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Unit 7 Learning About English Text A The Glorious Messiness of English.

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1 Unit 7 Learning About English Text A The Glorious Messiness of English

2 I. Lead-inLead-in II. Text AnalysisText Analysis III. Language PointsLanguage Points IV. Presentation & ExercisesPresentation & Exercises

3 I. Lead-in Background Information History of English Old English ( AD) : English began as a west Germanic language which was brought to England by Saxons. About half of the most commonly used words in modern English have Old English roots, such as be, water, and strong. But the majority of words in modern English come from foreign, not Old English roots.

4 The Norman Conquest and Middle English ( ): the official language --- Norman French English --- the lower classes Middle English was influenced by French and also Latin in vocabulary and pronunciation. French brought many words connected with government, e.g. sovereign, royal, court, legal and government itself. Latin was the language of religion and learning and brought English words such as minister, angel, master, school and grammar. One of the most famous Middle English works is Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.

5 Early Modern English ( ): Influenced by the English used in London. During the Renaissance, many new words were introduced from Greek and Latin to express new ideas, especially in science, medicine and philosophy. They included physics, species, architecture, encyclopedia and hypothesis. The Elizabethan period is also famous for its drama, and Shakespeare's plays were seen by many people.

6 Late-Modern English (1800-Present) : The industrial and scientific revolutions’new creations and discoveries --- oxygen, protein, nuclear, and vaccine. Today in the field of electronics and computers --- Byte, cyber-, bios, hard-drive, and microchip. Also, the rise of the British Empire and the growth of global trade --- virtually every language on Earth has contributed to the development of English, from Finnish (sauna) and Japanese (tycoon) to the vast contributions of French and Latin.

7 American English: By the 18th century American English was established and developed independently from British English. After colonists arrived in the US, new words began to be added from Native American languages, and from French and Spanish. In 1783, soon after Johnson's dictionary was published, Noah Webster's The Elementary Spelling Book was published in the U.S. At first, it used Johnson's spellings, but later editions contained many of what have come to be known as American spellings, e. g. harbor and favorite.

8 Listen and Answer Listen to the recording two or three times and then think over the following questions. 1) What is the passage about? 2) Can you give one or two examples to illustrate the messiness of the English language?

9 3) Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages mentioned in the recorded passage? a. ship by truck / send cargo by ship: b. noses that run / feet that smells: c. a slim/fat chance: d. a wise guy: a wise man: e. overlook: oversee:

10 f. hot /cold as hell: g. burn up: burn down: h. fill in a form/fill out a form: i. go off: go on j. when stars are out: when lights are out: k. wind up a watch: wind up a speech:

11 II. Text Analysis Part division PartLinesMain Idea 11 ~ ~ ~ 102 Massive borrowing from other languages is a major feature of the English language. Tells about the history of the English language from the Indo-European parent language to modern English. Tolerance, love of freedom, and respect For the rights of others -- these qualities in the English-speaking people explain the richness of their language.

12 Comprehension 1)Discussion: Look at the picture below. Answer these questions with a partner. a.What are differences between English and French in borrowing foreign words? English has a vocabulary of about one million Words while French has only about 75,000 words. English has borrowed a lot of words from other languages while French hasn't. And the French government even tries to ban words from English. English has a vocabulary of about one million Words while French has only about 75,000 words. English has borrowed a lot of words from other languages while French hasn't. And the French government even tries to ban words from English.

13 b. What can we infer from the invention of a French word “balladeer”? In borrowing foreign words, English people are open-minded while French people are conservative. We know the reason why English has become the first truly global language.

14 2) Questions and Answers a. According to Otto Jespersen, what causes English to become what it is? --- The fact that English people have been for centuries great respecters of the liberties of each individual and that everybody has been free to strike out new paths for himself. b. What is the English language in the author’s opinion? --- English is the tongue of the common man.

15 3. Writing Strategy --- Graph Writing 1) Decide what the graph is about 2) Find out the general information the graph gives 3) Go into the details and make observations or comparisons about some specifics

16 Some useful expressions in graph writing: 1) The picture shows… 2) This table shows the differences between… 3) The diagram represents… 4) The chart above indicates… 5) The information represented in the graph indicates… 6) As can be seen from the chart, … 7) As is shown in the bar graph, there were… 8) From the diagram it can be seen clearly that

17 Some useful expressions in graph writing 9) From these figures one can easily see that… 10) According to the graph given above, we can see that… 11) This is an illustration of…/a typical example of… 12) There was a great/slight increase/rise. 13) There has been a sudden/slow/rapid fall/drop… 14) Take the above chart as an example,…

18 III. Language Points The title “THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH” What kind of rhetorical Device is used here? --- Oxymoron( 矛盾修辞法 ) E.g. sour–sweet days 苦涩而甜蜜的岁月 creative destruction 创造性的破坏 poor rich men 贫穷的富人 英语中绚丽多彩的杂乱无章现象.

