Washington elected 1 st President ___________ choice Accepted ____________ “Triumphal ______” Created a ____________ office of President Unanimous reluctantly Tour respectable
Wash inaugural New Constitution and Government take effect on April 30, 1789. Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia.Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia. Capital city at this time was New York City.
The Capital City Started in New York Moved to Philadelphia in 1790 A bargain between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson (about State debt) moved the capital city to the South (Washington D.C.)
Precedents are models, examples or influences other Presidents would follow What to call the President? Mr. President President sets their own personal style Cabinet appointed by President and advises him prec edents VP has no official duties President acts independent from Congress Congress relies on the advice of the President Served 2 terms and stepped aside for someone else
Department of State-----Foreign affairs Thomas Jefferson----Secretary of State Department of State-----Foreign affairs Thomas Jefferson----Secretary of State cabinet Cabinet advises the President and heads up an agency of the government Department of Treasury---Financial affairs Alexander Hamilton—Secretary of the Treasury Department of War-------------------Military affairs Henry Knox----Secretary of War Attorney General----------------------Legal affairs Edmund Randolph---Department of Justice Postmaster General-------------------Postal system Samuel Osgood
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a valuable role in the beginning of our nation.Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a valuable role in the beginning of our nation. Both were visionaries and influenced the direction our country would go economically, politically and socially.Both were visionaries and influenced the direction our country would go economically, politically and socially. President Washington was stuck in the middle of these two men as they argued over our country’s beginnings.President Washington was stuck in the middle of these two men as they argued over our country’s beginnings.
BUS: Bank of the United States Alexander Hamilton thought the nation needed a national bank Not mentioned in the Constitution Madison and Jefferson did not believe Congress had the power to create a national bank Bank of the United States was created in 1791 and had a 20 year charter
HAMILTON Safe place to deposit and transfer money Provide loans to government and state banks A national currency---$$$$$ An investment by people to buy stock into US bank Constitution did not forbid a national bank….Loose construction of Constitution National debt good for countryJEFFERSON Against the Constitution State banks would collapse Only wealthy could invest in bank and would control bank than control the government Hurt the common man Strict construction…If it is not mentioned in the Constitution than there can’t be a national bank. Against a national debt BUS
Foreign Debt $11,710,000 Federal Domestic Debt $42,414,000 State Debt $21,500,000 Custom Duties (Tariffs) Excise Tax on Whiskey Misc. Revenue Congress & Sec. of Treasury Alexander Hamilton solve debt problems: Pay off $80 million debt Excise tax: Taxes placed on manufactured products Tariff: a tax on imports Establish good credit with foreign nations Create a national bank with a national currency Raise money for govt backed by gold silver Compromise with Thomas Jefferson called the Assumption Act led to the creation of Washington, D.C. debt
Federalist Beliefs (former Anti-Federalists) Democratic-Republicans Leader Appealed to Alexander Hamilton John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison Manufacturers, merchants, wealthy and educated…. Favored seaboard cities Farmers and Planters common man Favored the South and West Ideas of Government Loose Construction Strong government over states Loose Construction of Constitution Implied powersImplied powers Wealthy and educated involved Limit freedoms of speech & press Preferred govt. similar to a king Strict construction State’s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of Constitution Expressed/Enumerated powersExpressed/Enumerated powers Common man but educated Bill of Rights is sacred Lesser government the better Domestic Policy Supported National Bank—BUS Supported excise tax National debt good for country National govt. assume state debts Tariffs should be high Against National Bank—BUS Against excise tax Against National debt States pay their own debts Tariffs should be low Foreign Policy Opposed French Revolution Wanted war with French Favored the British Supported French Revolution Opposed war with French Favored the French political
Farmer’s revolt in western Pennsylvania.Farmer’s revolt in western Pennsylvania. Refused to pay Hamilton’ s excise taxRefused to pay Hamilton’ s excise tax Believed it was an unfair tax.Believed it was an unfair tax. Were called the “Whiskey Rebels”Were called the “Whiskey Rebels”
whiskeymap Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebels refused to pay the excise tax that was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Washington….Believed this tax was unfair because it was taxing their income……
Issue at hand was testing the power of the new ConstitutionIssue at hand was testing the power of the new ConstitutionOutcome: Demonstrated to the people that this new constitution was powerful enough to put down domestic rebellions, “mobocracy”Demonstrated to the people that this new constitution was powerful enough to put down domestic rebellions, “mobocracy” Showed the power of the national governmentShowed the power of the national government President Washington reviews 15,000 troops of the Western Army assembled at Fort Cumberland, Maryland, to crush the Whiskey Rebellion. Whiskey
Washington reviewing troops during the Whiskey Rebellion
The Whiskey Rebellion Immediate cause – resentment by western farmers toward federal _____ on whiskey Open __________ – Federal officials waylaid by “whiskey boys” Federal tax official being “tarred and feathered” by “whiskey boys” tax rebellion
Washington’s Response 1794 – 15,000 troops from several ________ placed under Washington’s command The rebellion ____________ Men of one state invaded another to preserve the authority of the ______ government. “If laws are to be so trampled … and a minority is to dictate to the majority, there is an end put at one stroke to republican government, and nothing but anarchy and confusion is to be expected thereafter.” – President George Washington states collapsed Federal
farewell Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain and the United Netherlands, of the one part and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the U.S. require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers.
