Presentation on theme: "Creating the Constitution SState Constitutions New Hampshire had the 1 st All of them had 4 Common Features."— Presentation transcript:
Creating the Constitution SState Constitutions New Hampshire had the 1 st All of them had 4 Common Features
State Constitutions PPopular Sovereignty LLimited Government CCivil Rights – 7 States had a Bill of Rights SSeparation of Powers and Checks and Balances.
By 1785 it was clear the Articles of Confederation would not work. What became known as the Constitutional Convention was called in May 1787 by Maryland and Virginia. It was called to revise the Articles, not to write a new constitution. However it became clear that revision was not enough.
Creating the Constitution 74 were elected 55 attended. Ben Franklin the oldest at 81. Average age 42. All were white males, educated, wealthy, and had public service experience. They are called the “Framers of the Constitution” or the “Founding Fathers”
Creating the Constitution Held at Independence Hall in Philadelphia. Held in Secret to discourage outside influence and allow delegates to speak their mind. Rhode Island did not attend. Madison kept detailed notes of the meeting. He is called the Father of the Constitution. Edmund Randolph (Governor of Virginia) actually made the first proposal of a Supreme National Government
Creating the Constitution 22 Plans Virginia Plan ○C○Called for 3 Branches ○B○Bicameral Legislature One based on Population One based on Contributions ○O○One Executive ○A○A Supreme Court and Lower Courts New Jersey Plan ○3○3 Branches ○U○Unicameral Legislature – Equal Representation ○2○2 or more executives ○S○Supreme Court only
The Compromises Connecticut Compromise – Also known as the “Great Compromise”, Proposed by Roger Sherman ○ Bicameral Legislature Senate with Equal Representation House of Representatives – Based on Population ○ One Executive (The President) ○ A Supreme Court (Congress could make lower courts.
Creating the Constitution Compromises (cont) 3/5ths Compromise ○ Northern states agreed to count 3/5ths of the slave population in the census taken to determine representation in the H.O.R. Commerce Compromise ○ Southerners were fearful that the new govt. would tax exports. The Compromise forbid a tax on exports. Slave Trade Compromise ○ The Framers agreed not to do anything about slavery for 20 years.
Ratification of the Constitution 9 of 13 states needed to ratify (to formally approve) Federalist – Favored ratification Hamilton, Jay, Madison Anti-Federalist – Opposed it Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Sam Adams Opposed because it lacked a bill of rights and increased the power of the central govt.
Ratifying the Constitution 1788 – 9 of the 13 states passed it. However New York and Virginia had not. In order for new govt. to succeed it needed both of these states because they had the largest populations. New York became the temporary capital of the U.S., It was later moved to Philadelphia and then to Washington D.C. Federalist Papers – Written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison to convince New York to ratify the constitution.
Ratifying the Constitution April 30 th, 1789 George Washington took oath North Carolina and Rhode Island still had not ratified the constitution. There was no national election, Washington was elected by state elections.