19 Oxymoron( 矛盾修辞法 ): A rhetorical figure in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined (两个意思互相矛盾或 排斥的词语紧密地联结在一起,组成句 子描述一个事物或表达一种思想或说明 一个道理. )

20 2. Line 20 ~ 23 “The history of English is present in the first words a child learns about…” Paraphrase this part. --- The history of English is revealed in the first words a child learns about …

21 3. Line 59 ~ 61 “ We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.” What kind of rhetorical Device is used here? - -- parallelism( 排比法 ) e.g. Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. 读书足以怡 情,足以博采,足以长才。

22 3. Line 59 ~ 61 “French for the nobles, Latin for the churches and English for the common people.” What kind of rhetorical device is used here? --- Metonymy( 转喻 ). Here the word “churches” stands for religious institutions and those who are involved in religious practices. For another example, in the sentence “The kettle boils.”, the word “kettle” stands for “the water in the kettle”.

23 3. Line 59 ~ 61, Paragraph 18 The rhetorical device used in these sentences is called metaphor. A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison 隐喻一种语言表达手法,通常用指某物的词或词 组来指代他物,从而暗示它们之间的相似之处, E.g. Culture ---- soil Jim was a fox. 吉姆是一只狐狸. The world is a stage. 世界是一个舞台.

24 Vocabulary ban: 1) vt. forbid (sth.) officially ban sth.; ban sb. from sth./doing sth. E.g. ---Smoking is banned in public places. --- Tom was banned from driving for six months after being caught speeding again. 2) n. ban on sth/sb 禁令 ; 禁止 E.g. The ban on human cloning is welcomed by most countries in the world.

25 ban, forbid & prohibit 都可用作及物动词,表示 “ 禁止 ” 。 ban 语气最重,指权威机关 “ 正式禁止 ” 。一般含有 “ 严厉谴 责 ” 的意思,只能用于严重危害公众利益的事物。例如: --- Lady Chatterley’s Lover was banned when it was first published. forbid 是普通用词,可用于较细小的事物。例如: --- He forbade his children sweets because he didn’t want their teeth to be ruined. prohibit 指 “ (通过法律、法令或严正警告)禁止某些事物 ” , 应用范围较 ban 广。例如: --- In some countries the sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited. 在一些国家, 出售含酒精的饮料是被禁止的。

26 2. to a (very real, certain, etc.) extent: --- to the degree specified e. g. I agree with him to some extent but there are still some areas of sharp disagreement between us. 从某种程度上说,餐馆的失败是由于经营不 善造成的。 --- To a certain extent the failure of the restaurant was due to bad management.

27 necessity: n. 1) something necessary or indispensable e.g. ---Water is a basic necessity of life. ---A compass is a necessity for climbers. 指南针是登山者的必需品. 2) circumstances that force one to do sth.; the state of being necessary; the need for sth. (followed by of/for) 必要性 e.g.---Is there any necessity for another election? 我们在讨论是否需要雇佣更多的员工. ---We were discussing the necessity of employing more staff.

28 arouse: vt.to make someone have a particular feeling 唤起, 激起 E.g. --- The man’s strange behavior aroused the policeman’s suspicions. ---The odd sight aroused our curiosity. 奇怪的景象激起我们的好奇。

29 virtually: adv. for the most part, almost E.g. ---It has been raining virtually non-stop for the past several days. --- 晚饭差不多准备好了;我只差做蔬菜了。 The dinner’s virtually ready; I only have to finish the vegetables.

30 Descend v. come down (from a source) 起源于, 遗传于 ; come or go down (sth) 下来 : descend from E.g. ---These ideas descend from those of the ancient philosophers. 这些观点来源于那些古代哲学家的思想 。 ---The sun descended from behind the hills. ---She descended the stairs slowly. 她缓慢地走下楼梯. descendant n. person descended from another 后裔

31 conquer: vt. take possession and control of (a country, city, etc.) by force; defeat e.g. She has conquered the hearts of many men. 全世界已作出巨大努力来征服癌症。 --- There has been a tremendous international effort to conquer cancer

32 alternative n. [C] one/choice of two or more possibilities 供选择的东西 E.g. ---Check out the alternatives before deciding whether to go to a nearby college. 。 ---I’m afraid I have no alternative but to report you to the police. alternative adj. 选择性的,替代的 e.g. We returned by an alternative road

33 CF: source & origin 均有 “ 根源,起因 ” 之 意 source 原指 “ 水源 ” ,转义指事物的 “ 根源,起因或出 处 ” 。例如: e.g. --- Where is the source of the Yangtze River? --- They had to find a new source of income. origin 指事物的起源、源头,含有现在的情景已有变 化之意,有时也指 “ 出身,血统 ” 。 e.g.--- This practice owes its origin to the Chinese. 这种习俗起源于中国。 ---There are a number of words in the English language which were French in origin.

34 strike out: start being independent; start doing what one wants to do in life e.g. --- After working for his father for about ten years, he decided to strike out on his own. 约翰辞掉原来的工作,开始从事旅游推销员的工 作。 --- John quit his job and struck out as a traveling salesman.

35 IV. Presentations & Exercises Group discussion: 1.What do you think has made English an international language? 2.What makes a good language learner? ---Motivation? Personality? Learning skills? Or …?


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