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Ch. 10 WW1.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 10 WW1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 10 WW1

2 10.1 From Neutrality to War Objectives Identify the causes of WWI
Describe the course and character of the war Explain why the US entered the conflict on the side of the Allies

3 Causes Nationalism and Imperialism
Europe-belief that nations should have one ethnic group France-wanted to regain Alsace-Lorraine from Germany Serbia wanted area of Austria-Hungary where Serbs lived Economic goals

4 Causes Cont. Militarism Alliances Glorification of the military
Arms race-Germany building HUGE army and weapons. Britain-largest navy Alliances Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Triple Entente: France, Russia, Great Britain

5 Causes Cont. Assassination
June 14th 1914-Archduke Francis Ferdinand traveling with wife to Sarajevo (province of Bosnia) Group of ethnic Serbs believed Bosnia belonged to Serbia Shot dead with wife in car

6 The Fighting Begins Alliances cause chain reaction
Germany assures Austria-Hungary of support Austria-Hungary sends ultimatum to Serbia demanding investigation of assassination or war Serbia does not comply-Austria-Hungary declares war


8 Chain Reaction Russia mobilizes for war Germany declares war on Russia France declares war on Germany Germany declares war on neural Belgium (access to France) Great Britain declares war on Germany

9 Technology leads to Stalemate
Germany takes Belgium and moved into France Dug trenches and used machine guns France and Britain counterattack 450 miles of trenches from Belgium to Switzerland=Western Front Extremely deadly war-poison gas Stalemate-ineffective offensives and effective defenses

10 Trench Warfare “trench foot”, lice, constant fear
“no man’s land” between enemy trenches Casualties- millions!

11 Wilson Urges Neutrality
At first-American view was neutral or isolationist Immigrants conflicted in feeling of loyalty German invasion of Belgium changed minds 3 groups: Isolationist Interventionist internationalist

12 America Enters War Britain blockades Germany of essential goods
Germany responds by sinking ships with U-boats Sunk British passenger ship Lusitania Again-French passenger ship Sussex 1915-Wilson starts preparing for war National Defense Act Naval Construction Act

13 Cont. Wilson wins re-election Jan. 1917 Zimmerman Note
Germany sent to Mexico asking for alliance If U.S. declares war on Germany, Mexico declares war on U.S. In return-Mexico would get Texas, New Mexico and Arizona back U.S. declares war April 16, 1917

14 10.2 The Home Front Objectives:
Analyze how the American government mobilized the public to support the war effort Describe opposition to the war Outline significant social changes that occurred during the war

15 America Mobilizes for War
Selective Service Act 1917-authorized a draft for military service Gov. held “great national lottery” Peace time to war time economy Gov. determined what crops were grown, what products were produced, etc WIB-War Industry Board Bernard Baruch Regulated all industries engaged in war effort Conservation of food

16 Cont. Public opinion Committee on Public Information (CPI)-convince public the war was just George Creel-director

17 Opposition and its Consequences
Resistance to the Draft People refused to cooperate-put in jail Conscientious objectors-moral or religious beliefs forbid them to fight in war Women work for peace 1st woman in the House voted against war Many feminists opposed

18 Cont. Espionage Act 1917 Sedition Act 1918
Allowed postal authorities to ban treasonable newspapers, magazines, or printed material, from the mail Sedition Act 1918 Unlawful to use disloyal or profane language about the government Upheld by Schneck v. United States

19 Cont. Prejudice Against German Americans
Stopped teaching German in schools, playing German music Asked German Americans to prove loyalty

20 War Changes American Society
Women Entered workforce when men left for war Helped them win the right to vote. Backed by Pres. Wilson African Americans Great Migration Left homes in the South and moved North Mexican Americans Came to the US for work Lived in barrios

21 10.3 Wilson, War, and Peace Objectives
Understand how the United States military contributed to the Allied victory in the war Describe the aims of the 14 Points Analyze the decisions made at the Paris Peace Conference Explain why the United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty ending WWI

22 The government relied extensively on emotional appeals and hate propaganda to rally support for the First World War, which most Americans regarded as a distant “European” affair. This poster used gendered imagery to evoke the brutal German violation of Belgian neutrality in August 1914

23 Worried about the public’s enthusiasm for the war, the government employed all the arts of psychology and propaganda to sustain the martial spirit. The prewar song “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier” was changed to “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Slacker,” which in turn inspired the cruel parody “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Sausage.”

24 Liberty hound


26 America Gives the Allies the Edge
Protect Shipping Convoys-groups of merchant ships sailing together, protected by warships Russia Struggling Revolution-new radical communist leader Vladimir Lenin Drop out of war March 1918 Germany launches all-out offensive on Western Front

27 Cont. American troops arrive in France June 1917
General John Pershing Ended German offensive U.S. troops distinguish themselves Fought many battles with French-dislodged the Germans 1.3 million served, 50,000 dead, 230,000 wounded


29 The noted artist captures the horror of trench warfare in World War I
The noted artist captures the horror of trench warfare in World War I. The enemy was often distant and unseen, and death came impersonally from gas or artillery fire. American troops, entering the line only in the war’s final days, were only briefly exposed to this kind of brutal fighting.

30 Cont. War ends American troops give Allies the advantage
End of 1918, Germany and Austria-Hungary had enough….Surrendered Nov. 11, 1918 Compiegne, France

31 Approximate Comparative Losses in World War I

32 Wilson Promotes Peace Without Victory
Lenin exposed multiple land treaties Russia had with other Allies Wilson said war was about “peace and freedom” Jan Points Promotes openness, independence, freedom Self-determination League of Nations

33 A prophetic reflection of the view that the failure to smash Germany completely would lead to another world war.

34 Cont. 1919 Peace conference in Versailles, France
Did not invite Republicans, made them angry! British and French Prime Ministers wanted Germany to pay reparations and France wanted land back Allies didn’t like all of the 14 points-Kept the League of Nations

35 Wilson in Dover, England, 1919

36 Problems with Peace New map caused problems
Ottoman Empire broken up-ethnic groups divided

37 America Rejects the Treaty
German and Irish Americans didn’t like it Irreconcilables Reservationists Wilson traveled across country promoting Senate defeats treaty Without full American support, League failed




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