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Presentation on theme: "GENDER, ISLAM AND WOMEN’S HUMAN RIGHTS"— Presentation transcript:


2 Outline of presentation
Overview: Gender Justice in Islam The status of Muslim Women Misconceptions Understanding the Muslim Woman Spiritual Aspect Economic Aspect Social Aspect Political Aspect

3 Overview: Gender Justice in islam

4 Classification of 3 Key Concepts of Islamic Teachings
Monotheism (Tawhid) Prophetic Mission Our Human Mission on earth (Khilafah) Source: Gender Justice in Islam.Nisa Ul-Haqq Fi Bangsamoro

5 Monotheism (Tawhid) To explore and come to a full understanding of the concept of monotheism: THERE IS NO OTHER GOD THAN ALLAH. Nothing can be on the same level as He. There is nothing which is as noble and deserves the same praise as He The basic equality that defines and exists between humans, equal rights and responsibilities Human excellence as measured in terms of one’s devotion The teaching of justice, humanity, solidarity, equality For first bullet: The responsibility of honouring Him are: Praying, fasting, giving alms, and the pilgrimage, social obligations in His honour Source: . Gender Justice in Islam.Nisa Ul-Haqq Fi Bangsamoro

6 Prophetic Mission Returning a favour, the respect for others, liberating ourselves from the shackles of ignorance and humiliation The teaching of love, respect for one’s elders (parents), care and empathy for orphans and people who are destitute, the prohibition of violence, etc. This also includes justice and empowerment to both males and females. Source:. Gender Justice in Islam.Nisa Ul-Haqq Fi Bangsamoro

7 Mission on earth Teaching about the earth’s wealth and fertility
Prosperity The political principle of benevolence The development of culture, science, and economics Social and political developments Taking care of earth’s natural resources Overall, these aim for equality and justice not just for all mankind but all natural resources that God bestowed. Source: Atty. Laisa Masuhud Alamia. Gender Justice in Islam.Nisa Ul-Haqq Fi Bangsamoro

8 the status of Muslim Women
Who is the Muslim woman? Does she have rights? Does gender equality really exist in Islam?

9 Misconceptions on Muslim Women
That men are the masters and women are the slaves That men are superior to women That men are allowed to beat women That one man equals two women That one male witness equals two female witnesses There are prevalent, and often deprecating stereotypes about Muslim women. Some of the most common misconceptions are: That men are the masters and women are the slaves; That men are superior to women; That men are allowed to beat women; That one man equals two women; That one male witness equals two female witnesses. Source: Barra, Hamid Aminoddin. Gender Equity in Islam. Philippine Council for Islam and Democracy

10 SPIRITUAL ASPECT Gender equality best exemplified through Adam and Eve. The Quran states that both sexes were deliberate and independent and there is no mention of Eve being created from. Both men and women alike are recipients of the "divine breath," because they are created with the same human spiritual nature. For 2nd bullet: Indeed, as the Qur'an states, Allah originated them both from a single person or "one soul" (nafsin-waahidah). But He fashioned him (the human, or insan) in due proportion and breathed into him something of His spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and understanding: Little thanks do you give!  (Qur'an 32:9)

11 SPIRITUAL ASPECT Allah has invested both genders with inherent dignity and has made men and women, collectively, the trustees of Allah on earth. The Qur'an does not blame woman for the "fall of man," nor does it view pregnancy and childbirth as punishments for "eating from the forbidden tree."On the contrary, the Qur'an depicts Adam and Eve as equally responsible for their sin in the garden , never singling out Eve for blame. For 2nd bullet: As quoted from the Qu’ran: We have honored the children of Adam, provided them with transport on land and sea, given them for sustenance things good and pure, and conferred on them special favors above a great part of Our Creation. (Qur'an 17:70)

12 Economic aspect The Shari'ah (Islamic Law) recognizes the full property rights of women before and after marriage. With regard to the woman's right to seek employment , it should be stated first that Islam regards her role in society as a mother and a wife as her most sacred and essential one. There is no decree in Islam that forbids women from seeking employment whenever there is a necessity for it Property rights-They may buy, sell or lease any or all of their properties at will. For this reason, Muslim women may keep (and in fact they have traditionally kept) their maiden names after marriage, an indication of their independent property rights as legal entities. Ma’am can also can also explain the mahr (dowry or gift to the woman to provide her security in case the marriage does not work out). Aside from this ma’am can also bring about the distortion of this which is seen today with families dividing the mahr of the woman. It is important to emphasize that the mahr belongs to the woman and it can be used according to her discretion. Women are not hindered from pursuing work as long as it does not compromise their roles as mothers and wives (this is a priority). The fields they pursue can also be an extension of these roles-such as nursing, care takers etc. Muslim women taking up work often only comes up in special cases, eg. She is a widow or if her family’s position necessitates it, otherwise she is focused on her primary roles

