navy  Alliances  Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy  Triple Entente: France, Russia, Great Britain

5  Assassination  June 14 th 1914-Archduke Francis Ferdinand traveling with wife to Sarajevo (province of Bosnia)  Group of ethnic Serbs believed Bosnia belonged to Serbia  Shot dead with wife in car

6  Alliances cause chain reaction  Germany assures Austria-Hungary of support  Austria-Hungary sends ultimatum to Serbia demanding investigation of assassination or war ▪ Serbia does not comply-Austria-Hungary declares war


8 Russia mobilizes for war Germany declares war on Russia France declares war on Germany Germany declares war on neural Belgium (access to France) Great Britain declares war on Germany

9  Germany takes Belgium and moved into France  Dug trenches and used machine guns  France and Britain counterattack  450 miles of trenches from Belgium to Switzerland=Western Front  Extremely deadly war-poison gas  Stalemate-ineffective offensives and effective defenses

10  “trench foot”, lice, constant fear  “no man’s land” between enemy trenches  Casualties- millions!

11  At first-American view was neutral or isolationist  Immigrants conflicted in feeling of loyalty  German invasion of Belgium changed minds  3 groups:  Isolationist  Interventionist  internationalist

12  Britain blockades Germany of essential goods  Germany responds by sinking ships with U- boats  Sunk British passenger ship Lusitania  Again-French passenger ship Sussex  1915-Wilson starts preparing for war  National Defense Act  Naval Construction Act

13  Wilson wins re-election  Jan. 1917 Zimmerman Note  Germany sent to Mexico asking for alliance  If U.S. declares war on Germany, Mexico declares war on U.S.  In return-Mexico would get Texas, New Mexico and Arizona back  U.S. declares war April 16, 1917

14  Objectives:  Analyze how the American government mobilized the public to support the war effort  Describe opposition to the war  Outline significant social changes that occurred during the war

15  Selective Service Act  1917-authorized a draft for military service  Gov. held “great national lottery”  Peace time to war time economy  Gov. determined what crops were grown, what products were produced, etc  WIB-War Industry Board ▪ Bernard Baruch ▪ Regulated all industries engaged in war effort  Conservation of food

16  Public opinion  Committee on Public Information (CPI)-convince public the war was just ▪ George Creel-director

17  Resistance to the Draft  People refused to cooperate-put in jail  Conscientious objectors-moral or religious beliefs forbid them to fight in war  Women work for peace  1 st woman in the House voted against war  Many feminists opposed

18  Espionage Act 1917  Allowed postal authorities to ban treasonable newspapers, magazines, or printed material, from the mail  Sedition Act 1918  Unlawful to use disloyal or profane language about the government  Upheld by Schneck v. United States

19  Prejudice Against German Americans  Stopped teaching German in schools, playing German music  Asked German Americans to prove loyalty

20  Women  Entered workforce when men left for war  Helped them win the right to vote. Backed by Pres. Wilson  African Americans  Great Migration ▪ Left homes in the South and moved North  Mexican Americans  Came to the US for work  Lived in barrios

21  Objectives  Understand how the United States military contributed to the Allied victory in the war  Describe the aims of the 14 Points  Analyze the decisions made at the Paris Peace Conference  Explain why the United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty ending WWI





26  Protect Shipping  Convoys-groups of merchant ships sailing together, protected by warships  Russia Struggling  Revolution-new radical communist leader Vladimir Lenin  Drop out of war March 1918  Germany launches all-out offensive on Western Front

27  American troops arrive in France June 1917  General John Pershing  Ended German offensive  U.S. troops distinguish themselves  Fought many battles with French-dislodged the Germans  1.3 million served, 50,000 dead, 230,000 wounded



30  War ends  American troops give Allies the advantage  End of 1918, Germany and Austria-Hungary had enough….Surrendered Nov. 11, 1918 Compiegne, France


32  Lenin exposed multiple land treaties Russia had with other Allies  Wilson said war was about “peace and freedom”  Jan. 1918- 14 Points ▪ Promotes openness, independence, freedom ▪ Self-determination ▪ League of Nations


34  1919 Peace conference in Versailles, France  Did not invite Republicans, made them angry!  British and French Prime Ministers wanted Germany to pay reparations and France wanted land back  Allies didn’t like all of the 14 points-Kept the League of Nations


36  New map caused problems  Ottoman Empire broken up-ethnic groups divided

37  German and Irish Americans didn’t like it  Irreconcilables  Reservationists  Wilson traveled across country promoting  Senate defeats treaty  Without full American support, League failed




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