farewell neutrality President Washington’s response to the French was to warn Americans to stay out these European conflicts and remain neutral or avoid.President Washington’s response to the French was to warn Americans to stay out these European conflicts and remain neutral or avoid. Why?Why? I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the U.S. to observe the conduct aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and warn the citizens of the U.S. carefully to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition….April 1793
Most Americans (Jefferson and Paine) were upset with Washington’s Neutrality.Most Americans (Jefferson and Paine) were upset with Washington’s Neutrality. Washington’s Neutrality decision was based on the long term U.S. self interest.Washington’s Neutrality decision was based on the long term U.S. self interest. Preserve and protect the infant nationPreserve and protect the infant nation Thomas Paine On Washington’s Neutrality Thomas Paine On Washington’s Neutrality “And as to you, sir, treacherous in private friendship (for so you have been to me, and that in the day of danger) and a hypocrite in public life, the world will be puzzled to decide, whether you are an apostate or an importer; whether you have abandoned good principles, or whether you ever had any.” Response to frenchrev
Washington’s Farewell Address Warned that ______ parties would divide the nation and America should stay out of involvement in ___________ conflicts foreign political
Washington warned of the dangers of political parties and permanent alliances with other nations.Washington warned of the dangers of political parties and permanent alliances with other nations. Washington’s warning against “entangling alliances” became a principle of U.S. foreign policy.Washington’s warning against “entangling alliances” became a principle of U.S. foreign policy. “Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation….Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course…..It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world……Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies”…..1796 farewell
--- ”GOOD HISTORIAN” Washington is convinced that Americans must stay neutral and avoid foreign affairs associated with all the British and foreign continents--- ”GOOD HISTORIAN” Proclamation of NeutralityFarewell Address Washington displayed this in 1793 by the Proclamation of Neutrality and his Farewell Address in 1796. No entangling alliances……. No entangling alliances…….US should avoid military alliances with Europe…….continue to trade with Europe Neutrality = Isolation
John Adams becomes the 2nd President of the United States
Presidency of John Adams Few men ever came to the Presidency with more ___________ experience: 1. a leader of the ____________ 2. _______ negotiator with Britain 3. ______ President under Washington for two terms “I am persuaded that he means well for his country, is always an honest man, often a wise one, but sometimes, and in some things, absolutely out of his senses.” Benjamin Franklin Revolution political Skilled Vice
During George Washington’s presidency, what was the major reason for conflict between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton? A.Washington’s decision not to get involved in the revolution in France B.Hamilton’s objection to Jefferson’s strict interpretation of the Constitution C.the distribution of power between the judicial branch and the legislative branch D.the U.S. government’s decision to remain neutral in the war between France and Britain
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson disagreed over the proposed “National Bank” based on which issue? A.which executive department would be responsible for running it B.the wisdom of staffing such an institution with immigrants from Britain C.how much in additional taxes would be levied on citizens of the United States D.whether or not the Constitution gives the national government the power to establish the bank
Federalists believed in 1.free trade. 2.state banks. 3.a national bank. 4.rule by the people.
Alexander Hamilton believed in 1.a strong government that favored the wealthy. 2.a strong government that favored laborers. 3.a minimum of government, with power focused at the state and local level. 4.the goodness of most people and their willingness to participate in America's democracy.
The Democratic-Republicans believed in strong state governments and 1.rule by the wealthy class. 2.a national bank. 3.a strong federal government. 4.rule by the people.
George Washington warned that political parties would 1.divide the nation. 2.create lively debate. 3.help the nation. 4.destroy states' rights.
The Whiskey Rebellion and its outcome established the fact that the federal government had the power to 1.impose taxes. 2.enforce federal laws within states. 3.control interstate and foreign trade. 4.modify the interpretation of the Bill of Rights.
When war broke out between Great Britain and France in 1793, President Washington 1.secretly sided with the French. 2.issued a Proclamation of Neutrality. 3.publicly sided with the British. 4.signed Pinckney's Treaty with Spain.
Which of the following was not a role filled by George Washington as he served the new nation? 1.Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army 2.Writer of the Declaration of Independence 3.President of the Constitutional Convention 4.President of the United States of America
In his Farewell Address, President Washington warned against 1.American involvement in foreign conflicts. 2.a national bank. 3.a strict constructionist interpretation of the Constitution. 4.implied powers in the Constitution.