13 Social aspect Islam places importance in the woman’s role a daughter, wife and mother.  Marriage in Islam is based on mutual peace, love and compassion, and not the mere satisfying of human sexual desire. The female has the right to accept or reject marriage proposals.  The husband is responsible for the maintenance, protection and overall leadership (qiwamah) of the family, within the framework of consultation and kindness. The mutuality and complementary of husband and wife does not mean "subservience" by either party to the other. For the 2nd point: Her consent is a prerequisite to the validity of the marital contract, according to the Prophet's teaching. It follows that if an "arranged marriage" means the marrying of a female without her consent, then such a marriage may be annulled if the female so wishes The mutuality and complementary of husband and wife does not mean "subservience" by either party to the other. In fact, Prophet Muhammad (P) helped with household chores although the responsibilities he bore and the issues he faced in his community were immense.

14 Social aspect Should marital disputes arise, the Quran encourages couples to resolve them privately in a spirit of fairness and probity. Priority for the custody of young children (up to the age of about seven) is given to the mother.  A child later may choose the mother or father as his or her custodian. Custody questions are to be settled in a manner that balances the interests of both parents and the well-being of the child. For the first point, Ma’am can debunk the common notion of muslim women being battered or that their rights are disregarded. Under no circumstances does the Qu’ran allow physical violence to be done to the women. Also the importance of the woman’s family can come into play. Considering that physical abuse is an appropriate ground for divorce, the woman’s family can provide her the support system she would need at this time

15 Social aspect Marriage and Polygamy It is not encouraged by Islam
Men can choose to remain monogamous The man can only marry another with the consent of the original or other wives Polygamy can be allowed only in some circumstances A woman can ask her husband in her marriage contract to remain monogamous If the initial condition is violated, it can be a ground for divorce While polygamy is not encouraged by Islam, the financial stability of a woman is deemed important. So men can be allowed to marry another to ensure the security and welfare of the woman in society. A prospective first wife may include in her marital contract a condition that her prospective husband shall practice monogamy. If this condition is mutually accepted, it becomes binding on the husband. Should he later violate this condition, his first wife will be entitled to seek divorce with all the financial rights connected with it. If such a condition was not included in the marital contract, and if the husband marries a second wife, the first wife my seek khul' (divestiture)

16 Political aspect Eligibility in Public Office
Wilayah khassah and wilayah ‘ammah Men as qawwamun over women Ayah al-Mudayanah on the two-women witness equivalent to one-man testimony Testimony in li’an Exercise of one’s profession Women as judges Can women be heads of states? Gender equality exists even in the political aspects because nothing in the Qu’ran prevents the women from participating in public life. The misconception of women being hindered can be debunked using the perspective that men take their responsibilities of protecting their women seriously. Public life entails activities and processes that may attract the harassment of the woman. With regard to the Ayah al-Mudayanah, it must be emphasized that the case is not based on the notion that women’s faculties are inferior to men rather, but rather based on the biological features of women. Men are more logical, while women have a tendency to be emotional or passionate and this could bring about inaccuracies and confusion.

17 POLITICAL ASPECT The general rule in social and political life is participation and collaboration of males and females in public affairs. The believers, men and women, are protectors, one of another: they enjoin what is just and forbid what is evil: they observe regular prayers, practice regular charity, and obey Allah and His apostle. On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise. (Qur'an 9:7) There is evidence of participation by Muslim women in the choice of rulers, in public issues, in lawmaking, in a administrative positions, in scholarship and teaching, and even in the battlefield. Involvement in social and political life - Such involvement in social and political affairs is conducted without the participants' losing sight of the complementary priorities of both genders and without violating Islamic guidelines of modesty and virtue.

18 Importance of Cultural relativism
While principles of Islam exist, one cannot negate the existence of various cultures How the Qu’ran and the Shari’a law is interpreted can be different in the Arab world and the Southeast Asia region The Philippine context It embraces the universality of human rights thus including women Women empowered in the public sphere, able to participate in social and political life and develop themselves. Ma’am can quote her personal experiences with Muslim women in the Philippine context and contrast it with how Muslim women are in other countries.

19 conclusion Gender equality based on western concepts and models
Media portrays Muslim women as oppressed and passive Tendency to focus on the public sphere; disregarding the importance of woman in the private sphere, that is her home

20 conclusion This may provide a distorted view of Muslim women and their ability to exercise their rights A negative image of Muslim women exists- “oppressed” There is a need to break these misconceptions and realize that the principles of Islam seeks what is good for both man and woman, emphasizing their importance in the roles they play as well as the importance of preserving their dignity and rights as human beings.

21 References Atty. Laisa Masuhud Alamia. Gender Justice in Islam.Nisa Ul-Haqq Fi Bangsamoro Barra, Hamid Aminoddin. Gender Equity in Islam. Philippine Council for Islam and Democra


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