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The woman in blue, toward the right, is Madame Geoffrin, the host of this salon, or informal gathering of thinkers. People attending salons shared their.

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Presentation on theme: "The woman in blue, toward the right, is Madame Geoffrin, the host of this salon, or informal gathering of thinkers. People attending salons shared their."— Presentation transcript:

1 The woman in blue, toward the right, is Madame Geoffrin, the host of this salon, or informal gathering of thinkers. People attending salons shared their thoughts on such topics as government, society, art and religion, which helped spread their ideas.


3  Monarchy – rule by a king or queen.  Absolute Monarchy – when a king or queen has unlimited power. o Divine right of kings – the belief that a king/queen’s power comes from God.  Constitutional Monarchy – a form of government in which the king/queen is limited by a basic set of laws or a constitution.

4 Enlightenment (Age of Reason) Scientific Revolution Exploration Reformation Renaissance Classical & Christian Influences Enlightenment thinkers were inspired by classic cultures (Ancient Greece & Rome). What types of government did they have? This is when people first started questioning accepted beliefs. (Humanists) Protestants rebelled against the Catholic Church. Explorers questioned accepted ideas. Example? Like scientists, Enlightenment thinkers placed their trust in reason & observation as the best way to understanding the natural world Enlightenment thinkers also questioned accepted ideas about government like the divine right of kings

5  Enlightenment – refers to a change in the outlook among many educated Europeans.  Began in the 1600’s and grew out of the Scientific Revolution  This movement put a great emphasis on reason.  Reason – the ability to think logically about something.  These thinkers (or philosophers) of the enlightenment wanted to examine human life by using reason.

6  The enlightenment thinkers were inspired by the example of scientists such as Galileo & Newton. o These scientists used observation and logic to understand the physical world o The thinkers of the enlightenment wanted to use observation and reason to approach problems in human life especially problems dealing with government

7  Thinkers/Philosophers gathered in informal meetings called salons where they debated and exchanged ideas.  Many salons were organized by women.

8 DDuring the 1700’s women didn’t enjoy the same rights or status as men. MMadame Geoffrin oPoPromoted salons oToThe brightest talents of Europe during the 1700’s came to her home oSoSponsored a group of men who wrote the 1 st Encyclopedia AAbigail Adams oWoWife of John Adams oSoShe reminded her husband to ‘remember the ladies’ when writing the laws of government for the U.S. OOlympe de Gouges oFoFrench woman during the French Revolution oWoWriter & social reformer oAoArgued women’s equality with men. MMary Wollstonecraft oEoEnglish oBoBelieved women deserved the same rights as men oBoBelieved education was the key oCoCalled for reforms to give women the same education as men

9  The leaders of the American Revolution were avid readers of Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Beccaria  They applied their ideas when writing the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.


11  Born in 1588  Wrote Leviathon  He tried to give a rational basis for absolute monarchy  His thinking about society was greatly influenced by events in England during the 1600’s  The Civil War in England between supporters of the monarchy and Parliament broke out in 1642 o Sided with the King but he was beheaded and Parliament ruled but people still disorderly and unhappy  He thought people were naturally cruel, selfish, and greedy and are power hungry which would cause life to be “nasty, brutish and short”.  He favored an absolute monarchy to maintain order  He was the first thinker to apply tools of the Scientific Revolution to politics


13  Born in 1632  Wrote Two Treatises of Government justifying Parliament  The Magna Carta was written in 1215 and established the idea of rights and liberties that the king had to respect (rule of law)  Parliament became the main check to the king’s power  The English Bill of Rights strengthened Parliament as the representative of the people (representative government) o Forbid the king from keeping a standing army during peacetime, levying taxes without consent, protected from excessive fines and “cruel and unusual punishment”

14  Locke denied the divine right of kings rule  Believed the true basis of government is a social contract among free people o Social contract: an agreement in which people give up certain powers in return for the benefits of government  Said the purpose of government is to protect people’s natural rights o Natural rights: rights that belong to people “by nature” because they are human beings such as life, liberty and property  What document in U.S. History reflects these ideas?

15  AKA Charles-Louis de Secondat  Born in 1689  Wrote Persian Letters and The Spirit of Laws  He criticized French institutions, including the king’s court and the Catholic Church  Said the best way to protect political liberty was to divide power among three branches of government o a legislative branch, an executive branch, and a judicial branch  Separation of Powers: the division of powers among separate branches of government  Too much power in the hands of any one person or group leads to despotism (tyranny)  What document in U.S. history reflects his ideas?


17  AKA Francois-Mari Arouet  Born in 1694  Wrote Candide poking fun at the idea that a world made by God was “the best of all possible worlds”  Humorously, he attacked the French court and the power of the Catholic clergy  “Man’s most cherished right” is to be governed by law because he admired England’s constitutional monarchy and separation of powers  Voltaire was most concerned with religious tolerance and the freedom of speech o Religious strife was the main source of evil in the world  “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”

18  Born in 1738  Wrote On Crimes and Punishment  He pioneered criminology (the scientific study of crime and punishment)  In 1763 he began studying criminal law and the justice system  2 ways they tortured the accused to get a confession o Rack: stretched bodies until their bones separated o Thumbscrew: crushed their thumbs  He believed torture should be outlawed completely  What are 2 ways we see Beccaria’s ideas in our Constitution?


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