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ENGLISH LANGUAGE 1 – GRAMMAR.  The present simple and the present continuous tenses are the most common ways of expressing present time in English. 

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Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH LANGUAGE 1 – GRAMMAR.  The present simple and the present continuous tenses are the most common ways of expressing present time in English. "— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGLISH LANGUAGE 1 – GRAMMAR

2  The present simple and the present continuous tenses are the most common ways of expressing present time in English.  The present simple describes things that are generally true, while the present continuous describes things that are true at the time of speaking, but which may change.

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6  PS is used to talk about:  Permanent states: - I have a car. - She lives next door. - Smiths never relax. - I don’t like horror films.  Permanent actions – laws of nature, scientific facts, general truths… - The moon moves round the earth. - Stress causes high blood pressure. - Water freezes at 0 degrees. - British people drink a lot of tea. - Broken bones in adults don't heal as fast as they do in children.

7  Actions that repeat (including daily routines…): - He usually starts work at 8 am. - I often go to the seaside. - We sometimes sleep late. - They seldom take a vacation. - The Blairs take their summer holiday in a quiet part of Tuscany. - Our two chefs provide an excellent choice of hot meals every day.

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9  With timetables, schedules, programmes: - The bus leaves at The ferry arrives at 3 pm. - The film starts at 8 pm. - On day 1 we visit the castle and on day 2 we go to the beach. After that you have some time off.

10  to describe a series of events or actions (e.g. to give directions or instructions, sports commentaries…), often with impersonal you: - From here you cross the road, go through an iron gate and follow the path west... - France kicks off, Zidane passes to Henry, Henry cuts inside...

11  If we wish to give the events of a past narrative more immediacy (including anecdotes, plots and summaries of stories, novels, films), we can use the present simple, especially in speech and jokes (historic present): - There's an old woman with thick glasses and a name tag. I go up to her and ask... - May 1945: The war in Europe comes to an end. -...At the end of the play both families realise that their hatred caused the deaths of the lovers So then the second man asks the first one why he has a banana in his ear and the first one says...  In newspaper headlines: - Morrison gets two years of prison - Ship sinks in midnight collision.

12  With state verbs

13  An exception to the use of the present continuous to describe actions in progress is Here comes and There goes, which are always in the present simple: - Here comes the postman. - There goes the last bus.  Note the inversion of the verb and subject in these phrases.

14  We use performative verbs in the first person actually to perform an action, i.e. saying I apologise performs the action of apologising: - On behalf of the company, I apologise for any inconvenience caused.  When these verbs 'perform' the function they express, they do not usually take the continuous: - Railtrack apologises for the disruption to services over the last three months.  By saying this, the function of apologising is performed. However, if we use the verb to describe the action rather than to do it, we can use the continuous: - The Railtrack chief executive was apologising profusely for the inconvenience.  Common performative verbs are: accept, agree, apologise, congratulate, dec/are, deny, disagree, forbid, forgive, guarantee, insist, invite, order, predict, promise, recommend, refuse, request, suggest, thank, warn.

15  Also called the Present Progressive Tense.

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17  PC is used for:  Actions happening right now: - You are sitting and listening while I am talking. - Jerri isn’t doing her homework now.  Actions happening these days (around the moment of speaking): - We are studying in the U.S. this month. - Laura’s studying in France this year. - Are you studying hard these days? - She is practicing for her concert these days. - I am learning to drive.

18  For temporary actions: - I'm feeding the neighbour's cat this week while she's in hospital. - Graham's having a tough time at the office at the moment and he's smoking about fifty cigarettes a day!  With always, forever, constantly and continually to express annoyance or criticism: - You are always interrupting me! - You are forever making remarks about my cooking! - The neighbours are forever slamming doors and shouting during the night.  For fixed arrangements in near future: - He is flying to Milan in an hour. - She is going to Berlin next month.

19  For changing situations or developing actions: - It is getting dark. - More and more people are giving up smoking. - British summers are getting hotter and winters are getting wetter.

20  You may hear the present continuous used in sports commentaries, when the action is in progress throughout the time of speaking: - They're now entering the back straight and EI Garrouj is starting to pull away...(... but he crosses the line two seconds ahead of his closest rival...)

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23 Some verbs of feeling can be used in both the simple and the continuous with no change in meaning: - My wrist hurts/is hurting again. I must go to the physiotherapist. - think those shells may have been off. Do you feel/Are you feeling OK today?

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