What happened to the Harappans? The Harappan civilization collapsed around 1500 B.C. Historians think that floods and earthquakes damaged the cities The earthquakes made the Indus River shift and change its course. This killed many people and forced others to leave.
New Neighbors After the Harappans left, years later, a new group of people moved into the area. They were called the Aryans, and they developed a new civilization…
The Aryans From Central Asia Raised and herded animals Not really a group based on race or ethnicity. Could have been part of a larger group called the Indo-Europeans ▫All spoke similar languages ▫Some migrated south to India, Iran, and Europe
Prized Possessions Cattle were the prized possession of the Aryans. They provided milk, butter, and meat So important they were considered money! Wealth was measured by the number of cattle a person had!
Guess what they were good at… They Aryans were very good warriors (bet you would have never guessed…) Expert horseback riders and hunters Metal-tipped spears and wooden chariots Sometimes invaded nearby villages for food
On the move… Around 2000 B.C., the Aryans began leaving their homeland in Central Asia. They crossed through mountain passes in the Himalayan Mountains Entered the Indus River valley around 1500 B.C. Around 1000 B.C., they began to expand to other areas of India
Bringing Change Before the Aryans came to India they were nomads. Once they got to India, they settled down and became farmers. They continued to raise cattle, but later believed them to be sacred and forbid them to be used for food!
Technology Improved farming by inventing the iron plow. ▫Used to clear jungle areas and build canals Because India has many different climates, a lot of different crops could be grown. ▫North- wheat, barley, millet ▫South- spices (pepper, ginger, cinnamon)
Sanskrit When the Aryans were nomads, they had no written language. When they got to India, developed a written language called Sanskrit. ▫Aryan written language The Aryans wrote down songs, poems, and prayers for many centuries.
Tribes The Aryans lived in tribes, or small groups. Each tribe was led by a raja. ▫Prince of an Aryan tribe Rajas owned their own small kingdoms and many times fought against one another. ▫Fought over cattle, treasure, and women ▫These kingdoms were around from 1000 B.C. to about 400 B.C.
So to review… What animal is sacred in India? What is Sanskrit? What caused the collapse of the Harrapan Civilization?